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World War I (or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1) was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated 9 million combatant deaths and 13 million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the related 1918 Spanish flu pandemic caused another 17–100 million deaths worldwide, including an estimated 2.64 million Spanish flu deaths in Europe and as many as 675,000 Spanish flu deaths in the United States.

On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia on 23 July. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, and the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe. By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente, consisting of France, Russia, and Britain; and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The Triple Alliance was only defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war until April 1915, when it joined the Allied Powers after its relations with Austria-Hungary deteriorated. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia, and approved partial mobilisation after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade, which was a few miles from the border, on 28 July. Full Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; the following day, Austria-Hungary and Germany did the same, while Germany demanded Russia demobilise within twelve hours. When Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, the latter following suit on 6 August; France ordered full mobilisation in support of Russia on 2 August.

Germany's strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to rapidly concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within 6 weeks, then shift forces to the East before Russia could fully mobilise; this was later known as the Schlieffen Plan. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France. When this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day; the Belgian government invoked the 1839 Treaty of London and, in compliance with its obligations under this treaty, Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August. On 12 August, Britain and France also declared war on Austria-Hungary; on 23 August, Japan sided with Britain, seizing German possessions in China and the Pacific. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of Austria-Hungary and Germany, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in (and drew upon) each power's colonial empire also, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe. The Entente and its allies eventually became known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary, Germany and their allies became known as the Central Powers.

The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a war of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917 (the Eastern Front, by contrast, was marked by much greater exchanges of territory). In 1915, Italy joined the Allied Powers and opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans. The United States initially remained neutral, though even while neutral it became an important supplier of war materiel to the Allies. Eventually, after the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the declaration by Germany that its navy would resume unrestricted attacks on neutral shipping, and the revelation that Germany was trying to incite Mexico to initiate war against the United States, the U.S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces did not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force ultimately reached some two million troops.

Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, and Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918. The 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Monarchy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent with the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. Germany now controlled much of eastern Europe and transferred large numbers of combat troops to the Western Front. Using new tactics, the German March 1918 Offensive was initially successful. The Allies fell back and held. The last of the German reserves were exhausted as 10,000 fresh American troops arrived every day. The Allies drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive, a continual series of attacks to which the Germans had no reply. One by one the Central Powers quit: first Bulgaria (September 29), then the Ottoman Empire (October 31) and the Austro-Hungarian empire (November 3). With its allies defeated, revolution at home, and the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the war.

World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural, economic, and social climate of the world. The war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous revolutions and uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, France, the United States, and Italy) imposed their terms on the defeated powers in a series of treaties agreed at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, the most well known being the German peace treaty: the Treaty of Versailles. Ultimately, as a result of the war, the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman, and Russian Empires ceased to exist, and numerous new states were created from their remains. However, despite the conclusive Allied victory (and the creation of the League of Nations during the Peace Conference, intended to prevent future wars), a second world war followed just over twenty years later.

World War I Media

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THE BRITISH WESTERN  FRONT IN FRANCE

THE BRITISH WESTERN FRONT IN FRANCE

Nationaal Archief, Collectie Eerste Wereldoorlog. (158-1721).Tanks kept in touch with the Infantry by carrier pigeons which were released and carried messages back.Het Britse Westelijk front in Frankrijk. Tanks... more

BRITISH NAVY IN WARTIME

BRITISH NAVY IN WARTIME

Beschrijving: .Airship starting off on patrol - they are always on the look-out for 'U' boats & enemy aircraft..De Britse marine in oorlogstijd. Het opstijgen van een verkennings luchtschip - zij kijken altijd ... more

King & Queen and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales

King & Queen and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales

King George V, Queen Mary and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, taken during a visit to the Western Front in France. They are positioned in front of a large brick building with French windows. The King and Queen are ... more

The Maharaja of Barwani with ambulance cars [Merville, France]. Photographer: H. D. Girdwood.

The Maharaja of Barwani with ambulance cars [Merville, France]. Photog...

Reference: Photo 24/(219)..From the Girdwood Collection held by the British Library..This image is part of the Europeana Collections 1914-1918 ( http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/en ) ..Date: 2 Aug 1915..See als... more

Zeichnet 7. Kriegsanleihe / Alfred Offner.

