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Topic: kilometers

1916
1916
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2015
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2015
459 media by topicpage 1 of 5
American Red Cross - Construction - Building American Red Cross City in Italy. American Red cross City at Pisa. There will be three kilometers of road construction in the city

American Red Cross - Construction - Building American Red Cross City i...

Date Taken: 6/17/1918 Photographer: American Red Cross American Red Cross - Construction

Electrically driven train on Midi railroad. The three great railroads of France, the Midi, Paris Orleans, and the Paris, Lyons, Mediterranean have adopted extensive programs looking to the electrification of their systems, by the use of the waterpower of the country. The Midi, which is the most advanced, has thus far electrified 229 kilometers, its schedule calling for the electrification of 2,965 kilometers or three quarters of its system. The Paris-Orleans proposes to electrify 40 percent of its lines and the P.L.M. practically its entire system. The train shows here, which runs between Ville-France and Bourg-Madame, was equipped by the Societe Alsacienne de Constructions de Mecaniques, at Belfort

Electrically driven train on Midi railroad. The three great railroads ...

Title, date and notes from Red Cross caption card. Photographer name or source of original from caption card or negative sleeve: Paris Office. Data: T.T. & C. Group title: Trans. Reconstruction, France. Gift; A... more

2 1/2 kilometers from Montebourg 10-minute break.

2 1/2 kilometers from Montebourg 10-minute break.

Sketch showing sign pointing towards Montebourg, France. Title from item. In album: World War II sketchbooks from the Victor A. Lundy Archive, v. 6, [p. 43] Victor A. Lundy Archive (Library of Congress).

A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham - Mercury Project

A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham - Mercury Project

A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilomet... more

Mercury Project chimpanzee Ham

Mercury Project chimpanzee Ham

A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilomet... more

Cresent Europa

Cresent Europa

(September 12, 1996) This mosaic of Europa, the smallest Galilean satellite, was taken by Voyager 2. This face of Europa is centered at about the 300 degree meridian. The bright areas are probably ice deposits,... more

Apollo 8 Mission image,Target of Opportunity (T/O) 12

Apollo 8 Mission image,Target of Opportunity (T/O) 12

AS08-13-2244 (21-27 Dec. 1968) --- This Apollo 8 view of the lunar surface looks southward at 162 degrees west longitude, showing rugged terrain that is characteristic of the lunar farside hemisphere. Hold pict... more

Apollo 8 Mission image, Moon, fairside

Apollo 8 Mission image, Moon, fairside

AS08-14-2453 (21-27 Dec. 1968) --- After inserting into lunar orbit, the Apollo 8 astronauts looked down on rugged terrain never before seen by man. This scene is typical of farside terrain illuminated by a sun... more

Apollo 8 Mission image, Earth over the horizon of the moon

Apollo 8 Mission image, Earth over the horizon of the moon

AS08-14-2383 (24 Dec. 1968) --- The rising Earth is about five degrees above the lunar horizon in this telephoto view taken from the Apollo 8 spacecraft near 110 degrees east longitude. The horizon, about 570 k... more

South Polar Cap of Mars as seen by Mariners 9 & 7

South Polar Cap of Mars as seen by Mariners 9 & 7

(August 1969) This mosaic of Mariner 9 frames (top), taken during the first orbit, shows the remnants of the south polar cap of Mars dimly through the great dust storm. Mariner 7 photographed the same area in A... more

Apollo 10 photograph of lunar nearside with crater Hyginus near Central Bay

Apollo 10 photograph of lunar nearside with crater Hyginus near Centra...

AS10-31-4650 (18-26 May 1969) --- This Apollo 10 oblique telephoto view of the lunar nearside is centered on the crater Hyginus located at 6.3 degrees north latitude, near the northeast margin of Central Bay. H... more

Apollo 10 northwestward view of Triesnecker crater

Apollo 10 northwestward view of Triesnecker crater

AS10-32-4819 (18-26 May 1969) --- An Apollo 10 northwestward oblique view of Triesnecker crater, centered near 3.6 degrees east longitude, and 4 degrees north latitude. HOLD PICTURE WITH SKY AT UPPER RIGHT. Thi... more

Mariner Images of Mars

Mariner Images of Mars

Description: These wide-angle images of Mars were laid in place on a globe already containing an indistinct, Earth-based view of Mars. The Mariner 6 pictures make two horizontal rows above; the Mariner 7 pictur... more

