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Virginia ( (listen)), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Southern United States, between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most-populous city, and Fairfax County is the most-populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2019 is over 8.54 million, with 36% of them living in the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area.

The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent English colony in the New World. Virginia's state nickname, the Old Dominion, is a reference to this status. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy. Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy while the First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union, leading to a split that created West Virginia. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia.

Virginia's state legislature is the Virginia General Assembly, which was established in 1619 and is the oldest continuous law-making body in North America. It is made up of a 40-member Senate and a 100-member House of Delegates. The state government is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, including the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency; and military facilities in Hampton Roads, the site of the region's main seaport.

Virginia Media

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'Is Two over One Railroad Fare?' [no title]

'Is Two over One Railroad Fare?' [no title]

Description: This unique photograph presents to view the only point in the world where three trunk line trains cross each other, at the same time and over their separate tracks. At the top is shown a passenger ... More

Car, Gilette wedding, Richmond Virginia

Car, Gilette wedding, Richmond Virginia

Title: Car, Gilette wedding..Creator: Adolph B. Rice Studio..Date: n.d...Identifier: Rice Collection 3798I..Format: 1 negative, safety film, 4 x 5 in...Rights Info: No known restrictions on publication...Re... More

Virginius and Virginia from BL Eg 881, f. 40

Virginius and Virginia from BL Eg 881, f. 40

Detail of a miniature of Virginius beheading his daughter Virginia. Image taken from f. 40 of Roman de la Rose. Written in French.

Death of Virginia from BL Royal 20 C V, f. 93v

Death of Virginia from BL Royal 20 C V, f. 93v

Detail of a miniature of the death of Virginia. Image taken from f. 93v of Des cleres et nobles femmes, De claris mulieribus in an anonymous French translation (index De claris mulieribus, Le livre de femmes no... More

Virginia in the temple of Pudicitia from BL Royal 20 C V, f. 99v

Virginia in the temple of Pudicitia from BL Royal 20 C V, f. 99v

Miniature of Virginia, wife of Lucius Volumnius, in the temple of Pudicitia. Image taken from f. 99v of Des cleres et nobles femmes, De claris mulieribus in an anonymous French translation (index De claris muli... More

Virginius and Virginia from BL Eg 881, f. 40

Virginius and Virginia from BL Eg 881, f. 40

Detail of a miniature of Virginius beheading his daughter Virginia. Image taken from f. 40 of Roman de la Rose. Written in French.

Death of Virginia from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 235

Death of Virginia from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 235

Detail of a bas-de-page miniature of the death of Virginia. Image taken from f. 235 of Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César, part 3 of the second redaction. Written in French.

Death of Virginia from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 235

Death of Virginia from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 235

Bas-de-page miniature of the death of Virginia. Image taken from f. 235 of Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César, part 3 of the second redaction. Written in French.

Virginia from BL Royal 16 G V, f. 76v

Virginia from BL Royal 16 G V, f. 76v

Detail of a miniature of Virginia in the temple of Pudicitia. Image taken from f. 76v of De claris mulieribus in an anonymous French translation (Le livre de femmes nobles et renomées). Written in French.

Virginia from BL Royal 16 G V, f. 72

Virginia from BL Royal 16 G V, f. 72

Detail of a miniature of the death of Virginia. Image taken from f. 72 of De claris mulieribus in an anonymous French translation (Le livre de femmes nobles et renomées). Written in French.

Aerial View of Virginia Union University, 1500 North

Aerial View of Virginia Union University, 1500 North

Description: These buildings of Virginia granite form part of a fifty-five acre campus. The Institution was chartered in 1896. It offers Liberal Arts and Theological courses to 500 negro college students each... More

Rep. Rob Wittman, Va., 1st District, speaks with Brig.

Rep. Rob Wittman, Va., 1st District, speaks with Brig.

