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Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, which is the right to stand for election. The combination of active and passive suffrage is sometimes called full suffrage.

Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to referendums. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but also the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally without extensive, conscientious, full disclosure and public review.

In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may also be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California and Washington have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write, propose, and vote on referendums; other states and the federal government have not. Referendums in the United Kingdom are rare.

Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens once they have reached the voting age. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government's decision. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of closely linked countries (e.g., Commonwealth citizens and European Union citizens) or to certain offices or questions.

Suffrage Media

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Suffrage Posters from Schlesinger Library

Suffrage Posters from Schlesinger Library

The cat and mouse act passed by the Liberal government... buy and read The Suffragette..Date: 1913..Catalog Record: bit.ly/1uxQRNE ( http://bit.ly/1uxQRNE ) ..Questions? Ask a Schlesinger Librarian ( http://ask... More

Millicent Fawcett's Hyde Park address1913
Procession of the religious leagues for women's suffrage, c.1914.

Procession of the religious leagues for women's suffrage, c.1914.

7JCC/O/02/028Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, line of women in the street wearing sandwich boards, each with the name of a different religious suffrage society, led by a women bring a banner 'Religious L... More

Margaret suffrage from BL Harley 2985, f. 38

Margaret suffrage from BL Harley 2985, f. 38

Text page with suffrage to Margaret. Decorated initial 'G'(aude) in gold and colours with foliate pattern. Image taken from f. 38 of Book of Hours, Use of Sarum. Written in Latin.

Suffrage from BL Eg 2781, f. 80v

Suffrage from BL Eg 2781, f. 80v

Miniature of worshippers in a church, with a statue of Christ blessing, for the suffrage for Peace. Image taken from f. 80v of Book of Hours, Use of Sarum (The 'Neville of Hornby Hours'). Written in Latin and French.

The universal right of suffrage is in danger from the Bryan's Station ticket
Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Hannah Adams autograph letter signed to William Shaw

Story of her life. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

British barbarity and piracy!! The Federalists say that Mr. Christopher Gore ought to be supported as governor- for his attachment to Britain.--- If British influence is to effect the suffrage of a free people, let them read the following melanc

British barbarity and piracy!! The Federalists say that Mr. Christophe...

Imprint 2.; Political campaign. Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 48, Folder 11.

Mrs. Hemans' signature

Mrs. Hemans' signature

Old folder #: 71. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Mrs. Hemans' signature

Mrs. Hemans' signature

Old folder #: 71. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

To the voters of the First ward. Fellow-citizens, You will all agree with me, that any man who stands convicted by a jury of his countrymen of rraud, deserves not their suffrage for the meanest office in their gift.- Therefore, examine your tick

To the voters of the First ward. Fellow-citizens, You will all agree w...

On verso: 8 Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 194, Folder 3.

Letter from Sarah M. Grimke, Brookline, to Hannah C. Fifield, April 4, 1838

Letter from Sarah M. Grimke, Brookline, to Hannah C. Fifield, April 4,...

Addressed "Dear sister." Also mentions Henrietta Porter. More about women’s suffrage than slavery, [also about] declining invitation to speak but mentions speaking series at Odeon in Boston. Courtesy of Weymout... More

Letter from Abby Kimber, Kimberton, [Pennsylvania], to George Thompson, 1840 [November] 26

Letter from Abby Kimber, Kimberton, [Pennsylvania], to George Thompson...

Abby Kimber writes to George Thompson in regards to congratulating him on the woman's right movement in Scotland. She writes, "Our American ladies have been embroidering Harrison Bannery, and have presented the... More

Letter from Abby Kimber, Kimberton, [Pennsylvania], to George Thompson, 1840 [November] 26

Letter from Abby Kimber, Kimberton, [Pennsylvania], to George Thompson...

Abby Kimber writes to George Thompson in regards to congratulating him on the woman's right movement in Scotland. She writes, "Our American ladies have been embroidering Harrison Bannery, and have presented the... More

Letter from Abby Kimber, Kimberton, [Pennsylvania], to George Thompson, 1840 [November] 26

Letter from Abby Kimber, Kimberton, [Pennsylvania], to George Thompson...

Abby Kimber writes to George Thompson in regards to congratulating him on the woman's right movement in Scotland. She writes, "Our American ladies have been embroidering Harrison Bannery, and have presented the... More

Letter from Calbin Allen, Roxbury, [Massachusetts], to Maria Weston Chapman, 1840 Jan[uary] 5

Letter from Calbin Allen, Roxbury, [Massachusetts], to Maria Weston Ch...

Calvin Allen writes to Maria Weston Chapman in regards to receiving her sermon on anti-slavery. He writes that she asserts that she is "knowing to my 'activity' zeal and efficiency in the glorious cause of huma... More

Letter from Abby Kimber, Kimberton, [Pennsylvania], to George Thompson, 1840 [November] 26

Letter from Abby Kimber, Kimberton, [Pennsylvania], to George Thompson...

