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Race relations is a sociological concept that emerged in Chicago in connection with the work of sociologist Robert E. Park and the Chicago race riot of 1919. Race relations designates a paradigm or field in sociology and a legal concept in the United Kingdom. As a sociological field, race relations attempts to explain how racial groups relate to each other, and in particular to give an explanation of violence connected to race.

The paradigm of race relations was critiqued by its own practitioners for its failure to predict the anti-racist struggles of the 1960s. The paradigm has also been criticized as overlooking the power differential between races, implying that the source of violence is disharmony rather than racist power structures. The term "race relations" has been called a euphemism for white supremacy or racism.

In spite of the controversial or discredited status of the race relations paradigm, the term is sometimes used in a generic way to designate matters related to race. Opinion polls, such as Gallup polls, use the term "race relations" to group together various responses connected to race. University sociology courses are often named "Race and Ethnic Relations."

Race relations Media

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Margaret Stewart - Queen of Natchez Mardi Gras.

Margaret Stewart - Queen of Natchez Mardi Gras.

Collection: Stewart Photograph Collection.Call number: PI/1992.0006.System ID: 102148..Link to the catalog ( http://zed.mdah.state.ms.us:81/ ) ..Margaret Stewart - Queen of Natchez Mardi Gras...Please see our p... more

Inner City, August 1973

Inner City, August 1973

Original Caption: Inner City, August 1973..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 412-DA-7488..Photographer: Swanson, Dick...Subjects:.Environmental protection.Natural resources.Philadelphia (Philadelphia ... more

Untitled (Native American in buffalo headdress)

Untitled (Native American in buffalo headdress)

Artist: Richard Throssel.Artist Bio: American, 1882 - 1933.Creation Date: c. 1910.Process: gelatin silver print.Credit Line: Gift of Graham and Susan Nash.Accession Number: 2003.003.053

Glass cup in the shape of a negro head

Glass cup in the shape of a negro head

Glass objects, Roman Empire.

[Black slaves working in sugar mill. Hispaniola. Part 5, plate 2]

[Black slaves working in sugar mill. Hispaniola. Part 5, plate 2]

Illus. in: De Bay, Americae...1590. Reference copy may be in E141.B88. Reference copy may be in SSF (Gr) - Plantation crops Sugar, LOT 4410A. This record contains unverified, old data from caption card.

Portugees in een draagstoel

Portugees in een draagstoel

Een rijke Portugees laat zich door twee dienaren in een draagstoel verplaatsen. Een andere dienaar draagt een zonnescherm. Een deel van de groep dienaren is inheems, zie links de belettering "Negros". Achter he... more

Palazzo Di Negro

Palazzo Di Negro

Voorgevel van Palazzo Di Negro, gelegen aan de via San Luca te Genua. Het palazzo werd gebouwd tussen 1585 en 1587 voor Ambrogio Di Negro, doge van Genua.

Opstand van de façade van het Palazzo Ambrogio Di Negro te Genua
Portret van Jakob Johann Wenceslaus Dobrzensky de Negro Ponte

Portret van Jakob Johann Wenceslaus Dobrzensky de Negro Ponte

Jakob Johann Wenceslaus Dobrzensky de Negro Ponte, professor natuurkunde aan de universiteit van Praag, op 38-jarige leeftijd. De prent heeft een Latijns onderschrift.

Thomas Hees with his Nephews Jan and Andries Hees and a Servant

Thomas Hees with his Nephews Jan and Andries Hees and a Servant

Thomas Hees served as a diplomat in Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli. Among other duties, he negotiated the purchase of the freedom of Dutch slaves and protested against the privateering of Dutch ships. Hees had hims... more

W'rede straffe van een Planter aan zyn knegt

W'rede straffe van een Planter aan zyn knegt

Planter whipping slave tied to tree. Illus. in: Exquemelin, Histoire der Boecaniers...(1700), facing p. 29. Reference copy may be in SSF (Gr) - Slavery 1700. This record contains unverified, old data from capti... more

[Title page of Anthony Benezet, Observations on the Inslaving, importing and purchasing of Negroes; ... extracted from ... the Yearly-meeting of ... Quakers, 1760]

[Title page of Anthony Benezet, Observations on the Inslaving, importi...

Illus. in: Anthony Benezet, Observations on the Inslaving, importing and purchasing of Negroes; ... extracted from ... the Yearly-meeting of ... Quakers. Germantown, 1760, title page. Reference copy may be in L... more

The election, a medley, humbly inscribed to Squire Lilliput, professor of scurrility

The election, a medley, humbly inscribed to Squire Lilliput, professor...

