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New Mexico (Spanish: Nuevo México [ˈnweβo ˈmexiko] (listen); Navajo: Yootó Hahoodzo [joː˩tʰo˥ ha˩hoː˩tso˩]) is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America; its capital is Santa Fe, which was founded in 1610 as capital of Nuevo México (itself established as a province of New Spain in 1598), while its largest city is Albuquerque with its accompanying metropolitan area. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. New Mexico is also bordered by the state of Texas to the east-southeast, Oklahoma to the northeast, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua to the south and Sonora to the southwest. With an estimated population of 2,096,829 as of the July 1, 2019, U.S. Census Bureau estimate, New Mexico is the 36th largest state by population. With a total area of 121,590 sq mi (314,900 km2), it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations, northern and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate.

The economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, acequia and landrace agriculture, lumber milling, retail trade, scientific research laboratories, technological development, as well as the arts, especially textiles and visual arts. As of 2018, its total gross domestic product (GDP) was $101 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. State tax policy results in low to moderate taxation of resident personal income compared to most U.S. states, with special consideration for military personnel, and gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries. Because of this, its film industry has grown and contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy. Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U.S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U.S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico, such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity.

Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico; thus, the present-day state of New Mexico was not named after the country today known as Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1821, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy. This autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions eventually leading to the Revolt of 1837. At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U.S. New Mexico Territory. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912.

Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, and the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion (after Alaska). New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, and three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans, Mogollon, and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state. The largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico, Chicanos, and Mexicans. The New Mexican flag features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe. These indigenous, Hispanic, Mexican, Latin, and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre.

New Mexico Media

69,777 media by topicpage 1 of 698
Saying grace before the barbeque dinner at the Pie Town, New Mexico Fair
Jim Norris, homesteader, Pie Town, New Mexico
Draped Dancer
Bowl, arts of africa oceania and the americas
Bowl with Two Rabbits, arts of africa oceania and the americas
Bowl with Textured Surface Decoration
Bowl with Textured Surface Decoration in Basketry-Like Pattern
Bowl with Bold Black-on-White Diamond and Zizgag Motifs
Bowl with Large Diamond-Shaped Area Interior with Dotted Lines and Diamonds, and Interlocking Stepped Motifs
Storage Jar (Olla) with Black, White, and Hathed Linked Scrolls, Triangles, and Stepped Motifs
Bowl with Three-part Antelope Design
Jar with Horned Serpents and Interlocking, Hatched-and-Black Stepped Designs
Bowl, Scorpions, arts of africa oceania and the americas
Bowl with a Pair of Avian-Fish Composite Creatures
Socorro black-on-white storage jar
Dipper or Ladle with Interlocking Zigzag and Step-Fret Designs
Jar with Two Plumed or Horned Serpents with Birds and P-shaped Motifs
Jar with Diamond-Shaped Frames with Abstract Birds and Coiling Motifs
Bowl Depicting a Bird with Outstretched Wings
Skylar Newton, a military dependant, age 17, sleds

Skylar Newton, a military dependant, age 17, sleds

Skylar Newton, a military dependant, age 17, sleds down a dune at White Sands National Park, N.M., March 30. (Photo By Staff Sgt. Jes L. Smith, 16th Mobile Public Affairs Detachment)

La Cueva, Duque de Albuquerque, Francisco Fernández de
Spc. David Moore, a cavalry scout from Roanoke, Ala.,

Spc. David Moore, a cavalry scout from Roanoke, Ala.,

Spc. David Moore, a cavalry scout from Roanoke, Ala., watches troop movements from the inside of a Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle by using a Joint Battle Command-Platform system during Network Integrat... More

Sfc. Idaeth Behar, 368th Engineer Battalion, keeps

Sfc. Idaeth Behar, 368th Engineer Battalion, keeps

Sfc. Idaeth Behar, 368th Engineer Battalion, keeps up a jogging pace during the 26-mile Bataan Memorial Death March at Kandahar Air Field, Afghanistna, March 27. The original Bataan Death March took place durin... More

Sgt. Donald R. Tharp, a radiology technologist with

Sgt. Donald R. Tharp, a radiology technologist with

Sgt. Donald R. Tharp, a radiology technologist with Company C, 47th Brigade Support Battalion, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, looks at an X-ray taken at a forward operating base on Dona Ana Rang... More

U.S. Army Master Sgt. Michael Robledo, a native of

U.S. Army Master Sgt. Michael Robledo, a native of

U.S. Army Master Sgt. Michael Robledo, a native of Austin, Texas, assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 212 Fires Brigade, inspects the motorcycle belonging to Pfc. Richard Ward, an infantryman ass... More