Rep. Rob Wittman, Va., 1st District, speaks with Brig. Gen. Kenneth R. Dahl, deputy commanding general for support, Regional Command-South, during a visit to Kandahar Airfield, March 27. Members of the House Ar... More

Pfc. Michael Kosarick, a native of Pembroke, Mass.,

Pfc. Michael Kosarick, a native of Pembroke, Mass.,

Pfc. Michael Kosarick, a native of Pembroke, Mass., and food service specialist assigned to 82nd Sustainment Brigade, 18th Airborne Corps, based out of Fort Bragg, N.C., prepares scrambled eggs inside a Mobile ... More

Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr., assistant commandant of

Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr., assistant commandant of

Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr., assistant commandant of the Marine Corps, presents a folded flag to Michael Jaskilka during his father’s funeral service at Arlington National Cemetery Jan. 26. Gen. Samuel Jaskilka ... More

U.S. Army Staff Sgt. Mark Landa (center), a cadre member

U.S. Army Staff Sgt. Mark Landa (center), a cadre member

U.S. Army Staff Sgt. Mark Landa (center), a cadre member at the Warrior Transition Unit on Fort Bliss, runs through an exercise drill in the boxing ring at the Wolves Den, El Paso Texas, July 29. A native of El... More

Virginia Union University, 1500 North Lombardy St., Richmond, Va.

Virginia Union University, 1500 North Lombardy St., Richmond, Va.

Description: These buildings of Virginia granite form part of a fifty-five acre campus. The Institution was chartered in 1896. It offers Liberal Arts and Theological courses to 500 negro college students each... More

HOSP_21697_DeSotoRockBronzePlaque_1932, Hot Springs Arkansas

HOSP_21697_DeSotoRockBronzePlaque_1932, Hot Springs Arkansas

Bronze plaque (a) that was removed from the "DeSoto Rock" on Arlington Lawn sometime in the early 2000's, because the information on it was inaccurate. It was given to the Park April 30, 1932 by the Daughter's... More

Theodor de Bry - Their manner of fishing in Virginia

Theodor de Bry - Their manner of fishing in Virginia

Native men and women in a canoe fishing while others in the background stand in the river and spear fish. Illus. in: A brief and true report of the new found land of Virginia: of the commodities and of the natu... More

Theodor de Bry - [How they build boats] / T.B.

Theodor de Bry - [How they build boats] / T.B.

Native men making dugout boats by burning and scraping with seashells. Illus. in: Admiranda narratio, fida tamen, de commodis et incolarvm ritibvs Virginiæ [...]. Wecheli : svmtibvs T. de Bry, 1590, [plate] 12.... More

[How the chief ladies of the town of Dasamonquepeio dress and carry their children] / T.B.

[How the chief ladies of the town of Dasamonquepeio dress and carry th...

Full-length, front and back portraits of a Native woman of Dasamonquepeio showing manner of dress and way of carrying a child on her back; view of river and landscape in the background. Illus. in: Admiranda nar... More

[A noblewoman of Pomeiock] / T.B.

[A noblewoman of Pomeiock] / T.B.

Native woman of Pomeiock carrying a clay vessel, and her daughter holding a doll and a rattle.

Theodor de Bry - [The tomb of the weroans]

Theodor de Bry - [The tomb of the weroans]

An Algonquian burial house showing bodies on a raised platform and a priest squatting by a fire beneath the platform. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten der Wi... More

Americæ pars, nunc Virginia dicta : primum ab Anglis inuenta, sumtibus Dn. Walteri Raleigh, Equestris ordinis Viri, Anno Dn̄i. MDLXXXV regni Vero Sereniss. nostræ Reginæ Elisabethæ XXVII, hujus vero Historia peculiari Libro descripta est, additis etiam Indigenarum Iconibus /

Americæ pars, nunc Virginia dicta : primum ab Anglis inuenta, sumtibus...

Scale ca. 1:1,700,000. Has watermark. Oriented with north to the right. Relief shown pictorially and by hachures. Pictorial map. Covers coastal region from Cape Fear to Chesapeake Bay. From Thomas Hariot's A br... More

Theodor de Bry - [How they catch fish]

Theodor de Bry - [How they catch fish]

Native men and women in a dugout canoe fishing while others in the background stand in the river and spear fish. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten der Wilden ... More

Theodor de Bry - [How they cook their fish] / T.B.