Cartoon shows the old courthouse in Philadelphia during the October 1, 1764 election where a line of men wait at the steps on the right to enter the courthouse and cast their votes; in the foreground, many men,... more

The life and dying speech of Arthur, a negro man who was executed at Worcester, October 20th 1768. For a rape committed on the body of one Deborah Metcalfe. Boston: Printed and sold in Milk-Street 1768.

The life and dying speech of Arthur, a negro man who was executed at W...

Positive Photostat.; Title. Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 36, Folder 26.

[Hibernia in distress]

[Hibernia in distress]

Print shows Hibernia, a woman representing Ireland, lying on the floor holding a broken harp, Lord Townshend is holding her down with his left foot; on the left, Lord North reaches into a money bag labeled with... more

An address to the public, from the Pennsylvania Society for promoting the abolition of slavery, and the relief of free negroes, unlawfully held in bondage ... Signed by order of the Society, B. Franklin, President. Philadelphia, 9th of November,

An address to the public, from the Pennsylvania Society for promoting ...

Title.; Imprint 2.; Franklin, B.; Not in Evans. Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 14... more

Letter, Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Banneker expressing his belief that blacks possess talents equal to those of "other colours of men," 30 August 1791

Letter, Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Banneker expressing his belief th...

Reproduction number: A54 (color slide); LC-MSS-27748-21 (B&W negative) While serving as secretary of state, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), one of Virginia's largest planters and slaveholders, wrote this 30 Augus... more

The gradual abolition off the slave trade or leaving of sugar by degrees

The gradual abolition off the slave trade or leaving of sugar by degre...

Print shows George III sitting at a table with the Queen and two of his daughters, and the Queen's Keeper of the Robes, Juliana Elizabeth Schwellenbergen holding a bottle of "Brandy", discussing the use of suga... more

The abolition of the slave trade Or the inhumanity of dealers in human flesh exemplified in Captn. Kimber's treatment of a young Negro girl of 15 for her virjen (sic) modesty.

The abolition of the slave trade Or the inhumanity of dealers in human...

Print shows sailor on a slave ship suspending an African girl by her ankle from a rope over a pulley. Captain John Kimber stands on the left with a whip in his hand. Title from item. Attributed to I. Cruikshank... more

Philanthropic Consolations, after the loss of the Slave-Bill

Philanthropic Consolations, after the loss of the Slave-Bill

William Wilberforce and Samuel Horsley, Bishop of Rochester, cavort with two black women in a well-furnished room. Wilberforce and a woman, wearing a print dress with her breasts exposed, sit on a couch smoking... more

The progress of freedom. On the 6th of April St. Louis elected a mayor, "unrequivocally in favor of the President's policy proclamation, arming of negroes, and all." and the next morning the Missouri Democrat joyfully declared that "St. Louis is

The progress of freedom. On the 6th of April St. Louis elected a mayor...

Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 71, Folder 23.

Box Containing Forty-Four Samples of Wood from Surinam

Box Containing Forty-Four Samples of Wood from Surinam

Rechthoekige doos met vier en veertig houtmonsters: 1. groenhart (Nectandra rodiaei) 2. bijlhout (walaba, Eperua spec.) 3. purperhart (Peltogyne spec.) 4. bolletrie (Manilkara surinamensis) 5. peto (mora, Dimor... more

Henry Clay's bulbous panteloons sic or where the coffee went to

Henry Clay's bulbous panteloons sic or where the coffee went to

Drawing shows an Anglo-African (or African American) cabin boy named "Henry Clay" on board a ship; he has been caught by another sailor with a stash of stolen coffee that he has hidden in pantaloons. Title from... more

Home incidents, accidents, &c. The colored voter ; Pursuit of a breakfast under difficulties ; Nearest the fire ; Gypsies in Texas ; A floating grocer's raft ; Accident to a danseuse ; Accident on an inclined railway ; A sagacious dog ; Oiling a ventriloquist ; Explosion at the Wisconsin paper mill, Milwaukie ; A business proposal ; A sad story

Home incidents, accidents, &c. The colored voter ; Pursuit of a breakf...

Illustrations that accompany twelve stories of mishaps and curiosities including an African American Union soldier wrongly denied the right to vote, a Romani woman earning money telling fortunes, an explosion a... more

Wealth and respectability

Wealth and respectability

Negro servant with gun and dogs accosting old woman for poaching a small bundle of twigs. Hand-colored etching by Vain Right after drawing by Ambery. Published by S.W. Fores. Forms part of : British Cartoon Pr... more

Head of Negro man wearing cap, front and back view

Head of Negro man wearing cap, front and back view

Title transcribed from finding aid. Verso: Unidentified objects.