Nix Olympica Identified by Mariner 9 on Mars Approach

Nix Olympica Identified by Mariner 9 on Mars Approach

Description: (May 30, 1971) The most conspicuous feature yet observed on Mars by Mariner 9 is the darkish spot located near the top of this picture. It has been tentatively identified as Nix Olympica, a curious... more

Mariner 9 views Olympus Mons standing above the Martian Dust Storm

Mariner 9 views Olympus Mons standing above the Martian Dust Storm

(November 27, 1971) In pictures taken early in the Mariner 9 mission, this region, shows a dark mountain standing above the Martian dust storm. This higher resolution photograph shows that the area contains a c... more

Mariner 9 views of shield volcano

Mariner 9 views of shield volcano

(1971) A Martian shield volcano, approximately 25 miles across at the crater, photographed consecutively by Mariner 9 with the wide-angle and telephoto lenses. The summit crater and groves down the flank probab... more

Telephoto view across Hadley Rille photographed during Apollo 15 EVA

Telephoto view across Hadley Rille photographed during Apollo 15 EVA

AS15-89-12100 (2 Aug. 1971) --- A telephoto lens view looking across Hadley Rille, photographed during the third Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site on the ... more

View of Hadley-Apennine area, looking north, photographed by Apollo 15

View of Hadley-Apennine area, looking north, photographed by Apollo 15

S71-44667 (31 July-2 Aug. 1971) --- An oblique view of the Hadley-Apennine area, looking north, as photographed by the Fairchild metric camera in the Scientific Instrumentation Module (SIM) bay of the Apollo 15... more

Skylab

Skylab

This onboard photograph depicts Astronaut Owen Garriott atop the Apollo Telescope Mount, removing a film magazine (white box) from one of Skylab's solar telescopes during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in the... more

Skylab

Skylab

This onboard photograph depicts Astronaut Owen Garriott atop the Apollo Telescope Mount, removing a film magazine (white box) from one of Skylab's solar telescopes during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in the... more

Mercury At Closest Approach

Mercury At Closest Approach

Description (March 29, 1974) Taken only minutes after Mariner 10 made its closest approach to the planet Mercury on March 29, this is one of the highest resolution pictures obtained during the mission. Craters ... more

Voyager 1 View of Callisto

Voyager 1 View of Callisto

Full Description: (March 6, 1979) Voyager 1 took this picture of Callisto during Voyager's approach to Jupiter's outer large satellite in 1979. Both Galileo and Marius discovered Callisto in 1610. In Greek myt... more

Photo by Voyager 1 Jupiter's satellite Io poses before the giant planet in this photo returned Jan 17, 1979 from a distance of 29 million miles (47 million kilometers). The satellite's shadow can be seen falling on the face of Jupiter at left. Io is traveling from left to right in its one-and-three-quarter-day orbit around Jupiter. Even from this great distance the image of Io shows dark poles and bright equatorial region. Voyager 1 will make its closest approach to Jupiter  174, 000 miles (280,000 kilometer) on March 5. It will then continue to Saturn in November 1980. This color photo was assembled at Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab from three black and white images taken through filters. The Voyagers are managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (JPL Ref: P-20946C) ARC-1979-AC79-0143-4

Photo by Voyager 1 Jupiter's satellite Io poses before the giant plane...

Photo by Voyager 1 Jupiter's satellite Io poses before the giant planet in this photo returned Jan 17, 1979 from a distance of 29 million miles (47 million kilometers). The satellite's shadow can be seen fallin... more

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) The spacecraft took this photo of the planet Jupiter on Jan 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. As the spacecraft draws closer to the planet (about 1 million kilometers a day) more details are emergng in the turbulent clouds. The Great Red Spot shows prominently below center, surrounded by what scientists call a remarkably complex region of the giant planet's atmosphere. An elongated yellow cloud within the Great Red Spot is swirling around the spot's interior boundary in a counterclockwise direction with a period of a little less than six days, confirming the whirlpool-like circulation that astronomers have suspected from ground-based photographs. Ganymede, Jupiter's largest satellite, can be seen to the lower left of the planet. Ganymede is a planet-sized body larger than Mercury. This color photo was assembled at Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab from there black and white images taken through filters. The Voyagers are managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by Jet Propulsion Laboratory.  (ref: P-20945C  Mission Image 1-9) ARC-1979-AC79-0143-3

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) The spacecraft took this photo of the planet ...

