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The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (listen)), informally Holland, is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Caribbean, forming the largest constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In Europe, it consists of 12 provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with those countries and the United Kingdom. In the Caribbean, it consists of three special municipalities: the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba. The country's official language is Dutch, with West Frisian as a secondary official language in the province of Friesland, and English and Papiamentu as secondary official languages in the Caribbean Netherlands. Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are recognised regional languages (spoken in the east and southeast respectively), while Sinte Romani and Yiddish are recognised non-territorial languages.

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's most populous city and nominal capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court. The Port of Rotterdam is the busiest seaport in Europe, and the busiest in any country outside East Asia and Southeast Asia, behind only China and Singapore. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest in Europe. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital'.

Netherlands literally means "lower countries" in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) above sea level, and nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 14th century. Colloquially or informally the Netherlands are occasionally referred to by the pars pro toto Holland. With a population of 17.4 million people, all living within a total area of roughly 41,800 square kilometres (16,100 sq mi)—of which the land area is 33,500 square kilometres (12,900 sq mi)—the Netherlands is the 12th most densely populated country in the world and the 2nd most densely populated country in the European Union, with a density of 521 per square kilometre (1,350/sq mi). Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products (after the United States), owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture and inventiveness.

The Netherlands has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848. The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion, prostitution and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a liberal drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in Civil Law in 1870, though it was not completely removed until a new constitution was approved in 1983. The Netherlands allowed women's suffrage in 1919, before becoming the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001. Its mixed-market advanced economy had the eleventh-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development and quality of life, as well as happiness. In 2019, it ranked tenth on the human development index and fifth on the 2019 World Happiness Index.

Netherlands Media

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Netherlands Institute of Military History Photo

Netherlands Institute of Military History Photo

More images from the collection of the Netherlands Institute of Military History are to be found at:..Voor meer beelden uit de collectie van het Nederlands Instituut voor Militaire Historie kijk op:..nimh-beeld... more

Olympische Spelen 1928 Amsterdam

Olympische Spelen 1928 Amsterdam

Spaarnestad Photo/SFA002008742.Sport, Olympische Spelen Amsterdam, 1928. Wielrenner wordt omhelsd na wegwedstrijd.

Kantoorgebouw Oranje Nassaumijnen | Oranje Nassaumijnen Office building

Kantoorgebouw Oranje Nassaumijnen | Oranje Nassaumijnen Office buildin...

Kantoorgebouw Oranje Nassaumijnen, Heerlen, 1931. Architect: D. Roosenburg. .Fotograaf: onbekend. Collectie NAi | TENT_n55..URL van deze afbeelding: zoeken.nai.nl/CIS/object/4194 ( http://zoeken.nai.nl/CIS/obje... more

Kogelvormige steen met afdruk schelp

Kogelvormige steen met afdruk schelp

Kogelvormige steen met uitholling, waarin afdruk van openstaande tweekleppige schelp. De steen is nagenoeg zeker een fosforiet-zandsteenconcretie, wellicht uit het plioceen maar waarschijnlijker uit het miocee... more

Bowl with pseudo-inscription in brown and red

Bowl with pseudo-inscription in brown and red

Kom van aardewerk gedecoreerd met mangaanbruine en rode slib op engobe van witte slib. Op de binnenwand pseudo-schrift. Op de onderzijde twee oude labels met 'Collectie Oosterbaan-Lugt' en 'Collection Vecht/ Amsterdam'.

Een collectie scherven

Een collectie scherven

Een collectie scherven opgegraven aan de Spuistraat bij de uitbreiding van het gebouw der Kasvereeniging bestaande uit: 7 potten en potscherven van bruine klei, van binnen en buiten met kleurloos loodglazuur be... more

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

Clasp
39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

Clasp
39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

Footed pot
39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

Footed pot
39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

39 keys from the collection of Emmanuel Vita Israël

The Amsterdam apothecary and art collector Emmanuel Vita Israël. He donated his collection, comprising keys dating from Roman antiquity to the 19th century, to the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Royal An... more

Mourners
Mourners
Tiles