Theodor de Bry - [How they cook their fish] / T.B.

Native men cooking fish on a wooden frame over a fire. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten der Wilden in Virginia ... / Erstlich in engelländischer Sprach besch... More

[Map of the coast of Virginia in 1585] / autore Ioanne With ; sculptore Theodore de Brÿ qui et excud.

[Map of the coast of Virginia in 1585] / autore Ioanne With ; sculptor...

Illus. in: Admiranda narratio, fida tamen, de commodis et incolarvm ritibvs Virginiæ [...]. Wecheli : svmtibvs T. de Bry, 1590. Engraving by Theodor de Bry after watercolor by John White. The New World [...] / ... More

Theodor de Bry - [The dances at their great feasts]

Theodor de Bry - [The dances at their great feasts]

Native men and women dancing around a circle defined by posts with carved faces, three Native women stand together in the center of circle. Illus. in: Admiranda narratio, fida tamen, de commodis et incolarvm ri... More

Theodor de Bry - [The town of Pomeiock] / T.B.

Theodor de Bry - [The town of Pomeiock] / T.B.

Fortified Native village the manner of construction of the buildings and the enclosing stockade. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten der Wilden in Virginia ... ... More

[Title page of A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, with five Indians posed in architectural border]

[Title page of A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virgi...

Engraving by Theodor de Bry. Illus. in: A briefe and true report..., Francoforti ad Moenvm : Typus I. Wecheli, sumtibus ver T. de Bry, 1590. Reference copy may be in LOT 4411. This record contains unverified, o... More

Theodor de Bry - [A weroans, or chieftain, of Virginia]

Theodor de Bry - [A weroans, or chieftain, of Virginia]

Full-length, front and back portraits of a Native chief in Virginia, with bow and arrow; hunting scene in the background. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten de... More

[An old man in his winter clothes] / T.B.

[An old man in his winter clothes] / T.B.

An aged Native man from Pomeiock, full-length portrait, facing front, wearing winter garment; landscape scene with village in the background. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Geleg... More

Theodor de Bry - [The Englishmen's arrival in Virginia]

Theodor de Bry - [The Englishmen's arrival in Virginia]

Map showing the coast of Virginia with many islands just off the mainland, two Native territories, Secotan and Weapemeoc, and the Native community of Roanoak on an island at the mouth of a river. Illus. in: Wun... More

Historic Jamestowne glass blower

Historic Jamestowne glass blower

At the Historic Jamestowne Glasshouse, costumed craftsmen demonstrate the same glassblowing and production techniques used by their 17th-century Jamestown counterparts.

Outisde of the glasshouse

Outisde of the glasshouse

Exterior shot of the shop where costumed interpreters demonstrate glassblowing techniques from the 17th century.

Keith Rocco - William Sherwood House - Jamestown in the 1690s

Keith Rocco - William Sherwood House - Jamestown in the 1690s

Excavations at the home of William Sherwood, a prominent landowner in Jamestown during the late 17th century, have revealed a number of signs of the prosperity of the colony, including ornate ornamental plaster... More

Thomas Jefferson, , Itinerary of Trip from Washington, D. C. to Charlottesville, Virginia

Thomas Jefferson, , Itinerary of Trip from Washington, D. C. to Charlo...

Itinerary of Trip from Washington, D. C. to Charlottesville, Virginia

Historic Jamestowne Glasshouse

Historic Jamestowne Glasshouse

The Historic Jamestowne Glasshouse recreates the first industry attempted by the colonists in 1608

[Title page of Nova Brittania: offering most excellent fruits by planting in Virginia, illustrated with sailing ship]

[Title page of Nova Brittania: offering most excellent fruits by plant...