Maroon. Buckra reading their pass

Maroon. Buckra reading their pass

Drawing shows a white man (Buckra) reading the pass of Maroons (runaway slaves) on a road. Title from item. Unpublished finding aid, Drawings of Jamaica by William Berryman, available in LC Prints & Photographs... more

A Lady going to visit

A Lady going to visit

Illustration showing slaves carrying woman in sedan chair across street. Illus. in: Travels in Brazil / Henry Koster. London : Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1816, pl. opposite p. 188.

A Planter and his wife on a journey

A Planter and his wife on a journey

Illustration showing two slaves carrying woman in sedan chair, slave woman with baggage on head, and planter riding horse on country road..

The New Union Club

The New Union Club

A design based on Gillray's The Union Club, No. 9699 (1801), the roistering fraternizers being English and Negroes, in place of English and Irish. Color engraving by G. Cruikshank. See: British Museum Departmen... more

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1821 December 17

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Ph...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, George Jeffrey Tillotson, says he looked for a dictionary as requested, but found only one with some missing pages. He gives some encouraging words related to the commencement ... more

Grand bobalition, or "Great anniversary fussible"

Grand bobalition, or "Great anniversary fussible"

Another in the "bobalition" series of broadsides parodying the manners, illiteracy, and dialect of Boston blacks. (See no. 1819-2.) The illustration shows a black militia troop marching from left to right. The ... more

[Town plan for Mesurado, Liberia]

[Town plan for Mesurado, Liberia]

American Colonization Society Papers. Published in: The African-American mosaic, a Library of Congress resource guide for the study of black history and culture / Debra Newman Ham, ed. Washington, D.C. : Librar... more

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1822 March 2

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Ph...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, George Jeffrey Tillotson talks about his college life and different student societies in college. He also discusses the prospect of a religious revival. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1822 April 15

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Ph...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, George Jeffrey Tillotson talks about their friendship, his college life, his decision to be a minister, and the state of religion. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

The sailor's description of a chase & capture / J Sherm, invt. [Lieut. John Sheringham, R. N.] ; G Cruikshank, fect.

The sailor's description of a chase & capture / J Sherm, invt. [Lieut....

"A burly sailor (right) sits with five other sailors, one a negro, and two perhaps being petty officers, drinking grog at a plank-table slung from the roof ..." (Source: George) This record contains unverified ... more

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1822 August 5

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Ph...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, George Jeffrey Tillotson reflects upon their friendship and talks about his college life, which continues to be pleasant. He also discusses the state of religion in New Haven. ... more

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1823 March 2

Letter from George Jeffrey Tillotson, [New Haven], to Amos Augustus Ph...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, George Jeffrey Tillotson talks about his college life and religious prospects of Yale College. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Gate & slave market at Pernambuco / drawn by Augs. Earle ; engraved by Edwd. Finden.

Gate & slave market at Pernambuco / drawn by Augs. Earle ; engraved by...

Includes view of Count Maurice's gate near slave market. Illus. in: Journal of a voyage to Brazil, and residence there, during part of the years 1821, 1822, 1823 / Maria Graham. London : Longman, Hurst, Rees, O... more

Letter from Maria Weston Chapman to Anne Warren Weston and Deborah Weston, [1825-1828]

Letter from Maria Weston Chapman to Anne Warren Weston and Deborah Wes...

M[aria] Weston Chapman writes to Deborah Weston and Anne Warren Weston in regards to her children and in regards to her absence. She writes, "Do not forget me in my absence but speak often of me..when I return ... more

Title page of a pamphlet: A Plan for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery in the United States, without Danger or Loss to the Citizens of the South (Baltimore: Benj. Lundy, 1825)

Title page of a pamphlet: A Plan for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery ...

