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Chilkoot Trail

Chilkoot Trail

Drainage Feature on Saintly Hill With the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-98, as many as 25-30,000 Stampeders crossed into the Yukon by way of the Chilkoot corridor. At first, the trail was little more than a cr... More

Drainage Feature on Saintly Hill

Drainage Feature on Saintly Hill

With the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-98, as many as 25-30,000 Stampeders crossed into the Yukon by way of the Chilkoot corridor. At first, the trail was little more than a crude footpath along the Taiya River... More

The Wreck of the Bark Canada in Fortune Bay.

The Wreck of the Bark Canada in Fortune Bay.

A group of tourists visiting the wreck of the Bark Canada in Fortune Bay (AKA Nahku or Long Bay). The ship was built in Bath, Maine in 1859. The vessel was refrubished in Tacoma for the Klondike Gold Rush and w... More

The Mascot Saloon, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, 2016.

The Mascot Saloon, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, 2016.

Photo date unknown. Front and center is Albert Reinert, proud owner of Skagway's longest-lived saloon (1898-1916), The Mascot Saloon. The Mascot has been restored to this time period by the National Park Servic... More

The Guardians of Skagway, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, 1898.

The Guardians of Skagway, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park,...

The Guardians of Skagway pose in front of The Manila Saloon after rounding up Soapy Smith's gang, July 1898.

Alaska free images - Abandoned Boats

Alaska free images - Abandoned Boats

A heap of collapsible boats lies abandoned alongside the Chilkoot Trail, one of many artifacts left behind after the Klondike Gold Rush.

Collecting aquatic insects during the bioblitz at Klondike Gold Rush.

Collecting aquatic insects during the bioblitz at Klondike Gold Rush.

Collecting aquatic insects during the bioblitz at Klondike Gold Rush.

The Hike Begins

The Hike Begins

These people were part of a Hollywood film crew shooting location footage for a future big Hollywood production on the Klondike Gold Rush. Buildings in the photograph have yet to be identified but are north of ... More

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

This park celebrates the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-98 through 15 restored buildings within the Skagway Historic District. The park also administers the Chilkoot Trail and a small portion of the White Pass Trai... More

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

This park celebrates the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-98 through 15 restored buildings within the Skagway Historic District. The park also administers the Chilkoot Trail and a small portion of the White Pass Trai... More

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

This park celebrates the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-98 through 15 restored buildings within the Skagway Historic District. The park also administers the Chilkoot Trail and a small portion of the White Pass Trai... More

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

This park celebrates the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-98 through 15 restored buildings within the Skagway Historic District. The park also administers the Chilkoot Trail and a small portion of the White Pass Trai... More

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

Views at Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska

This park celebrates the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-98 through 15 restored buildings within the Skagway Historic District. The park also administers the Chilkoot Trail and a small portion of the White Pass Trai... More

Suspension Bridge at Canyon City Historic Area

Suspension Bridge at Canyon City Historic Area

A suspension bridge to the Canyon City historic area was built in 1982.

Alaska free images - Beaver Ponds

Alaska free images - Beaver Ponds

In 1999, a 1,100 foot boardwalk was added at the lower end of the trail to offer passage over an area that had been flooded by a beaver dam.

Beaver Pond Boardwalk

Beaver Pond Boardwalk

In 1999, a boardwalk was constructed to provide passage over an area that had flooded due to a beaver dam.

Crossing the Beaver Pond Boardwalk

Crossing the Beaver Pond Boardwalk

Trade between native groups consisted mainly of the exchange of typical coastal products for the furs of the interior. Clams, seaweed, dried fish, and sea otter pelts crossed the trail to the north, heading inl... More

Beaver Ponds on Chilkoot Trail

Beaver Ponds on Chilkoot Trail

During the Klondike Gold Rush this beaver pond was not there. Beavers have a dramatic impact on local ecology. The beavers moved into the Chilkoot Trail in the 1990s, and have turned what was meadow with cotton... More

Trail on Saintly Hill

Trail on Saintly Hill

Saintly Hill rises 50' to 300' near the start of the trail.

National parks: Stereoscope - public domain image

National parks: Stereoscope - public domain image

Stereoscope on desk with images from the Klondike Gold Rush.

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Alaska free images - Taiya River

The linear Chilkoot Trail corridor, defined by the Taiya River and surrounding mountains, was the backbone along which trail alignment and associated features were built and utilized. By necessity, the organiza... More

Boardwalk through the Beaver Pond

Boardwalk through the Beaver Pond

A visitor walks across the boardwalk to the other side of the pond.

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Alaska free images - Taiya River

The river, keeping with its natural character, meanders across the landscape and floods seasonally. This results in bank erosion and silt deposition, impacting both historic resources and trail improvements.

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Glacial stones at a beach of the Taiya River.