Zeichnet 7. Kriegsanleihe / Alfred Offner.

Poster shows soldiers and their weapons behind a barricade of Austrian coins. Text: Subscribe to the 7th War Loan, Vienna Commercial Bank. Title from item.

Tanks on parade in London at the end of World War I, 1918

Tanks on parade in London at the end of World War I, 1918

Photographer: Thomas Frederick Scales .Tanks on parade in London at the end of World War I, 1918.Dry plate glass negative .Reference No. 1/2-014078-G.Royal New Zealand Returned and Services' Association Collect... more

U.S. Reports: Piatt's Administrator v. United States, 89 U.S. (22 Wall.) 496 (1875)

U.S. Reports: Piatt's Administrator v. United States, 89 U.S. (22 Wall...

Description: U.S. Reports Volume 89; Wallace Volume 22; October Term, 1874; Piatt's Administrator v. United States

Uncle George Washington Bings. "Well, the horse jumped over the sun, hey, he's bucking us off!"

Uncle George Washington Bings. "Well, the horse jumped over the sun, h...

Four-frame comic strip in which a toy-like horse bucks off a man (perhaps Uncle George) and two children who land in a pond lily. Inscribed in pencil upper right: The pond lily boat. No copyright information fo... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Aircraft C636, crashed upside down between two trees with three men standing in front of it. The aircraft bears the skull-and-crossbones insignia of 90 C.T.S., based at Camp Rathbun, one of the Royal Flying Cor... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Reproduction of a photograph of a Royal Flying Corps ambulance outside the Quinte House Hospital. The ambulance, known as a Hungry Lizzie would have been stationed at the edge of the airfield during flying hour... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Aircraft inside a hangar building.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Aircraft nose-down in the Bay of Quinte, with Foresters' island in the distance. Three men are in a boat in front of the aircraft.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Group of airmen in uniform, sitting on a jetty.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Photograph of John Robert (Bob) Almey (1895-1989) in his flying uniform, standing in front of a Curtiss JN-4 aircraft at Camp Mohawk in 1918. Almey joined the Royal Air Force in 1918 and was in the last cohort ... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Group of men in a dormitory space with metal beds, their mattresses rolled up...Part of an album of Royal Flying Corps photographs which belonged to the Hobbs family...[Oshawa Community Museum & Archives refere... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Children playing on the fuselage of a partially-dismantled, probably crashed, aircraft with a roundel symbol on the body. The detached wheels of the aircraft (one without a tire) are visible in the foreground ... more

Deseronto Archives

Deseronto Archives

Group of airmen in and around a Curtiss JN-4 training aircraft, probably at Camp Rathbun, one of the Royal Flying Corps' training camps near Deseronto...One of a set of photographs taken in Deseronto, Ontario, ... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Photo postcard of two Curtiss JN-4 aircraft. The one in the foreground has roundel insignia and number C 696. On the tail is a castle symbol, indicating that this was the training aircraft used by Vernon Castl... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Photograph of John Robert (Bob) Almey (1895-1989) in his flying uniform, sitting in the rear seat of a Curtiss JN-4 aircraft at Camp Mohawk in 1918. Almey joined the Royal Air Force in 1918 and was in the last ... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Interior of 86 C.T.S. hangar at Camp Rathbun, near Deseronto, Ontario. Five men are standing in front of two aircraft, one with a skull-and-crossbones emblem, the other with C-600 on the tail.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

A NOSE DIVE;: photograph of an aircraft which has landed on its nose, with a man at the right hand side of the shot, holding the wing...Part of an album of Royal Flying Corps photographs which belonged to the H... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Three men walking around a crashed aircraft with skull-and-crossbones insignia, the symbol used by 90 C.T.S., based at Camp Rathbun, one of the Royal Flying Corps' pilot training camps near Deseronto. The aircr... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Airman standing in front of one of the barracks buildings at Camp Rathbun, one of the Royal Flying Corps' pilot training camps at Deseronto. ..One of a set of photographs taken in Deseronto, Ontario, during th... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

