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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material – a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber.

Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons, furniture and paper. More recently it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.

As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of which was commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 approximately 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for furniture and building construction.

Wood Media

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Palette for painting of Vizier Amenemopet
Model Fire-stick, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Model Fire-stick, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Priests' Cemetery, Tomb of Senwosretankh (MMA 211), MMA excavations, 1921–22 Middle Kingdom

Model Funerary Boat of Imhotep

Model Funerary Boat of Imhotep

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Mastaba of Imhotep, south of south wall, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Model yoke, Upper Egypt, Thebes

Model yoke, Upper Egypt, Thebes

Shabti dolls were funerary figures in ancient Egypt that accompanied the deceased to the after-life. Shabti's name is derived from the Egyptian swb for stick but also corresponds to the word for `answer' (wsb) ... More

Strut from a Model Bed

Strut from a Model Bed

From Egypt New Kingdom

Votive menat fragment, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Votive menat fragment, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Hatshepsut Hole, MMA excavations, 1923–24 New Kingdom

Roller, Egypt, The Middle Kingdom - Early New Kingdom 2040 - 1550 BCE

Roller, Egypt, The Middle Kingdom - Early New Kingdom 2040 - 1550 BCE

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Khokha, Tomb MMA 830, MMA excavations Middle Kingdom–Early New Kingdom

Statuette of woman, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Statuette of woman, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, west of pyramid of Amenemhat I, so-called Toilet Basket I without burial, MMA excavations, 1906–07 Middle Kingdom

Shabti Box of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb

Shabti Box of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb MMA 60, Chamber B, Burial of Henettawy C (4), MMA excavations, 1923–24 Third Intermediate Period

Offering bearer statuette, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Offering bearer statuette, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Double Row of Pits, Pit 6L.P2, MMA excavations, 1923–24 Middle Kingdom

Shabti box of Nakhtamun, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Shabti box of Nakhtamun, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Medina, Tomb of Nakhtamun (TT 335) New Kingdom, Ramesside

Osiris Figure of Hatnefer with base (36.3.233)

Osiris Figure of Hatnefer with base (36.3.233)

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Sheikh Abd el-Qurna New Kingdom

Game piece, Egypt, The Middle Kingdom - Early New Kingdom 2040 - 1550 BCE

Game piece, Egypt, The Middle Kingdom - Early New Kingdom 2040 - 1550 ...

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb MMA 515, MMA excavations, 1921–23 (?) Middle Kingdom–Early New Kingdom

Outer coffin of Senebtisi, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Outer coffin of Senebtisi, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, Tomb of Senwosret (758), Pit 763, burial of Senebtisi, MMA excavations, 1907–08 Middle Kingdom

Inscribed Adze From Foundation Deposit 2 of Hatshepsut's Valley Temple

Inscribed Adze From Foundation Deposit 2 of Hatshepsut's Valley Temple

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, Hatshepsut Valley Temple, Foundation Deposit 5AFD2, MMA excavations, 1915–16 New Kingdom

Rishi Coffin, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Rishi Coffin, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, Temple of Hatshepsut, Carnarvon/Carter excavations New Kingdom

Spindle, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Spindle, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, Cemetery, MMA excavations, 1913–14 New Kingdom, Ramesside

Shabti of Wahneferhotep, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Shabti of Wahneferhotep, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Pyramid Temple of Senwosret I, Causeway, Northern lane, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

A hand from a coffin?

A hand from a coffin?

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North New Kingdom, Ramesside or later

Bow, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Bow, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Dra Abu el-Naga, Carnarvon/Carter excavations New Kingdom

Fragment of the Frame of a Model Bed
Model Pick from a Foundation Deposit for Hatshepsut's Temple

Model Pick from a Foundation Deposit for Hatshepsut's Temple

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Temple of Hatshepsut, Foundation Deposit 2b (B), MMA excavations, 1921–22 New Kingdom

Model Boat, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Model Boat, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb TT 312, MMA 509, MMA excavations, 1922–23 Middle Kingdom

Case for a Goose, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Case for a Goose, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Southern Asasif, Meketre Valley, Cliff Tomb (MMA 1021), inside or near entrance, MMA excavations, 1918–19 New Kingdom

Spear, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Statue of a courtier Ihy

Statue of a courtier Ihy

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Saqqara, Djoser Pyramid precinct, near, Ptolemaic tomb, cache of statues of Ihy, SAE Excavations Old Kingdom

Mirror handle cat head fragment

Mirror handle cat head fragment

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, MMA excavations, 1918–19 Middle Kingdom

Model chisel, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Model chisel, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Middle Egypt, Asyut (Lykopolis), Tomb of Ankhef (Tomb 9), Khashaba excavations Middle Kingdom

Model adze, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Model adze, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Middle Egypt, Asyut (Lykopolis), Tomb of Ankhef (Tomb 9), Khashaba excavations Middle Kingdom

Model adze, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Model adze, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Middle Egypt, Asyut (Lykopolis), Tomb of Ankhef (Tomb 9), Khashaba excavations Middle Kingdom

Crocodile figure, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Crocodile figure, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, Cemetery, MMA excavations, 1913–14 New Kingdom, Ramesside

Cylindrical Vase, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Cylindrical Vase, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, Courtyard CC 41, Pit 3, Burial D 1, in bowl 16.10.438, MMA excavations, 1915–16 New Kingdom

Bent stave, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Bent stave, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Mastaba of Imhotep, Tomb 5100, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Container in the Shape of a Duck

Container in the Shape of a Duck

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Meritamun (TT 358, MMA 65), corridor, MMA excavations, 1928–29 New Kingdom

Figure from a model boat

Figure from a model boat

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Double Row of Pits, Pit 6L.P13, MMA excavations, 1923–24 Middle Kingdom

Adze, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Adze, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Temple of Hatshepsut, forecourt, Foundation Deposit 3 (C), MMA excavations, 1923–24 New Kingdom

Hoe, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Hoe, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Radim west, MMA excavations Middle Kingdom

Model Brick  Mold from a Foundation Deposit

Model Brick Mold from a Foundation Deposit

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Senenmut (TT 353), Foundation deposit 5a, MMA excavations, 1926–27 New Kingdom

Javelin with an Ivory Knob

Javelin with an Ivory Knob

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Sheikh Abd el-Qurna, Tomb of Senenmut (TT 71), below, deposit of hunting weapons, MMA excavations, 1935–36 New Kingdom

Paddle Doll, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Paddle Doll, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, Tomb MMA 816, MMA excavations, 1929–30 Middle Kingdom

Brick stamp, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Brick stamp, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, Cemetery, MMA excavations, 1906–07 New Kingdom, Ramesside

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