Stone Steps at Saintly Hill

Stone Steps at Saintly Hill

Stone stairs hug the roots of a tree as the trail ascends Saintly Hill.

Irene Glacier, from the Trail

Irene Glacier, from the Trail

The trail's alignment has always been dictated by natural systems of mountains, glaciers, streams, and the river. The current recreational trail and the historic trail do not follow the exact same route, and ch... More

Alaska free images - Trailhead Plaque

Alaska free images - Trailhead Plaque

A marker at the trailhead indicates the trail's historic status. The Chilkoot Trail was nominated to the National Register as part of a National Historic Landmark called "Chilkoot Trail and Dyea" on November 4, 1992.

Alaska free images - Irene Glacier

Alaska free images - Irene Glacier

The glaciers and streams have influenced the alignment of the trail.

Beaver Pond Boardwalk

Beaver Pond Boardwalk

The boardwalk and surrounding landscape at Beaver Pond.

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Much of the trail follows the Taiya River. During the winter months, Stampeders could move relatively easily up the frozen river all the way to Sheep Camp. The river's frequent flooding is a challenge for man... More

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

The trail ascends to Saintly Hill.

Glacial Boulders along the Taiya River

Glacial Boulders along the Taiya River

Over the past century, the heavily sedimented Taiya River, which receives its primary runoff from glacial sources and annual snowpack, has eroded portions of the historic route. This sediment causes the continu... More

Taiya River Waterfall along the Trail

Taiya River Waterfall along the Trail

The Taiya River bends to meet a steep drop in elevation, resulting in a cascade.

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

The first few miles of the Chilkoot Trail were deceptively easy to the Stampeders coming to Alaska in search of gold.

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

Saintly Hill, with its winding stone steps, is a landmark on the Chilkoot Trail.

Chilkoot Trail Trail Head

Chilkoot Trail Trail Head

At lower elevations, the trail passes through temperate coastal rain forest, characterized by a variety of lichens, mosses, ferns, and mushrooms.

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

A rocky incline rises up around Saintly Hill.

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

Alaska free images - Saintly Hill

The trail's primary historic use was as a trade route between the coastal Indians of the Chilkat and Chilkoot tribes, which were subgroups of the Tlingit Indians, and the interior Indians, the Tagish or "Stick"... More

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Alaska free images - Taiya River

The rushing river Taiya flows past a lush stand of conifers at the base of forested hills.

View Near the Trailhead, Looking Southwest

View Near the Trailhead, Looking Southwest

The Chilkoot Trail begins about eight miles west of the town of Skagway. The trailhead is located on the east bank of the Taiya River.

Finnegan's Point tree

Finnegan's Point tree

The roots of a tree spread out around the base of its trunk in the shallow soil.

Cast Iron Stove from the Gold Rush Era

Cast Iron Stove from the Gold Rush Era

Much of the historic town site at Canyon City has been lost to erosion and flooding by the river. Scattered artifacts remain as evidence of the once-prosperous village.

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Alaska free images - Taiya River

The Taiya River rushes over a rock bed.

Boardwalk between Finnegan's Point and Canyon City

Boardwalk between Finnegan's Point and Canyon City

Since the Gold Rush, efforts to revive the old trail have resulted in development of trail features and recognition of its historic resources. In 1961, two events sparked new interest in the trail. The first... More

Rock Garden Area

Rock Garden Area

The geologically recent retreat of glacial ice over the region has left this landscape scattered with rocks.

Suspension Bridge at Canyon City Historic Area

Suspension Bridge at Canyon City Historic Area

A visitor crosses the suspension bridge over the Taiya River.

Finnegan's Point Tent Pads

Finnegan's Point Tent Pads

A small number of settlements sprang up quickly on the trail to serve Stampeders and packers. Aside from Dyea, each of these were nonexistent or only seasonal before 1897. Finnegan's Point, a small resting p... More

Taiya River near Canyon City

Taiya River near Canyon City

Beyond Canyon City, packers and prospectors faced the challenge of the Taiya River Canyon.

Alaska free images - Finnegan's Point

Alaska free images - Finnegan's Point

Finnegan's Point, located about five miles north of the Dyea townsite, was the first campsite that served Stampeders and packers. By April 1898, Pat Finnegan constructed a toll road across the Taiya River at th... More

National parks: Waterfall - public domain image

National parks: Waterfall - public domain image

The lower section of the Chilkoot Trail is lush with moss, ferns, and lichens, supported by glacial streams and a mild marine climate.

Alaska free images - Goat's Beard

Alaska free images - Goat's Beard

The Chilkoot Trail changes from coastal forest at sea level, to high alpine near the summit, to boreal forest towards the Lake Bennett end. Goat's Beard, Aruncus dioicus, is one of the wildflowers that blooms a... More

National parks: Moraine - public domain image

National parks: Moraine - public domain image

This accumulation of rocks and sediment occurred with the retreat of glacial ice that once covered this region. It is now covered with lichen and young tree growth.