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) The spacecraft took this photo of the planet Jupiter on Jan 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. As the spacecraft draws closer to the planet (about ... more

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) above Jupiter's clouds. Although both satellites have about the same brightness, Io's color is very different from Europa's. Io's equatorial region show two types of material -- dark orange, broken by several bright spots -- producing a mottled appearance. The poles are darker and reddish. Preliminary evidence suggests color variations within and between the polar regions.  Io's surface composition is unknown, but scientists believe it may be a mixture of salts and sulfur.  Erupoa is less strongly colored, although still relatively dark at short wavelengths. Markings on Eruopa are less evident that on the other satellites, although this picture shows darker regions toward the trailing half of the visible disk. Jupiter at this point is about 20 million kilometers (12.4 million miles) from the spacecraft.  At this resolution (about 400 kimometers or 250 miles) there is evidence of circular motion in Jupiter's atmosphere. While the dominant large-scale motions are west-to-east, small-scale movement includes eddy-like circulation within and between the bands.  (JPL ref: P-21082) ARC-1979-A79-0164-1

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Eu...

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) abo... more

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) above Jupiter's clouds. Although both satellites have about the same brightness, Io's color is very different from Europa's. Io's equatorial region show two types of material -- dark orange, broken by several bright spots -- producing a mottled appearance. The poles are darker and reddish. Preliminary evidence suggests color variations within and between the polar regions.  Io's surface composition is unknown, but scientists believe it may be a mixture of salts and sulfur.  Erupoa is less strongly colored, although still relatively dark at short wavelengths. Markings on Eruopa are less evident that on the other satellites, although this picture shows darker regions toward the trailing half of the visible disk. Jupiter at this point is about 20 million kilometers (12.4 million miles) from the spacecraft.  At this resolution (about 400 kimometers or 250 miles) there is evidence of circular motion in Jupiter's atmosphere. While the dominant large-scale motions are west-to-east, small-scale movement includes eddy-like circulation within and between the bands.  (JPL ref: P-21082) ARC-1979-AC79-0164-1

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Eu...

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) abo... more

Range :12.2 million kilometers (7.6 million miles) The view in this photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot emerging from  the five-hour Jovian night.  One of the three bright, oval clouds which were observed to form approximately 40 years ago can be seen immediately below the Red Spot.  Most of the other features appearing in this view are too small to be seen clearly from Earth.  The color picture was assembled from three black and white photos in the Image Processing Lab at JPL. ARC-1979-AC79-7024

Range :12.2 million kilometers (7.6 million miles) The view in this ph...

Range :12.2 million kilometers (7.6 million miles) The view in this photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot emerging from the five-hour Jovian night. One of the three bright, oval clouds which were observed to f... more

Range : 12.2 million kilometers (7.6 million miles) This images shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot emerging from the five-hour Jovian night.  One of three bright, oval clouds which were observed to form approx. 40 years ago can be seen below the Red Spot.  Most other features appearing in this view are too small to be seen clearly from Earth.  This black and white photo was taken through a violet filter. ARC-1979-A79-7024

Range : 12.2 million kilometers (7.6 million miles) This images shows ...

Range : 12.2 million kilometers (7.6 million miles) This images shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot emerging from the five-hour Jovian night. One of three bright, oval clouds which were observed to form approx. 40 ... more

Range :  5.7 million miles(9.2 million kilometers) Image shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot and surroundings.  Cloud detail as small as 100 miles (160 kilometers) across can be seen.  Colorful, wavy cloud pattern left of the Red Spot is a region of complex and variable wave motion. ARC-1979-AC79-7025

Range : 5.7 million miles(9.2 million kilometers) Image shows Jupiter...

Range : 5.7 million miles(9.2 million kilometers) Image shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot and surroundings. Cloud detail as small as 100 miles (160 kilometers) across can be seen. Colorful, wavy cloud pattern l... more

Range : 9.2 million kilometers (3.7 million miles) This photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot and its surroundings.  Shown is cloud detail that is 100 miles (160 km) across.  The colorful, wavy cloud pattern to the left of the Red Spot is a region of complex and variable wave motion.  Photo taken through a violet filter. ARC-1979-A79-7025

Range : 9.2 million kilometers (3.7 million miles) This photo shows Ju...