Illus. in: A Plan for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery in the United States, without Danger or Loss to the Citizens of the South (Baltimore: Benj. Lundy, 1825), title page. Reference copy may be in LCQJ, Spring... more

Letter from Harriet Beecher Stowe, [Andover, Massachusetts], to William Lloyd Garrison, 1825 Feb[ruar]y

Letter from Harriet Beecher Stowe, [Andover, Massachusetts], to Willia...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, William Twining discusses the change in the price of musical instruments in Boston and asks for payment for the instruments Phelps purchased from him. In addition, Twining writ... more

Letter from William Twining, Andover, [Massachusetts], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1826 Feb[ruary] 23[r]d

Letter from William Twining, Andover, [Massachusetts], to Amos Augustu...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, William Twining discusses Phelps' music and returning Phelps' music books to him the following week. He also adds his request to "alter the title of the Society." Courtesy of B... more

Letter from William Smith Porter, Coosada Autauga co., to Amos Augustus Phelps, Mar. 21 [1826]

Letter from William Smith Porter, Coosada Autauga co., to Amos Augustu...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, William Smith Porter informs Phelps about the school teachers’ salaries in the area (presumably Alabama), and says he will try to find a position for him if he is still interes... more

Letter from Israel Warburton Putnam, Portsmouth, to Amos Augustus Phelps, Dec. 25, 1826

Letter from Israel Warburton Putnam, Portsmouth, to Amos Augustus Phel...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, Israel W. Putnam says he has heard Phelps’s plan to go to teach in Berwick. Putnam asks Phelps to “make all convenient d[i]spatch in going to Berwick.” Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Isaac Gleason Porter, New London, to Amos Augustus Phelps, June 30th [1826]

Letter from Isaac Gleason Porter, New London, to Amos Augustus Phelps,...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, Isaac Gleason Porter talks about his visit to New Haven and his experience teaching in school. He also relays some news about friends. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Tobias Ostrander, Lyons, to Amos Augustus Phelps, Decr 6th 1826

Letter from Tobias Ostrander, Lyons, to Amos Augustus Phelps, Decr 6th...

In compliance to Amos A. Phelps’s request, Tobias Ostrander supplies information on Joseph Ennis. He says Ennis is not married, but has a group of illegitimate children. His social standing used to be good enou... more

Letter from William P. Weeks, South Berswick, [Maine], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1827 Dec[ember] 10

Letter from William P. Weeks, South Berswick, [Maine], to Amos Augustu...

William P. Weeks writes a letter to Amos A. Phelps regarding town news and religious matters within South Berswick. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Parentha Bodwell, Simsbury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, March 4th 1827

Letter from Parentha Bodwell, Simsbury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, March...

Amos A. Phelps’s cousin, Parentha Bodwell, writes to Phelps about their friend, Mary, who is involved with a man named Ennis, whom Bodwell considers to be of dubious character. In a segment added later, Bodwell... more

Letter from Parentha Bodwell, Simsbury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, March 4th 1827

Letter from Parentha Bodwell, Simsbury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, March...

Amos A. Phelps’s cousin, Parentha Bodwell, writes to Phelps about their friend, Mary, who is involved with a man named Ennis, whom Bodwell considers to be of dubious character. In a segment added later, Bodwell... more

Letter from Amos Augustus Phelps, Bradford [Mass.], to Sarah Ann Haggins, Oct 11th 1827

Letter from Amos Augustus Phelps, Bradford [Mass.], to Sarah Ann Haggi...

Amos Augustus Phelps describes his journey from Andover to Bradford, and discusses personal matters. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letters from Charles Briggs, Lexington, [Massachusetts], 1828 Oct[ober] 27 and Will P. Huntington, Lexington, [Massachusetts], 1828 Oct[ober] 16

Letters from Charles Briggs, Lexington, [Massachusetts], 1828 Oct[ober...

Will P. Huntington writes to unknown on Oct[ober] 26, 1827 certifying Theodore Parker's qualifications for teaching in the public schools. Charles Briggs writes to unknown on Oct[ober] 27th 1828 to certify Theo... more

Letters from Charles Briggs, Lexington, [Massachusetts], 1828 Oct[ober] 27 and Will P. Huntington, Lexington, [Massachusetts], 1828 Oct[ober] 16

Letters from Charles Briggs, Lexington, [Massachusetts], 1828 Oct[ober...

Will P. Huntington writes to unknown on Oct[ober] 26, 1827 certifying Theodore Parker's qualifications for teaching in the public schools. Charles Briggs writes to unknown on Oct[ober] 27th 1828 to certify Theo... more

Letter from Clarissa Bodwell Phelps Tryon, Farmington, [Connecticut], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1827 Nove[ember] 27

Letter from Clarissa Bodwell Phelps Tryon, Farmington, [Connecticut], ...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, his mother writes to him about her financial troubles. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Elizur Timothy Washburn, Hatford, [Connecticut], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1827 August 4th

Letter from Elizur Timothy Washburn, Hatford, [Connecticut], to Amos A...