Alaska free images - Glacial Remnants

Alaska free images - Glacial Remnants

The trail developed around the natural geomorphological, hydrological, and topographical systems of the landscape.

Alaska free images - Hiking North

Alaska free images - Hiking North

Segment of the trail between Finnegan's Point and Canyon City. The precise route of the historic trails (a foot trail and a wagon trail) from Dyea to Canyon City are unknown due to reforestation and river ero... More

Wild Columbine, National Parks Wildflowers

Wild Columbine, National Parks Wildflowers

Native wildflowers grow in a cluster of vibrant understory vegetation along the edge of the trail.

Bridge over the Taiya River

Bridge over the Taiya River

The rugged trail was improved with bridges and sections of corduroy road in 1897, when the Gold Stampede brought tens of thousands of prospectors to the region. Entrepreneurs recouped their development efforts ... More

Telephone Insulator on Tree Trunk

Telephone Insulator on Tree Trunk

There are many archeological sites and systems along the Chilkoot Trail that date to the period of significance. Once example is the Dyea-Bennett Telephone Line and associated remnants, such as glass insulators... More

Bridge over the Rushing Taiya River

Bridge over the Rushing Taiya River

A trail visitor pauses mid-bridge to look on over the cascading waters of the river.

Artifacts at the Historic Canyon City Townsite

Artifacts at the Historic Canyon City Townsite

After the Gold Rush, much of the machinery and structures were dismantled or moved. While some artifacts and remnants remained, the forest and harsh climate quickly covered or degraded them. The site still reta... More

Suspension Bridge at Canyon City Historic Area

Suspension Bridge at Canyon City Historic Area

The suspension bridge over the Taiya River.

Alaska free images - Beaver Pond

Alaska free images - Beaver Pond

The waters and surrounding landscape of Beaver Pod.

Alaska free images - Coniferous Forest

Alaska free images - Coniferous Forest

Trail section between Finnegan's Point and Canyon City. Within the coniferous forest, the floor is covered with a continuous mat of moss, lichen, and fungi.

Artifacts at the Historic Canyon City Townsite

Artifacts at the Historic Canyon City Townsite

Scraps of rusted metal and the remnants of old machinery are still visible as artifacts of the historic town.

National parks: Moraine - public domain image

National parks: Moraine - public domain image

Young trees, moss, and lichens grow over the rocks of the moraine.

Unidentified Structural Remnant

Unidentified Structural Remnant

Various structural remnants and artifacts can still be found scattered on the historic town site at Canyon City.

Lush Vegetation of the Lower Elevation

Lush Vegetation of the Lower Elevation

The natural systems and features that contribute to the significance of the Chilkoot Trail are geomorphology, hydrology, and topography.

Rock Garden Moraine

Rock Garden Moraine

The transition between the rock garden moraine area and the incline to Canyon City on the Chilkoot Trail.

Taiya River Rapids

Taiya River Rapids

The Taiya River cascades over rocks as the grade of the land increases.

Canyon City Historic Town Site

Canyon City Historic Town Site

A settlement was established at Canyon City in 1897-98 with the start of the Klondike Gold Rush. A few scattered tents grew into a prosperous village, with 25 businesses and 1,500 inhabitants spanning both side... More

Boiler at the Canyon City Townsite

Boiler at the Canyon City Townsite

The steam boiler was once used to power the tramway that was used to move freight from Canyon City up to the Pass. Much of the tramway machinery was broken down and removed after the Gold Rush period, but some ... More

Alaska free images - Chilkoot Trail

Alaska free images - Chilkoot Trail

Canyon City Historic Town Site A settlement was established at Canyon City in 1897-98 with the start of the Klondike Gold Rush. A few scattered tents grew into a prosperous village, with 25 businesses and 1,5... More

Sprouting Ground Cone

Sprouting Ground Cone

In this damp and mild environment, living cycles are in a continuous state of transformation and emergence.

NPS Team on the Trail

NPS Team on the Trail

NPS Cultural Landscapes Program team hikes with a GPS Trimble.

Vegetation in the Lower Trail

Vegetation in the Lower Trail

The lower trail is lush with ferns and mosses.

The Taiya River

The Taiya River

The Taiya River rushes through the landscape.

Alaska free images - Stone Steps

Alaska free images - Stone Steps

Rough stone steps aid hikers on the incline to Canyon City.

Artifacts Scattered at the Historic Canyon City Townsite

Artifacts Scattered at the Historic Canyon City Townsite

Although little remains of what was once a prosperous village, some artifacts remain as evidence of the activities that occurred here.