Sgt. Anthony Fitzgerald, team leader, 1st Battalion,

Sgt. Anthony Fitzgerald, team leader, 1st Battalion,

Sgt. Anthony Fitzgerald, team leader, 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division, moves his team into position to cordon and search Palmiyah village while using Tactical Communicati... More

Three U.S. Army M109-A6 Paladin Self-Propelled Howitzers

Three U.S. Army M109-A6 Paladin Self-Propelled Howitzers

Three U.S. Army M109-A6 Paladin Self-Propelled Howitzers operated by A Battery, 4th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery, Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 1st Armored Division, stand ready to fire at the Dona Ana firin... More

La Cueva, Duque de Albuquerque, Francisco Fernández de
Albuquerque, Afonso de
Albuquerque, Afonso de
Albuquerque, Afonso de
Albuquerque, Afonso de
La Cueva, Duque de Albuquerque, Francisco Fernández de
Albuquerque, Afonso de
NIE pushes vehicles to breaking point, then fixes them up, sends them out again

NIE pushes vehicles to breaking point, then fixes them up, sends them ...

Spc. Joesiff Rowan, an M1 Abrams tank system maintainer with Company E, 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Heavy Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, uses hand gestures to guide the driver of an M8... More

Della Cueva y Albuquerque, Bartolomeo
Victor Prieto, a native of El Paso, Texas and weapons

Victor Prieto, a native of El Paso, Texas and weapons

Victor Prieto, a native of El Paso, Texas and weapons instructor at the troop school on Biggs Army Airfield instructs soldiers how to properly run a unit arms room. During the two-week unit armorer course, serv... More

Maj. Tam Dang, (center), officer in charge of the William

Maj. Tam Dang, (center), officer in charge of the William

Maj. Tam Dang, (center), officer in charge of the William Beaumont Army Medical Centers' Warfighter Refractive Eye Surgery Center, Fort Bliss, Texas, uses an eximer laser to perform photorefractive keratectomy ... More

La Cueva, Duque de Albuquerque, Francisco Fernández de
La Cueva, Duque de Albuquerque, Francisco Fernández de
A Soldier playing the role of opposition forces watches

A Soldier playing the role of opposition forces watches

A Soldier playing the role of opposition forces watches from the roof of a building as Marines disembark from a U.S. Marine Corps Assault Amphibious Vehicle in a combat training engagement during Network Integr... More

This gourd was designed and carved with a burning tool

This gourd was designed and carved with a burning tool

This gourd was designed and carved with a burning tool by local artist Karin Bradshaw, a native of Glen Burnie, Md., one of the many crafts persons visited by participants in Fort Bliss MWR's Tour De Cruces tri... More

Beaded Moccasins - GRPO 1563

Beaded Moccasins - GRPO 1563

Pair or pucker toe beaded leather moccasins with decorative floral design enclosed within white, blue, red, and yellow beaded border on vamps. Leather ankle wraps have scalloped or sawtooth edging.

Beaded Moccasins - GRPO 1565

Beaded Moccasins - GRPO 1565

Pair of pucker toe beaded leather moccasins with identical geometric design featuring white, yellow, maroon, and black beads on vamps and lower collars. Additional beadwork on vamps contains diagonal lines of t... More

Item 174; Road to New Mexico and Quivira, 1601.

Item 174; Road to New Mexico and Quivira, 1601.

Item 174; Road to New Mexico and Quivira, 1601.

Clasp Knife Blade - GRPO 17785

Clasp Knife Blade - GRPO 17785

Clasp knife blade with hinge element, rivet pin, and marked with three characters, "- (V) (I)". This knife bears the registered mark of William Parker, a Sheffield knife maker, active from 1739 to circa 1784. ... More

Folding Knife - GRPO 17585

Folding Knife - GRPO 17585

Folding knife probably British, late 18th century.

Hawk Bell - GRPO 14419

Hawk Bell - GRPO 14419

Hawk bells were originally used as part of falconry equipment Europe before being utilized as fur trade goods when they were introduced to North America in the 16th century. This 18th century example is made of... More

Case Knife - GRPO 17802

Case Knife - GRPO 17802

Case knife French or British, 18th century.

Case Knife Blade - GRPO 13653

Case Knife Blade - GRPO 13653

A case knife blade with vertical maker's mark that resembles a four-lobed crown over a robust numeral "2" is broken through the first rivet hole of its drooping tang. Many cutler marks incorporating crowns appe... More

Ice Chisel - GRPO 17766

Ice Chisel - GRPO 17766

Chisels like the one featured here were essential tools in the late 18th century fur trade. Ice chisels were often attached to long wooden handles and used to penetrate through the ice to create holes for fishi... More

Pocket Watch - GRPO 1425

Pocket Watch - GRPO 1425

Hollow shaft key used for winding watch; late 18th century

Hand Forged Iron Hammer - GRPO 8228

Hand Forged Iron Hammer - GRPO 8228

This hand-forged hammer may have been used by the North West Company blacksmith at the Grand Portage depot in the late 18th century. The tool is bent to form an eye for accommodating a handle and measures 11.1 ... More

Cast White Metal Button - GRPO 14887

Cast White Metal Button - GRPO 14887

Late 18th century cast white metal button with concentric circle design; eye molded to back face; diameter 1.7 cm.