Elizur Timothy Washburn writes to Amos A. Phelps about his duties as a school teacher for the Deaf and Dumb in Hartford. He describes the conditions of religion in the surrounding towns, stating "There are revi... more

Letter from William P. Weeks to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1827 Nov[ember] 29

Letter from William P. Weeks to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1827 Nov[ember] ...

William P. Weeks writes Amos A. Phelps about the sudden death of Major Haggins. He describes that "soon after he rose--he complained of being sick at the stomach, was immediately taken to vomit and they sent fo... more

Land, negroes, stock, &c. for sale ... W. H. Barksdale, Haw-Branch, Amelia, Nov. 6, 1827.

Land, negroes, stock, &c. for sale ... W. H. Barksdale, Haw-Branch, Am...

Auction.; Imprint 2.; On verso: 135.47 Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 186, Folder 6.

Letter from Spofford D. Jewett, Andover, to Amos Augustus Phelps, Jun 11. 1827

Letter from Spofford D. Jewett, Andover, to Amos Augustus Phelps, Jun ...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, Spofford D. Jewett gives news around the Andover Theological Seminary. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Lucius Israel Barber, Simsbury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, May 28 1827

Letter from Lucius Israel Barber, Simsbury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, M...

Lucius I. Barber writes to Amos A. Phelps to ask about employment opportunities as a school teacher, including the possibility of taking Phelps’s current position, which he heard Phelps plans to leave in August... more

Letter from Clarissa Bodwell Phelps Tryon, Farmington, [Connecticut], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1827 August 11

Letter from Clarissa Bodwell Phelps Tryon, Farmington, [Connecticut], ...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, his mother writes to him about money concerns.She urges him to come home. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Amos Augustus Phelps, Andover, [Mass.], to Sarah Ann Haggins, Dec. 27th 1827

Letter from Amos Augustus Phelps, Andover, [Mass.], to Sarah Ann Haggi...

Referring to a certain expression found in her previous letter, Amos Augustus Phelps asks Sarah Ann Haggins whether she changed her view and became a Christian. He also mentions certain slanderous remarks made ... more

Letter from Amos Augustus Phelps, [Andover, Mass.], to Sarah Ann Haggins, Sept. 19th 1827

Letter from Amos Augustus Phelps, [Andover, Mass.], to Sarah Ann Haggi...

A.A. Phelps describes his ride to Andover, and then discusses his plan of occupation and study at college. He then talks about mutual acquaintances. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Elizabeth B. Gillet, Middlebury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, Feb. 18th 1827

Letter from Elizabeth B. Gillet, Middlebury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, ...

In this letter, Elizabeth B. Gillet thanks Amos A. Phelps for his kind letter, and says she has not forgotten him during the long period of their non-communication. After telling him how she has been keeping tr... more

Letter from William P. Weeks, South Berwick, [Maine], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1827 Oct[ober] 13

Letter from William P. Weeks, South Berwick, [Maine], to Amos Augustus...

William Weeks writes to Amos A. Phelps about slanderous remarks made by a Mrs. H and other members of Mr. Campbell's church. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Clarissa Bodwell Phelps Tryon, Farmington, [Connecticut], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1827 August 11

Letter from Clarissa Bodwell Phelps Tryon, Farmington, [Connecticut], ...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, his mother writes to him about money concerns.She urges him to come home. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Parentha Bodwell, Simsbury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, Jan 7th 1827

Letter from Parentha Bodwell, Simsbury, to Amos Augustus Phelps, Jan 7...

Amos A. Phelps’s cousin, Parentha Bodwell, writes to Phelps about their friend, Mary, and her plan to marry a man named Ennis, which Bodwell believes to be of dubious character. Having recently visited Phelps’s... more

Journal by Amos Augustus Phelps from 1827 to 1830

Journal by Amos Augustus Phelps from 1827 to 1830

This manuscript contains Amos A. Phelps’s diaries from 1827 to 1830, when Phelps was a student of theology. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Amos Augustus Phelps, Bradford [Mass.], to Sarah Ann Haggins, Oct 11th 1827

Letter from Amos Augustus Phelps, Bradford [Mass.], to Sarah Ann Haggi...

Amos Augustus Phelps describes his journey from Andover to Bradford, and discusses personal matters. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

Letter from Clarissa Bodwell Phelps Tryon, Farmington, [Connecticut], to Amos Augustus Phelps, 1827 Nove[ember] 27

Letter from Clarissa Bodwell Phelps Tryon, Farmington, [Connecticut], ...

In this letter to Amos A. Phelps, his mother writes to him about her financial troubles. Courtesy of Boston Public Library