PICRYL
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Latin (latīnum, [laˈtiːnʊ̃] or lingua latīna, [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire. Latin has contributed many words to the English language. In particular, Latin (and Ancient Greek) roots are used in English descriptions of theology, the sciences, medicine, and law. It is the official language in the Holy See (Vatican City).

By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence and author Petronius. Late Latin is the written language from the 3rd century; its colloquial form Vulgar Latin developed in the 6th to 9th centuries into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Sardinian, Venetian, Neapolitan, Sicilian, Piedmontese, Lombard, French, Franco-Provençal, Occitan, Corsican, Ladin, Friulan, Romansh, Catalan/Valencian, Aragonese, Spanish, Asturian, Galician, and Portuguese. Medieval Latin was used as a literary language from the 9th century to the Renaissance which used Renaissance Latin. Later, Early Modern Latin and New Latin evolved. Latin was the language of international communication, scholarship and science until well into the 18th century, when vernaculars (including the Romance languages) supplanted it. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the official language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church.

Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, six or seven noun cases, five declensions, four verb conjugations, six tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two or three aspects, and two numbers. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Latin Media

121,662 media by topicpage 1 of 1217
Tartariae sive Magni Chami Regni tÿpus.

Tartariae sive Magni Chami Regni tÿpus.

Covers northern Asia. Relief shown pictorially. From Abraham Ortelius's atlas: Theatrvm Orbis Terrarvm, 1603 ed. Hand col. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Includes tex... more

Diagram from BL Harley 3091, f. 140v

Diagram from BL Harley 3091, f. 140v

Circular diagram with the earth as its centre. Image taken from f. 140v of Various works including De natura rerum, De temporibus, In libros Regum quaestiones XXX, computistical and calendrical writings and oth... more

Hare from BL Harley 2506, f. 41v

Hare from BL Harley 2506, f. 41v

Drawing of the Hare [Lepus], with the stars marked as red dots. Image taken from f. 41v of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Drawing from BL Harley 2506, f. 43v

Drawing from BL Harley 2506, f. 43v

Drawing of Ara, the Altar. Image taken from f. 43v of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Capricorn from BL Harley 2506, f. 39

Capricorn from BL Harley 2506, f. 39

Drawing of the constellation Capricorn, with the stars picked out as red dots. Image taken from f. 39 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Text page from BL Harley 2506, f. 37v

Text page from BL Harley 2506, f. 37v

Text page. Image taken from f. 37v of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Swan from BL Harley 2506, f. 38

Swan from BL Harley 2506, f. 38

Drawing of the Swan, or Bird (Cygnus). Image taken from f. 38 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Drawing from BL Harley 2506, f. 40v

Drawing from BL Harley 2506, f. 40v

Drawing of Delphinus, the Dolphin, with the constellations marked as red dots. Image taken from f. 40v of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Canis Major from BL Harley 2506, f. 44v

Canis Major from BL Harley 2506, f. 44v

Drawing of the constellation the dog, Canis Major, with the stars picked out as red dots. Image taken from f. 44v of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Centaur and Hydra from BL Harley 2506, f. 44

Centaur and Hydra from BL Harley 2506, f. 44

Drawings of the constellations Centaur (Centaurus), stretching his hand towards the Altar, holding the Beast (Fera), and below, the Hydra. Image taken from f. 44 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Writt... more

Eagle from BL Harley 2506, f. 40

Eagle from BL Harley 2506, f. 40

Detail of drawing of the eagle, with the constellations marked as red dots. Image taken from f. 40 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Orion from BL Harley 2506, f. 41

Orion from BL Harley 2506, f. 41

Drawing of Orion and his dog. Image taken from f. 41 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Text page from BL Harley 2506, f. 45

Text page from BL Harley 2506, f. 45

Text page. Image taken from f. 45 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Image from BL Harley 2506, ff. 42v-43

Image from BL Harley 2506, ff. 42v-43

Image taken from ff. 42v-43 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Aquarius from BL Harley 2506, f. 36

Aquarius from BL Harley 2506, f. 36

Detail of a drawing of the constellation Aquarius. Image taken from f. 36 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Arrow and eagle from BL Harley 2506, f. 40

Arrow and eagle from BL Harley 2506, f. 40

Drawing of an arrow, and of an eagle, with the constellations marked as red dots. Image taken from f. 40 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Image from BL Harley 2506, f. 42v

Image from BL Harley 2506, f. 42v

Image taken from f. 42v of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Pisces from BL Harley 2506, f. 36v

Pisces from BL Harley 2506, f. 36v

Drawing of the constellation Pisces, with the stars picked out as red dots. Image taken from f. 36v of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Drawing from BL Harley 2506, f. 37

Drawing from BL Harley 2506, f. 37

Drawing of Perseus holding Medusa's severed head, with red dots for the constellations. Image taken from f. 37 of Phaenomena (also known as the Aratea). Written in Latin.

Libellus cuiusda[m] ignoti auctoris de anima cont[ra] que[n] Claudianus trib[us] seq[uen]tib[us] libris disputat Claudiam De statu anime

Libellus cuiusda[m] ignoti auctoris de anima cont[ra] que[n] Claudianu...

Prefixed to Mamertus' treatise in this manuscript is a tract by St. Faustus of Riez, "De anima," against which Mamertus argues in his work. Courtesy of Boston Public Library

[Embossed leather binding on 12th century manuscript]

[Embossed leather binding on 12th century manuscript]

Title devised by Library staff. Alternate title from: Library of Congress Quarterly journal of current acquisitions, v. 5, no. 3 (1948 May), p. 50. Illus. in: Exposicio mistica super exod[um]. [Germany, ca. 115... more