Abby Kimber writes to George Thompson in regards to congratulating him on the woman's right movement in Scotland. She writes, "Our American ladies have been embroidering Harrison Bannery, and have presented the... More

The Committee, to which was referred the second article on the right of suffrage, report as follows ... [1842].

The Committee, to which was referred the second article on the right o...

Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 169, Folder 23.

Circular. To the suffrage men of Rhode-Island. Fellow-Citizens. We, whose names are hereto appended, were, and still are, in favor of a constitutional form of government for the State of Rhode-Island ... [1843?].
Letter from Johnn Bishop Estlin, Bristol, [England], to Richard Davis Webb, 1845 November 13

Letter from Johnn Bishop Estlin, Bristol, [England], to Richard Davis ...

John Bishop Estlin writes to Richard Davis Webb in regards to the refusal of the municipal Unitarian Ministers to sign the "Address" sent a year and a half ago to America. He writes, "the letters of all the obj... More

Letter from George Thompson, London, [England], to Henry Clarke Wright, 1846 May 23

Letter from George Thompson, London, [England], to Henry Clarke Wright...

George Thompson writes to Henry Clarke Wright in regards to giving permission for him to make his letter to him public "although I little dreamt it would ever appear in print." He and Frederick Douglass are pla... More

Letter from George Thompson, London, [England], to Henry Clarke Wright, 1846 May 23

Letter from George Thompson, London, [England], to Henry Clarke Wright...

George Thompson writes to Henry Clarke Wright in regards to giving permission for him to make his letter to him public "although I little dreamt it would ever appear in print." He and Frederick Douglass are pla... More

Letter from George Thompson, London, [England], to Henry Clarke Wright, 1846 May 23

Letter from George Thompson, London, [England], to Henry Clarke Wright...

George Thompson writes to Henry Clarke Wright in regards to giving permission for him to make his letter to him public "although I little dreamt it would ever appear in print." He and Frederick Douglass are pla... More

Letter from George Thompson, London, [England], to Henry Clarke Wright, 1846 May 23

Letter from George Thompson, London, [England], to Henry Clarke Wright...

George Thompson writes to Henry Clarke Wright in regards to giving permission for him to make his letter to him public "although I little dreamt it would ever appear in print." He and Frederick Douglass are pla... More

Juliet Creed Pollock autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Rottingdean, Sussex, England, 12 August

Juliet Creed Pollock autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higgi...

Telling of her family plans and regretting that she cannot receive some friends of his; inviting him to visit when she is settled in London the next year. Old folder #: 103. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Carrie Chapman Catt Papers: Miscellany; Drawing
Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Boston, 31 January

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Hi...

Saying that she had sent a Browning sonnet, not for an anthology but for his pleasure; arguing with him about a suggested change in the sonnet, etc. Old folder #: 92. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Sarah Freeman Clarke autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson

Sarah Freeman Clarke autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higgi...

Speaking of her remarks on two poets, Ellen and Caroline Sturgis and of Helen Hunt's poems. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Marie Therese (de Solms) Blanc autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 2 December

Marie Therese (de Solms) Blanc autograph note signed to Thomas Wentwor...

Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Sarah Freeman Clarke autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson

Sarah Freeman Clarke autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higgi...

Speaking of her remarks on two poets, Ellen and Caroline Sturgis and of Helen Hunt's poems. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Caroline Sturgis Tappan autograph note signed to Sarah, 7 March

Caroline Sturgis Tappan autograph note signed to Sarah, 7 March

Sending the sonnet she wrote upon seeing Shakespeare's death mask; returning Lady Gordon's book with many thanks. Old folder #: 127. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Boston, 31 January

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Hi...

Saying that she had sent a Browning sonnet, not for an anthology but for his pleasure; arguing with him about a suggested change in the sonnet, etc. Old folder #: 92. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Sarah Freeman Clarke autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson

Sarah Freeman Clarke autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higgi...

Speaking of her remarks on two poets, Ellen and Caroline Sturgis and of Helen Hunt's poems. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Boston, 31 January

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Hi...

Saying that she had sent a Browning sonnet, not for an anthology but for his pleasure; arguing with him about a suggested change in the sonnet, etc. Old folder #: 92. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Boston, 31 January

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Hi...

Saying that she had sent a Browning sonnet, not for an anthology but for his pleasure; arguing with him about a suggested change in the sonnet, etc. Old folder #: 92. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to [Thomas Wentworth Higginson], [Boston]

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to [Thomas Wentworth H...

Wishes she would have known today was his birthday. Old folder #: 95a. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Mary Lowell Putnam autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson

Mary Lowell Putnam autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higgins...