Telephone Insulator on Tree Trunk

Telephone Insulator on Tree Trunk

The trunk of the tree has a remnant insulator lodged in its bark. These insulators would have been used when telephone lines were first installed.

Taiya River Cascade

Taiya River Cascade

The Taiya River cascades down a steep stone bed.

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Alaska free images - Taiya River

The Taiya River receives primary runoff from glacial and snowpack sources. It carries heavy sediment load resulting in a braided and meandering channel.

Alaska free images - Trail Bridge

Alaska free images - Trail Bridge

Bridge along the lower section of the Chilkoot Trail, between Finnegan's Point and Canyon City

Wooden Bridge between Finnegan's Point and Canyon City

Wooden Bridge between Finnegan's Point and Canyon City

Trail maintenance has largely focused around efforts to repair bridges and structures washed out by the Taiya River's frequent flooding. The replacement bridges built during the past three decades are non-co... More

Alaska free images - Steam Boiler

Alaska free images - Steam Boiler

The steam boiler was once used to power the tramway that was used to move freight from Canyon City up to the Pass. Much of the tramway machinery was broken down and removed after the Gold Rush period, but some ... More

Alaska free images - Taiya River

Alaska free images - Taiya River

The Chilkoot Trail follows the Taiya River from the head of the Lynn Canal to the summit of the pass over the Coast Mountains. It receives its primary runoff from glacial sources and annual snowpack.

Nurse Log and Devil's Club

Nurse Log and Devil's Club

Devil's Club, Oplopanax horridus, may have an appealing cluster of small white flowers at the top, but much of the plant is covered in sharp, sliver-like spikes that can be a torment to anyone hiking off trail.... More

Vegetation of the Chilkoot Trail

Vegetation of the Chilkoot Trail

At the trail's lower elevation, the landscape supports varieties of lichens, mosses, ferns, and devil's club, all which grow well in the warm marine climate.

Remnant at Hosford Camp Site

Remnant at Hosford Camp Site

Scrap metal remains from the historic camp site.

Alaska free images - Wooden Bridge

Alaska free images - Wooden Bridge

The Taiya River experiences seasonal flood events, which impact both historic resources and trail improvements such as bridges.

Suspension Bridge at Canyon City Historic Area

Suspension Bridge at Canyon City Historic Area

A trail visitor crosses the river.

Hosford's Sawmill Site

Hosford's Sawmill Site

In the 1940s, Ed Hosford cut a logging road from Dyea to Finnegan's Point. He established his sawmill there in 1948, where it was in operation until it was abandoned in 1956.

Boat on the Upper Yukon

Boat on the Upper Yukon

Boat on the Upper Yukon River, 1898

Bonanza Yukon 1898

Bonanza Yukon 1898

Photograph, glass lantern slide, Loading gold on pack horses, Bonanza, YT, 1898, Edwin Tappan Adney, Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process - 8 x 8 cm Français : Photographie, diapositive sur verre, ... More

Branch of the Merchant Bank of Halifax, Bennett Lake, Yukon, in 1899

Branch of the Merchant Bank of Halifax, Bennett Lake, Yukon, in 1899

Branch of the Merchant Bank of Halifax, Bennett Lake, Yukon, in 1899.

ChilkootPass GoldenStairs

ChilkootPass GoldenStairs

Chilkoot Pass. Scales (in front) and Chilkoot Pass (behind). Left pass: Golden Stairs, Right pass: Pederson Pass

Frontiere Alaska

Frontiere Alaska

Photograph, Yukon detachment, North West Mounted Police. at the summit of White Pass, YT, 1899, H. C. Barley. Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process - 20 x 25 cm Français : Photographie, Détachement ... More

Klondike mining, c.1899

Klondike mining, c.1899

Mining operations in the Klondike, c.1899. "Washing out Gold with the Rocker"

Klondike Roadhouse

Klondike Roadhouse

Interior of Klondike Roadhouse, around 1898

Klondike-nome-1899

Klondike-nome-1899

People leaving Klondike for Nome Sep. 22nd 1899 down Yukon

Klondikers buying miner's licenses at Custom House, Victoria, B C, Feb 21, 1898 (HS85-10-9774) (cropped)

Klondikers buying miner's licenses at Custom House, Victoria, B C, Feb...

Klondikers buying miner's licenses at Custom House, Victoria, B. C., Feb 21, 1898. Showing a long queue waiting outside the Custom House to obtain licences. (Original image revised by User:Soerfm)

Klondikers buying miner's licenses at Custom House, Victoria, B C, Feb 21, 1898 (HS85-10-9774) original

Klondikers buying miner's licenses at Custom House, Victoria, B C, Feb...

Klondikers buying miner's licenses at Custom House, Victoria, B. C., Feb 21, 1898. Showing a long queue waiting outside the Custom House to obtain licences.

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