"Armour Heights: 'Some' Stunting" Photograph of aircraft in a steep climb above hangars at Armour Heights...Page of the photograph album compiled by Sergeant C. P. Devos while the Royal Flying Corps were traini... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

"Curtiss J.N. 4 a." Photograph of Curtiss JN4a in flight...Page of the photograph album compiled by Sergeant C. P. Devos while the Royal Flying Corps were training in their winter quarters near Fort Worth, Texa... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Aircraft with "City of Toronto" painted on fuselage.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Our Birdman: photograph of a pilot in the rear seat of one of the Royal Flying Corps' training aircraft. ..Part of an album of Royal Flying Corps photographs which belonged to the Hobbs family...[Oshawa Communi... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Aerial photograph of Curtiss JN-4 aircraft number C126, taken over open fields with some stretches of water from another aircraft, whose wing is visible. The aircraft were from Camp Mohawk, one of the World War... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Aircraft nose-down in the Bay of Quinte, with Foresters' island in the distance. Three men are in a boat in front of the aircraft.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Photograph of unidentified man sitting in the rear seat of a Curtiss JN-4 aircraft, Probably taken at Camp Mohawk near Deseronto, Ontario, in 1918. Part of a collection of materials relating to John Robert Alme... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Four men in uniform sitting on planks outside one of the barracks buildings at Camp Rathbun, one of the Royal Flying Corps' pilot training camps near Deseronto...One of a set of photographs taken in Deseronto, ... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

A group of people surrounding a crashed aircraft at an airfield identified as Camp Mohawk, one of the Royal Flying Corps' pilot training camps near Deseronto, Ontario...Part of an album of Royal Flying Corps ph... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Four airmen holding rifles over their left shoulders, with a building behind them. Probably taken at Camp Rathbun, one of the Royal Flying Corps' pilot training camps at Deseronto. ..One of a set of photographs... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Reproduction of photograph of two Curtiss JN-4 training aircraft. The one nearest the camera bears the number C696, a roundel, and a castle on the tail fin. This was Captain Vernon Castle's favourite aircraft (... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Aircraft C214 in flight.

Deseronto Archives

Deseronto Archives

A Royal Flying Corps ambulance used in the pilot training camps around Deseronto, Ontario, 1917-1918. These ambulances were known as 'Hungry Lizzies'.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Two men in a workshop or hangar, inside the shell of a cockpit of an aircraft, holding the control wheels. A tailplane with the number C-641 is on the ground to the right of the men.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Curtiss JN-4 aircraft C140 after a crash.

Deseronto Archives

Deseronto Archives

Aircraft which has crashed into the door/roof of a hangar building. There are a number of men on the ground around it.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Three aircraft outside a hangar, with a house in the background. The number on the closest plane is C-600.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

"Armour Heights: 'Daredevils": photograph of aircraft in steep climb above hangars...Page of the photograph album compiled by Sergeant C. P. Devos while the Royal Flying Corps were training in their winter quar... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Copy of aerial photograph of Curtiss JN-4 aircraft C187, with a man [Lieutenant Ned Ballough] 'wing walking': standing with his arms on the top of the wing and his feet behind the back of the cockpit. This airc... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

F.E. 2 (c) type. Photograph of F.E. 2c aircraft in flight, serial number A19. Commenter Varese2002 points out that this aircraft is actually an F.E.2d, built in 1916 by the Royal Aircraft Factory...Page of the ... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Four airmen posing in and around a Curtiss JN-4 aircraft, with hangar buildings in the background. Probably taken at Camp Rathbun, one of the Royal Flying Corps' pilot training camps at Deseronto. ..One of a se... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Reproduction of a photograph of a military burial. Believed to be the funeral of 2nd Lieutenant Colin Coleridge, of Norfolk, England, who died on 23 July 1918 and was buried in Deseronto Cemetery, Ontario.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Aircraft which has nose-dived into the ground.