Thanking him for a "most excellent historical work" he had sent. Old folder #: 104. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Boston, 31 January

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Hi...

Saying that she had sent a Browning sonnet, not for an anthology but for his pleasure; arguing with him about a suggested change in the sonnet, etc. Old folder #: 92. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Juliet Creed Pollock autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Rottingdean, Sussex, England, 12 August

Juliet Creed Pollock autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higgi...

Telling of her family plans and regretting that she cannot receive some friends of his; inviting him to visit when she is settled in London the next year. Old folder #: 103. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Juliet Creed Pollock autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Rottingdean, Sussex, England, 12 August

Juliet Creed Pollock autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higgi...

Telling of her family plans and regretting that she cannot receive some friends of his; inviting him to visit when she is settled in London the next year. Old folder #: 103. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Sarah Freeman Clarke autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson

Sarah Freeman Clarke autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higgi...

Speaking of her remarks on two poets, Ellen and Caroline Sturgis and of Helen Hunt's poems. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Charlotte Cushman signed autograph note, [London]

Charlotte Cushman signed autograph note, [London]

His request for her signature deserves a much better return than she is now able to now give; she will respond after Thursday. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Fanny Kemble autograph note signed to [Thomas Wentworth Higginson], [Boston?]

Fanny Kemble autograph note signed to [Thomas Wentworth Higginson], [B...

Wants him to know she will be at the Hall at the usual hour in order to give a reading. Old folder #: 76 Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph note signed to [Thomas Wentworth Higginson], Boston, 10 May

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph note signed to [Thomas Wentworth Hig...

Accepting an invitation. Old folder #: 95. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Sarah C. Morrill draft of a petition against marriage laws

Sarah C. Morrill draft of a petition against marriage laws

A petition of protest against husbands having complete control over their wives in marriage, etc. Old folder #: 134. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph notes signed to [Thomas Wentworth Higginson]

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph notes signed to [Thomas Wentworth Hi...

Four separate notes: changing the date of an engagement; giving him requested information on Michael Field; thanking him for a letter, etc. Old folder #: 91. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Nathaniel Hawthorne manuscript description of his daughter Una

Nathaniel Hawthorne manuscript description of his daughter Una

A description of his daughter, Una, copied by Anna S. Higginson. Old folder #: 70. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Boston, 31 January

Louise Chandler Moulton autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Hi...

Saying that she had sent a Browning sonnet, not for an anthology but for his pleasure; arguing with him about a suggested change in the sonnet, etc. Old folder #: 92. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Helen M. Fiske autograph letter signed to Julius A. Palmer, Charlestown, Mass., 5 July 1849

Helen M. Fiske autograph letter signed to Julius A. Palmer, Charlestow...

An opportunity has presented itself for herself and Annie to go into the country to board in Andover. Old folder #: 48-48a Courtesy of Boston Public Library

The elective franchise. The argument of Carrie S. Burnham ... To be had of agents, or E. M. Davis, President Citizen's suffrage association 333 Walnut Street. [Philadelphia, n. d.].

The elective franchise. The argument of Carrie S. Burnham ... To be ha...

Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 163, Folder 48.

Espérons que ce ballon d'essai ne deviendra pas un ballon captif / A. Danjay.

Espérons que ce ballon d'essai ne deviendra pas un ballon captif / A. ...

Cartoon shows a hot air balloon labeled "Suffrage Universel" with wings floating above the Pyrenees and headed toward a sign labeled "Espagne". Title from item. Illus. from: Actualités, no. 248. Tissandier collection.

Una Hawthorne autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Concord, Mass.]

Una Hawthorne autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Co...

Sending him a little vine of farewell. Old folder #: 65. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Una Hawthorne autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Concord, Mass.]

Una Hawthorne autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Co...

Sending him a little vine of farewell. Old folder #: 65. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Una Hawthorne autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Concord, Mass.]

Una Hawthorne autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Co...

Sending him a little vine of farewell. Old folder #: 65. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Una Hawthorne autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Concord, Mass.]

Una Hawthorne autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Co...

Sending him a little vine of farewell. Old folder #: 65. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from James Miller M'Kim, Philadelphia, [Pennsylvania], to Mary Anne Estlin, [1855] Sept[ember] 21

Letter from James Miller M'Kim, Philadelphia, [Pennsylvania], to Mary ...

James Miller McKim writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to antislavery news. His assistant, William Still, is in Canada while he is in the office in Philadelphia. He writes of providing help for 18 fugitives w... More

Annie Fields autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Boston]

Annie Fields autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Bos...