Illus. in: Nova Brittania: offering most excellent fruits by planting in Virginia (London, 1609) Johnson, Robert, fl. 1586-1628, supposed author. File print on back of VA. HISTORY COLONIAL PERIOD card. This rec... More

Virginia / discovered and discribed [sic] by Captan [sic] John Smith, 1606; graven by William Hole

Virginia / discovered and discribed [sic] by Captan [sic] John Smith, ...

Map showing Chesapeake Bay area and Indian place names with inset of Powhatan, and a Susquehanna Indian / John Smith.

[The great abundance of fish and game in Virginia; man hunting with muskets and falcons, and fishing]

[The great abundance of fish and game in Virginia; man hunting with mu...

Illus. in: DeBry, Americae XI. Reference copy may be in LOT 4433. This record contains unverified, old data from caption card, with subsequent revisions. Caption card tracings: Shelf.

From Fort to City - Jamestown in 1621

From Fort to City - Jamestown in 1621

By the early 1620s, Jamestown was slowly transitioning from an wilderness outpost to a town (Keith Rocco, artist).

John Smith - Virginia / Historic map, Library of Congress

John Smith - Virginia / Historic map, Library of Congress

Sixth state. Relief shown pictorially. Oriented with north to the right. Accompanied by 2 exhibit notes and LC jacket note. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image.

[Detail of A map of Virginia of 1612, showing Powhatan in the royal wigwam. He wears a crown of feathers]

[Detail of A map of Virginia of 1612, showing Powhatan in the royal wi...

Engraving by Robert Vaughan. Illus. in: John Smith's, Generall Historie of Virginia ... London, 1624, plate 13. Reference copy may be in SSF - Indians of North America Dwellings. This record contains unverified... More

[Map of Virginia] / discovered and discribed [sic] by Captain John Smith 1606 [?] William Hole.

[Map of Virginia] / discovered and discribed [sic] by Captain John Smi...

1606 map of Virginia as described by John Smith showing the Chesapeake Bay, Potomac River, other geographic features, and a vignette of the Native leader, Powhatan, in council. Illus. in: The generall historie ... More

Virginia da Vezzo, Wife of Simon Vouet

Virginia da Vezzo, Wife of Simon Vouet

Claude Mellan (French, Abbeville 1598–1688 Paris)

Noua Anglia, Nouum Belgium, et Virginia - Jan Jansson

Noua Anglia, Nouum Belgium, et Virginia - Jan Jansson

Covering the eastern portion of North America's coastline from North Carolina to Nova Scotia, this influential map appeared in English, German, Latin, Dutch, and French editions of world atlases published by Ho... More

Keith Rocco - Jamestown, 1630s: Harvey's Industrial Enclave

Keith Rocco - Jamestown, 1630s: Harvey's Industrial Enclave

Virginia Governor John Harvey (1630-35; 1637-39) helped to develop many of the industrial and craft operations at Jamestown early in the second quarter of the seventeenth century. The failure of his industrial ... More

[Map of Atlantic Coast of North America from the Chesapeake Bay to Florida].

[Map of Atlantic Coast of North America from the Chesapeake Bay to Flo...

Shows coastal features, Native American nations and settlements, and other geographical entities. Pen-and-ink and watercolor. Attributed to Joan Vinckeboons by comparison with his other Dutch maps in Henry Harr... More

Nova Virginiae tabvla Historic map, Library of Congress

Nova Virginiae tabvla Historic map, Library of Congress

Relief shown pictorially. Oriented with north to right. "Amstelodami, ex officina Henrici Hondii." Accompanied by LC jacket note. Copied ? from John Smith map. Includes illustrations and coat-of-arms. Available... More

Virginia, from 'Game of Geography' (Jeu de la Géographie)

Virginia, from 'Game of Geography' (Jeu de la Géographie)

Etched by Stefano della Bella (Italian, Florence 1610–1664 Florence)

Keith Rocco - Jamestown Lifescape - Mid-17th Century

Keith Rocco - Jamestown Lifescape - Mid-17th Century

A scene of a busy street in Jamestown, circa 1650 (Keith Rocco, artist).