Bear and Raccoon Please the Crowd

Bear and Raccoon Please the Crowd

The 18th century puppet show is popular with participants and visitors.

Rectangular Shoe Buckle Frame - GRPO 12697

Rectangular Shoe Buckle Frame - GRPO 12697

Late 18th century brass and white metal rectangular shoe buckle frame with incised lines along perimeter

Pistol-Grip Handle - GRPO 15375

Pistol-Grip Handle - GRPO 15375

One half of a hollow, pistol-grip style utensil handle, cast of white metal. This example measures 8.9 cm long and 1.9 cm wide. Pistol grip handles, introduced in the early 18th century, were commonly made of b... More

Item 135; Northern Mexico to New Mexico, Texas, Mississippi River, 18th    century.

Item 135; Northern Mexico to New Mexico, Texas, Mississippi River, 18t...

Item 135; Northern Mexico to New Mexico, Texas, Mississippi River, 18th century.

Cast White Metal Button with radial design - GRPO 14889

Cast White Metal Button with radial design - GRPO 14889

Late 18th century cast white metal button with radial design; crudely-shaped eye molded to back; 1.7 cm diameter

Round Cupreous Cufflinks - GRPO 14404

Round Cupreous Cufflinks - GRPO 14404

This pair of cupreous cufflinks, known as sleeve buttons in the 18th century, features a nautical design with a face diameter of 1.6 cm

Folding Knife - GRPO 17587

Folding Knife - GRPO 17587

One of the most popular knives in the second half of the 18th century, this example features a slightly tapered handle with rounded end. Four iron pins are present on back edge of the handle. This knife, recove... More

Case Knife - GRPO 17800

Case Knife - GRPO 17800

Case knife probably French or British, 18th century.

The isle of California : New Mexico : Louisiane : The river Misisipi, and the lakes of Canada
Ramon Garcia Jurado

Ramon Garcia Jurado

"On the 25th of the month of June, of this year of 1709, passed by here on the way to Zuni, Ramon Garcia Jurado."

Jurado inscription, 1709

Jurado inscription, 1709

Jurado inscription, 1709

Travajo personal que en la inspesion de esta corta obra tubo el Ro. Pe. F.  Juan Miguel Menchero como Visitador General de la Nueva Mexico y lo dedica a el Exmo. Sr. Dn. Juan Franco. Guemes y Orcasitas Virrei, Gobernador y Capitan General de Nueva Espana para que su ex proteja su major incremento de estas misiones.

Travajo personal que en la inspesion de esta corta obra tubo el Ro. Pe...

Relief shown pictorially. Includes text and legend. Covers the territory from Santa Fé west to the Colorado River and south to the Chihuaha. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster i... More

Clasp Knife - GRPO 16921

Clasp Knife - GRPO 16921

Clasp knife blade, probably French, 1730-1750.

Clasp Knife - GRPO 16589

Clasp Knife - GRPO 16589

Knife blade possibly of cutler Jean Tivet French 1730-1750.

Pedro Romero

Pedro Romero

"By here passed Pedro Romero on the 2nd of August, year of 1751."

Brass Pendant with Glass Insets - GRPO 14710

Brass Pendant with Glass Insets - GRPO 14710

A cast, soft brass, tri-lobed pendant frame with four blue-green (Munsell 10BG 6/8) faceted, faux gem glass insets. Round insets in outer lobes, and square inset at center. Sets are bracketed by relief floral p... More

Polychrome Jar
Razor - GRPO 14959

Razor - GRPO 14959

Razor blade stamped ACIER-FOND (“steel edge”) over the cutting edge near the spine. The tang is stamped, G.SMITH, the mark of Georgius Smith, a Sheffield razor-maker active in the mid-1770s. The brass pivot pin... More

Silver Bracelet - GRPO 4831

Silver Bracelet - GRPO 4831

Silver bracelet etched with lines and perforated at ends for cord attachment bearing the stamp “RC” for Robert Cruickshank. Born in England, Cruickshank immigrated first to Boston in 1767 and then moved to Mont... More

Derrotero hecho por Antonia Vélez y Escalante, misionero para mejor conocimiento de las misiones, pueblos de indios y presidios que se hallan en el Camino de Monterrey a Santa Fe de Nuebo Mexico.