Regretting that a planned visit to Mrs. Higginson had not materialized and giving an invitation to dine. Old folder #: 48-48a. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Celia Thaxter autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Newtonville, Mass., 30 April

Celia Thaxter autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, New...

Returning a ticket and telling him how glad she was to have gone to the symphony with him. Old folder #: 131. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Harriet Elizabeth Prescott Spofford autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Deer Island, Mass.

Harriet Elizabeth Prescott Spofford autograph note signed to Thomas We...

Thanking him for sending an article in which he quoted her. Old folder #: 116. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Celia Thaxter autograph letter signed to [Thomas Wentworth Higginson], Newtonville, Mass., 8 February

Celia Thaxter autograph letter signed to [Thomas Wentworth Higginson],...

Delighted to have received his letter; praising a poem he wrote. Old folder #: 129. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Annie Fields autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Boston]

Annie Fields autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Bos...

Acknowledging receipt of a letter. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Henry's valedictory, June 16th 1856. Ladies and gentlemen: We have taken in consideration the part of human suffrage of the present year 1856 ... C. H. Bowens.
Letter from Robert Dale Owen, New York, [New York], to William Lloyd Garrison, 1865 June 25

Letter from Robert Dale Owen, New York, [New York], to William Lloyd G...

Robert Dale Owen writes to William Lloyd Garrison stating the "northern view of the negro-suffrage question". Owen argues that "it is not conceivable that our Northern voters, returning victors, will finally co... More

Rose Terry Cooke autograph note signed 14 December 1858

Rose Terry Cooke autograph note signed 14 December 1858

Affirming that she wrote the story "Ann Potter's Lesson" that was published in the Atlantic Monthly. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Rose Terry Cooke autograph note signed 14 December 1858

Rose Terry Cooke autograph note signed 14 December 1858

Affirming that she wrote the story "Ann Potter's Lesson" that was published in the Atlantic Monthly. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Mary Somerville autograph letter signed to [John?] Murray, Florence, Italy, 14 September 1858

Mary Somerville autograph letter signed to [John?] Murray, Florence, I...

Sending revised pages to Mr. Murray for changes to be made. Old folder #: 112. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Mary Somerville autograph letter signed to [John?] Murray, Florence, Italy, 14 September 1858

Mary Somerville autograph letter signed to [John?] Murray, Florence, I...

Sending revised pages to Mr. Murray for changes to be made. Old folder #: 112. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Rose Terry Cooke autograph note signed 14 December 1858

Rose Terry Cooke autograph note signed 14 December 1858

Affirming that she wrote the story "Ann Potter's Lesson" that was published in the Atlantic Monthly. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Rose Terry Cooke autograph note signed 14 December 1858

Rose Terry Cooke autograph note signed 14 December 1858

Affirming that she wrote the story "Ann Potter's Lesson" that was published in the Atlantic Monthly. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Boston]

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth H...

Declining an invitation and regretting that she has nothing but an autograph of her father. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Boston]

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth H...

Declining an invitation and regretting that she has nothing but an autograph of her father. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Boston]

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth H...

Thanking him in her own and sister's name for his sympathetic portrait of her father. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Boston]

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth H...

Declining an invitation and regretting that she has nothing but an autograph of her father. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [Boston]

Helen Olcott Choate Bell autograph letter signed to Thomas Wentworth H...

Declining an invitation and regretting that she has nothing but an autograph of her father. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Isabella Stewart Gardner autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Beverly, Mass., 20 July

Isabella Stewart Gardner autograph note signed to Thomas Wentworth Hig...

Thanking him for sending her the name of a story by Bret Harte. Old folder #: same. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Alice Paul, seated, photomechanical print
Kate Gannett Wells autograph note signed to Mrs. Talbot, New York

Kate Gannett Wells autograph note signed to Mrs. Talbot, New York

Pleasantly surprised that he invited her to speak at the Club, but she cannot. Old folder #: 142. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Will of Francis Jackson

Will of Francis Jackson

This document is a copy of the last will and testament of Francis Jackson, in which he bequeaths his worldly goods and funds to his family, friends, and colleagues. Of particular note are articles 4 through 6 o... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

Letter from Samuel May, Jr., Leicester [Mass.], to William Lloyd Garrison, July 2, [18]63

Letter from Samuel May, Jr., Leicester [Mass.], to William Lloyd Garri...

Samuel May Jr. writes to William Lloyd Garrison about a letter from Susan B. Anthony of the Woman’s Loyal National League. May thinks her request to publicize the league at the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Societ... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estlin, 1863 Feb[ruary] 14

Letter from Samuel Joseph May, Syracuse, [New York], to Mary Anne Estl...

Samuel Joseph May writes to Mary Anne Estlin in regards to his domestic, parochial, and public affairs. He writes of the National Freedman's Relief Association's plans. When the American Civil War ends, he hope... More

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