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

"Jimmie Russell": photograph of young boy holding a small dog outside a wooden house...One of a set of photographs taken in Deseronto, Ontario, during the First World War which came into the possession of the S... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Unidentified woman with a man's hand behind her right shoulder...One of a set of photographs taken in Deseronto, Ontario, during the First World War which came into the possession of the Stapley family and whic... more

Deseronto Archive Photos

Deseronto Archive Photos

Group of men in uniform standing around a crashed aircraft next to a hangar...Part of an album of Royal Flying Corps photographs which belonged to the Hobbs family...[Oshawa Community Museum & Archives referenc... more

Deseronto Archives

Deseronto Archives

"Badly Bent": photograph of five men in uniform sitting in front of a crashed Royal Flying Corps aircraft with a shamrock symbol on the side...Part of an album of Royal Flying Corps photographs which belonged t... more

Army Relief Society garden party, Governors Island National Monument, 1908.

Army Relief Society garden party, Governors Island National Monument, ...

Color guard drills at the Army Relief Society garden party. Fort Jay is in the background.

Gen. Litzmann

Gen. Litzmann

Photograph shows Karl Litzmann (1850-1936), German World War I infantry general and later a Nazi official. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2013)

Mrs. Catherine Boyle, 908 Young St., New Castle, Del.

Mrs. Catherine Boyle, 908 Young St., New Castle, Del.

Summary: Full-length studio portrait of Catherine Boyle, New Castle, Delaware, holding a tricolor suffrage flag and wearing a two-piece outfit with a locket or pocket watch pinned below her left shoulder, stand... more

War Minister -- Wild V. Hohenborn

War Minister -- Wild V. Hohenborn

Photograph shows Heinrich Adolf Wild von Hohenborn (1860-1925), the German Lieutenant General who replaced Falkenhayn as Prussian War Minister from Jan. 1915 to Oct. 1916 during World War I. (Source: Flickr Com... more

Mme. J.J. Jusserand

Mme. J.J. Jusserand

Photograph shows Elise Richards Jusserand, born in Paris, France to American parents, who became the wife of Jean Jules Jusserand, French ambassador to the United States during World War I. (Source: Flickr Comm... more

Capt. Meyer-Waldeck

Capt. Meyer-Waldeck

Photograph shows Alfred Wilhelm Moritz Meyer (1864-1928), a Navy captain and Governor of the German controlled port of Tsingtau (now Quingdao), China during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012)

Nicholaus i.e., Nicholas Ahlern

Nicholaus i.e., Nicholas Ahlern

Photograph shows Nicholas Emil Harman Ahlers, a German diplomat of English background, who was tried in England for treason during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012) Title from data provided by... more

Victomtess De Rancoigne

Victomtess De Rancoigne

Photograph shows the Vicomtesse de Rancougne, born Giselle Bunau-Varilla, who was on tour of the United States to raise wartime relief funds for Paris artists affected by World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons p... more

Neufmentier i.e., Chauconin-Neufmontiers -- French & German wounded in church

Neufmentier i.e., Chauconin-Neufmontiers -- French & German wounded in...

Photograph shows French and German wounded soldiers in a church, in Chauconin-Neufmontiers, France during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2011) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on... more

ANDREA DORIA, Italy

ANDREA DORIA, Italy

Photograph shows the Italian battleship Andrea Doria which served in World War I and II. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the negative. Forms part of: ... more

Gen. Von Reckowski i.e., Rekowski

Gen. Von Reckowski i.e., Rekowski

Photograph shows General Otto Gynz von Rekowski (1850-1915) who served in the German Army during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the nega... more

Gen. von Gallwitz

Gen. von Gallwitz

Photograph shows German general Max Karl Wilhelm von Gallwitz (1852- 1937) who served in World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2013) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the negative. Fo... more

French Aviator Burri

French Aviator Burri

Photo shows Swiss aviator Ernest Burri who flew for the French in World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2008)

Gen. Fieldmarshall von der Goltz

Gen. Fieldmarshall von der Goltz

Photograph shows Wilhelm Leopold Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz (1843-1916), a Prussian Field Marshal who served in World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2011)

Gen. Mackensen

Gen. Mackensen

Photograph shows August von Mackensen (1849-1945), a German soldier and field marshal who served during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on t... more

Gen. von Scheffer Boyadel

Gen. von Scheffer Boyadel

Photograph shows German general Reinhard Freiherr von Scheffer Boyadel (1851-1925), who was appointed governor of Warsaw in 1915 during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2011) Title from data provid... more