Derrotero hecho por Antonia Vélez y Escalante, misionero para mejor co...

Covers sections of Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. Relief shown pictorially. Pen-and-ink and watercolor. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Vault

Chest, unknown artist. American decorative arts.
Chest. American decorative arts.
Case Knife - GRPO 16968

Case Knife - GRPO 16968

Case knife w/Cross & L stamp, British, 1780-1830.

Comanche pictograph map of the Battle of Sierra Blanca, 1787

Comanche pictograph map of the Battle of Sierra Blanca, 1787

Shows battle between two warring Plains Indian tribes, the Comanche and Apache. Title supplied by cataloger. Pen-and-ink with fold lines. Map pasted on larger sheet of paper which includes key to map signed by ... More

Silver Moon - GRPO 16948

Silver Moon - GRPO 16948

Moon, concave engraved silver disk with maker's mark "NR" and two buttons on either side near the top center of the disk. The buttons have eye holes on the back to attach to a chain or fastener. The disk has an... More

Mesilla Plaza, Mesilla, New Mexico

Mesilla Plaza, Mesilla, New Mexico

La Mesilla includes a historic plaza and surrounding buildings that have been restored to their 19th-centuryappearance. During the 1800s, the area served as a camping and foraging spot for both Spaniards and Me... More

Wool Assomption Sash - GRPO 525

Wool Assomption Sash - GRPO 525

Arrow and lightning pattern fingerwoven sash (mid-19th century) consisting of 515 threads woven in 1,089 rows. There are 19 color zones present. The woven length of the wool sash is 227.3 cm, the length of th... More

Harmonica Plate - GRPO 12707

Harmonica Plate - GRPO 12707

Copper alloy harmonica plate with ten rectangular reed slots, and an equal number of corresponding reed attachment holes arranged in a straight line along one greater margin. This example recovered during arche... More

White Cedar Paddle Fragment - GRPO 16122

White Cedar Paddle Fragment - GRPO 16122

White cedar paddle blade, Ottertail-style with rounded tip, part of lower shaft, and dihedral cross-section. This is the most complete and best preserved paddle blade in Grand Portage National Monument's collec... More

Copper Fishtail Kettle Lug - GRPO 8082

Copper Fishtail Kettle Lug - GRPO 8082

Decorative copper fishtail-design kettle lug measuring 6.8 cm long, 5.2 cm wide, and 0.3 cm thick. This style of kettle ear dates to approximately 1800 for English kettles, just near the end of the North West C... More

Drum, North and Central America - musical instruments
Flute, North and Central America - musical instruments
Rattle, North and Central America - musical instruments
Trident (palmas) and Rattle - musical instruments
Brass Trade Ring - GRPO 14703

Brass Trade Ring - GRPO 14703

Plain band with crude markings scratched on inner surface. The ring diameter measures 1.9 cm. Similar bands with interior markings are reported at the 1792-1800 NWC site of Fort George in Alberta and the circa ... More

A chart of the internal part of Louisiana : including all the hitherto unexplored countries, lying between the River La Platte of the Missouri on the N., and the Red River on the S., the Mississippi east, and the mountains of Mexico west, with a part of New Mexico & the Province of Texas /

A chart of the internal part of Louisiana : including all the hitherto...

Scale ca. 1:2,450,000. Relief shown pictorially and by hachures. "Plate II." Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Includes notes. AACR2: 100; 651/1; 651/2

James K. Polk Papers: Series 6: Notes, circa 1831-1847; Subject file; Banks in United States; States
Polychrome Jar
Cholla, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument

Cholla, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument

Cholla is a common cactus found at Gran Quivira

Trail View, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument

Trail View, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument

Beautiful scenery along Gran Quivira's loop trail

Horse, Fort Stanton, New Mexico

Horse, Fort Stanton, New Mexico

Peter Moran (American (born England), Bolton, Lancashire 1841–1914 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) Made in New York, United States

Horse, Fort Stanton, New Mexico, New York, Pennsylvania
James K. Polk Papers: Series 8: Miscellaneous, 1827-1884; Chronological file, 1827-1849; 1847, Feb. 16
Chihuahua from "A Campaign in New Mexico with Colonel Doniphan"

Chihuahua from "A Campaign in New Mexico with Colonel Doniphan"

This image has been taken from scan 000023 from "A Campaign in New Mexico with Colonel Doniphan". The title and subject terms of this image have been generated from tags, created by users of the British Library... More

Hasson, William - State: New Mexico - Year: 1848 - File Number: H182
Price, Sterling - State: New Mexico - Year: 1848 - File Number: P461
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