Virginia Colonial Commissioners, March 12, 1651, Articles on the Relation Between James City and Great Britain

Virginia Colonial Commissioners, March 12, 1651, Articles on the Relat...

Articles on the Relation Between James City and Great Britain

Mappa æstivarum insularum alias Bermudas dictarum, ad ostia Mexicani æstuary iacentium in latitudine graduum 32 minutorum 25 ab Anglia, londino scilicet versus libonotum 3300 miliaribus anglicanis, et a Roanoack (qui locus est in Virginia) versus Euronotum 500 mil. accurate descr. = A mapp of the Sommer Ilands once called the Bermudas lying at the mouth of the bay of Mexico in the lattitude of 32 degr. 25 mi. distant from England viz. from London towards the west south-west 3300 miles and from Roanoack in Virginia toward the est south east 500 miles exactlie surveyed

Mappa æstivarum insularum alias Bermudas dictarum, ad ostia Mexicani æ...

Mapp of the Sommer Ilands once called the Bermudas lying at the mouth of the bay of Mexico in the lattitude of 32 degr. 25 mi. distant from England viz. from London towards the west south-west 3300 miles and fr... More

A mapp of Virginia discovered to ye hills, and in it's latt. from 35 deg. & 1/2 neer Florida to 41 deg. bounds of New England /

A mapp of Virginia discovered to ye hills, and in it's latt. from 35 d...

Relief shown pictorially. Based on a manuscript map drawn by John Farrer. Oriented with north to the right. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Includes text, portrait of ... More

Virginia and Maryland as it is planted and inhabited this present year 1670 /

Virginia and Maryland as it is planted and inhabited this present year...

Oriented with north to the right. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Includes cartouche, portait of Augustine Herrman, text, and ill. Vault

An undated photograph provided by Naval History and Heritage Command  of a scale model of CSS Virginia from the Los Angeles Museum made by Alexander Lynch.

An undated photograph provided by Naval History and Heritage Command ...

WASHINGTON (Feb. 19, 2013) An undated photograph provided by Naval History and Heritage Command of a scale model of CSS Virginia from the Los Angeles Museum made by Alexander Lynch. The Confederate navy ironcl... More

An Act for Punishment of Scandalous Persons

An Act for Punishment of Scandalous Persons

In: A Complete Collection of the Laws of Virginia at a Grand Assembly held at James City 23 March 1662. London, [between 1684 and 1687], p. 26. [LCCN: unk85000571]

A new map of Virginia, Maryland, and the improved parts of Pennsylvania & New Jersey.

A new map of Virginia, Maryland, and the improved parts of Pennsylvani...

Relief shown pictorially. Depths shown by soundings. Date and attribution from On the Map, 1983 (Figure 24). First state of map published originally in 1685 by Christopher Browne with the imprint in the cartouc... More

Old Stone House [untitled], Richmond Virginia

Old Stone House [untitled], Richmond Virginia

Description: Carry me back to old Virginia. Poe Shrine, at Richmond, Virginia. Erected about 1686, the building is probably the oldest in Richmond. Although it has no direct association with Edgar Allan Poe, ... More

Keith Rocco - Jamestown in the Winter of 1690

Keith Rocco - Jamestown in the Winter of 1690

Nottoway tribe bringing annual tribute to the governor of Virginia during the winter of 1690, a tradition that continues to this day.

A new map of Virginia, Maryland, and the improved parts of Pennsylvania & New Jersey.

A new map of Virginia, Maryland, and the improved parts of Pennsylvani...

Relief shown pictorially. Date and attribution from On the map, 1983. Second state of map published originally in 1685 by Christopher Browne. This state differs from the earlier one in lacking the publisher's i... More

George Washington Birthplace National Monument - Brass Button

George Washington Birthplace National Monument - Brass Button

Button brass 18th century, top spiral design

Balcony, North and Central America

Balcony, North and Central America

Made in Petersburg, Virginia, United States

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