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Spain (Spanish: España, [esˈpaɲa] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a country in Southwestern Europe with some pockets of territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands off the coast of North Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African exclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean respectively.

With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second-largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth-largest country by area on the European continent. With a population exceeding 47.3 million, Spain is the sixth-most populous country in Europe, and the fourth-most populous country in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, Málaga, and Bilbao.

Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BC, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire, Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces. One of them, the Visigoths, forcibly integrated all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including the Byzantine province of Spania, into the Visigothic Kingdom.

In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate. The Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus) soon became autonomous from Baghdad. A handful of small Christian pockets in the north were left out of Muslim rule, along the presence of the Carolingian Empire near the Pyrenées, eventually led to the emergence of the Christian kingdoms of León, Castile, Aragon, Portugal and Navarre. Over seven centuries, an intermittent southwards expansion of these kingdoms (metahistorically dubbed as a reconquest: the Reconquista) culminated with the Christian seizure of the last Muslim polity (the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada) in 1492, the same year Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World. A process of political conglomeration among the Christian kingdoms also ensued, and the late 15th-century saw the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon under the Catholic Monarchs, sometimes considered to be the emergence of Spain as a unified country. The Conquest of Navarre occurred in 1512, while the Kingdom of Portugal was also ruled by the Hapsburg Dynasty between 1580 and 1640.

In the early modern period, Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history which was also one of the first global empires, spawning a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes over 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a highly developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the sixteenth-largest by PPP. It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes it a de facto member of the group.

Spain Media

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Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Saint Catherine, who publicly protested the worship of idols to the emperor Maxentius, is shown here triumphant over him with a sword, the instrument of her martyrdom. The relief originally formed part of an el... More

Alfonso V, King of Aragon

Alfonso V, King of Aragon

Medalist: Paolo da Ragusa (Italian, active 1450)

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Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 157v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 157v

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 157v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Purchase note. from BL Add 14761, f. 161v

Purchase note. from BL Add 14761, f. 161v

Purchase note. Image taken from f. 161v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 145

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 145

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 145 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 158

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 158

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 158 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Ownership inscription from BL Add 14761, f. 151v

Ownership inscription from BL Add 14761, f. 151v

Ownership inscription of Mordechai Ottolenghi and Raphael Hayyim Ottolenghi. Image taken from f. 151v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite.... More

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 154

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 154

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 154 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 153

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 153

Text page with Sephardi punctuated square script. Image taken from f. 153 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 147

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 147

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 147 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 160

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 160

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script and with a censor's inscription. Image taken from f. 160 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic r... More

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 145v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 145v

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 145v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 157

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 157

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 157 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 148v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 148v

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 148v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 159v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 159v

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 159v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 72v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 72v

Text page in Sephardi square script, with the text from Psalm 115. Image taken from f. 72v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 159

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 159

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 159 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 153v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 153v

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 153v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 156v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 156v

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 156v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Cartouche from BL Add 33733, f. 17v

Cartouche from BL Add 33733, f. 17v

A cartouche of architectonic decoration. Image taken from f. 17v of The Triumphs of Charles V (index L'Aguila Triumphante de Carlos Quinto). Written in Spanish.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 155

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 155

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 155 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 148

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 148

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 148 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 146

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 146

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 146 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 158v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 158v

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 158v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 152v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 152v

Text page with Sephardi punctuated square script. Image taken from f. 152v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text pages from BL Add 14761, ff. 155, 156v

Text pages from BL Add 14761, ff. 155, 156v

Text pages with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from ff. 155, 156v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 61v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 61v

Text page, at the passage starting with 'This matzah which we eat'. Image taken from f. 61v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Blank folios from BL Add 14761, ff. 160v-161

Blank folios from BL Add 14761, ff. 160v-161

Blank folios. Image taken from ff. 160v-161 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text pages from BL Add 14761, ff. 139v-140

Text pages from BL Add 14761, ff. 139v-140

Text pages with punctuated Sephardi semi-cursive script. Image taken from ff. 139v-140 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text pages from BL Add 14761, ff. 155v-156

Text pages from BL Add 14761, ff. 155v-156

A double opening with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from ff. 155v-156 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 147v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 147v

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 147v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 144

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 144

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 144 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 150

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 150

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 150 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Plain leaf from BL Add 33733, f. 4

Plain leaf from BL Add 33733, f. 4

A plain leaf on the verso of which is a cartouche and text. Image taken from f. 4 of The Triumphs of Charles V (index L'Aguila Triumphante de Carlos Quinto). Written in Spanish.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 65

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 65

Text page in Sephardi square script, at a passage from ~Lefikakh~ ('Therefore we are bound to thank'). Image taken from f. 65 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Hag... More

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 151

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 151

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 151 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 150v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 150v

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 150v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 152

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 152

Text page with Sephardi punctuated square script. Image taken from f. 152 of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 154v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 154v

Text page with punctuated Sephardi square script. Image taken from f. 154v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 144v

Text page from BL Add 14761, f. 144v

Text page with Sephardi punctuated semi-cursive script. Image taken from f. 144v of Haggadah, liturgical poems and biblical readings for Passover (The 'Barcelona Haggadah'), Sephardic rite. Written in Hebrew.

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