ANDREA DORIA, Italy

ANDREA DORIA, Italy

Photograph shows the Italian battleship Andrea Doria which served in World War I and II. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012)

Volunteer of 15, from Brandenburg

Volunteer of 15, from Brandenburg

Photograph shows a 15 year old soldier on horseback, from Brandenburg, Germany during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the negative. Print... more

German & Austrian prisoners in Russia

German & Austrian prisoners in Russia

Photograph shows German and Austrian prisoners in Russia during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the negative. Forms part of: George Grant... more

Gen. Polivanoff, War Minister of Russia

Gen. Polivanoff, War Minister of Russia

Photograph shows Alexei Andreyevich Polivanov (1855-1920), a Russian military officer who as Minister of War during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2013) Title from data provided by the Bain News ... more

Adm. Hugh Rodman

Adm. Hugh Rodman

Photograph shows Admiral Hugh Rodman (1859-1940), who served as an officer in the United States Navy during the Spanish-American War and World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2011) Title from data provi... more

Col. E.M. House

Col. E.M. House

Photograph shows American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor Edward Mandell House (1858-1938) also known as Colonel House. He was a foreign policy advisor to President Woodrow Wilson during World War... more

Gen. Sir Beauchamp Duff

Gen. Sir Beauchamp Duff

Photograph shows General Sir Beauchamp Duff (1855-1918) who served in the British Indian Army in World War I as Commander in Chief. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2014)

British armored autos in France

British armored autos in France

Photograph shows British soldiers and cars in France during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2011) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the negative. Forms part of: George Grantham ... more

Gen. Sir. I. Hamilton

Gen. Sir. I. Hamilton

Photograph shows General Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton (1853- 1947) who led the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force at the Battle of Gallipoli during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2011) Title... more

Gen. Neidenoff

Gen. Neidenoff

Photograph shows Bulgarian General Kalin Neidenoff (1865-1925), who served as Minister of Defense of Bulgaria during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2013) Title from data provided by the Bain News... more

Gen. Sir H. Smith-Dorrien

Gen. Sir H. Smith-Dorrien

Photograph shows General Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien (1858- 1930), who served during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012)

Lt. Von Mucke in Berlin

Lt. Von Mucke in Berlin

Photograph shows Lieutenant Hellmuth von Mucke (1881-1957), a German Marine officer who served aboard the Emden in World War I; taken May 1915, possibly later. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012) Title from ... more

Col. E.M. House

Col. E.M. House

Photograph shows American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor Edward Mandell House (1858-1938) also known as Colonel House. He was a foreign policy advisor to President Woodrow Wilson during World War... more

Gen. V. Mudra

Gen. V. Mudra

Photograph shows Karl Bruno Julius von Mudra (1851-1931), who was a Saxon General of Infantry in World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the nega... more

Virginia Mackay-Smith

Virginia Mackay-Smith

Photograph shows Virginia Mackay-Smith, daughter of the Episcopal Bishop of Pennsylvania Alexander Mackay-Smith. In 1921 she married Karl Boy-Ed (1872-1930), who had served as naval attaché to the German Ambass... more

The Allies
Maharaja of Bikaner

Maharaja of Bikaner

Photograph shows General Sir Ganga Singh (1880-1943), the Maharaja of the state of Bikaner, India. He served in the British Imperial War Cabinet during World War I as its only non-Anglo member. (Source: Flickr ... more

Aldershot - recruits on practice hike

Aldershot - recruits on practice hike

Photograph shows British soldiers at Aldershot army camp in England during World War I. Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the negative. Forms part of: George Grantham Bain Collection (Library... more

Leopold of Bavaria

Leopold of Bavaria

Photograph shows Leopold Maximilian Joseph Maria Arnulf, Prinz von Bayern (1846-1930) who served as a commander in the German and Austro-Hungarian forces during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012)

Gen. Ivanoff

Gen. Ivanoff

Photograph shows Nikolay Iudovich Ivanov (1851-1919) who served as a general in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2013)

Brig. Gen. E.C. Bethune

Brig. Gen. E.C. Bethune

Photograph shows Sir Edward Cecil Bethune (1855-1930) who served in the British Army in the Boer Wars and World War I. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2012) Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on... more