Range : 9.2 million kilometers (3.7 million miles) This photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot and its surroundings. Shown is cloud detail that is 100 miles (160 km) across. The colorful, wavy cloud pattern to ... more

Range :  5 million miles (8.025 million kilometers) This is a morning shot of Ganymede, largest of Jupiter's 13 satellites.  It's slightly larger than Mercury with a density  about twice that of water.  It's believed to be made of rock and ice with a surface of water and ice.  Ganymede is 4 times brighter than our Moon with the bright spot in center of photo 5 times brighter than the Moon, and may contain more ice than surrounding areas.  The bright pattern around the spot seems like ray craters on the Moon and Mercury and the area may in fact be an impact crater that has exposed fresh, underlying ice.  Photo taken through blue, green and orange filters. ARC-1979-A79-7026

Range : 5 million miles (8.025 million kilometers) This is a morning ...

Range : 5 million miles (8.025 million kilometers) This is a morning shot of Ganymede, largest of Jupiter's 13 satellites. It's slightly larger than Mercury with a density about twice that of water. It's be... more

Range :  5 million miles (8.025 million kilometers) This is a morning shot of Ganymede, largest of Jupiter's 13 satellites.  It's slightly larger than Mercury with a density  about twice that of water.  It's believed to be made of rock and ice with a surface of water and ice.  Ganymede is 4 times brighter than our Moon with the bright spot in center of photo 5 times brighter than the Moon, and may contain more ice than surrounding areas.  The bright pattern around the spot seems like ray craters on the Moon and Mercury and the area may in fact be an impact crater that has exposed fresh, underlying ice.  Photo taken through blue, green and orange filters. ARC-1979-AC79-7026

Range : 5 million miles (8.025 million kilometers) This is a morning ...

Range : 5 million miles (8.025 million kilometers) This is a morning shot of Ganymede, largest of Jupiter's 13 satellites. It's slightly larger than Mercury with a density about twice that of water. It's be... more

Range :  6 million kilometers (3.7 million miles) Central Longitude 120 degrees west, North is up. and 3rd from the planet.  Photo taken after midnight  Ganymede is slightly larger than Mercury but much less dense (twice the density of water).  Its surface brightness is 4 times of Earth's Moon.  Mare regions (dark features) are like the Moon's but have twice the brightness, and believed to be unlikely of rock or lava as the Moon's are.  It's north pole seems covered with brighter material and may be water frost.  Scattered brighter spots may be related to impact craters or source of fresh ice. ARC-1979-A79-7019

Range : 6 million kilometers (3.7 million miles) Central Longitude 12...

Range : 6 million kilometers (3.7 million miles) Central Longitude 120 degrees west, North is up. and 3rd from the planet. Photo taken after midnight Ganymede is slightly larger than Mercury but much less de... more

Range : 7 million kilometers (4.3 million miles) Io is Jupiter's innermost of the four Galilean satellites.  Photo taken at 2:00 AM through an ultraviolet filter. The photo's background is part of Jupiter's disk.  North is at the top and the central longitude of Io is 180 degrees.  Io shows a contrasting surface with dark polar areas and many light and dark regions around the equator.  This resolution of about 100 miles/160 kilometers, no topographic features, like craters, can be seen.  The brighter regions may be areas containing sulfur and various salts, making Io very reflective(six times brighter thanb Earth's Moon).  Io is about the same size and density as our Moon, but has followed a different evolutionary path, influenced by its closeness to Jupiter and the intense bombardment it receives from the Jovian radiation belts of energetic charged particles. ARC-1979-A79-7022

Range : 7 million kilometers (4.3 million miles) Io is Jupiter's inner...

Range : 7 million kilometers (4.3 million miles) Io is Jupiter's innermost of the four Galilean satellites. Photo taken at 2:00 AM through an ultraviolet filter. The photo's background is part of Jupiter's dis... more

Range : 6.5 million kilometers (4 million miles) Six violet images of Jupiter makes the mosaic photo, showing the Great Red Spot as a swirling vortex type motion.  This motion is also seen in several nearby white clouds.  These bright white clouds and the Red Spot are rotating in a counter clockwise direction, except the peculiar filimentary cloud to the right of the Red Spot is going clockwise.   The top of the picture shows the turbulence from the equatorial jet and more northerly atmospheric currents.  The smallest clouds shown are only 70 miles (120 km) across. ARC-1979-A79-7023

Range : 6.5 million kilometers (4 million miles) Six violet images of ...

Range : 6.5 million kilometers (4 million miles) Six violet images of Jupiter makes the mosaic photo, showing the Great Red Spot as a swirling vortex type motion. This motion is also seen in several nearby whi... more

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was taken a few minutes after midnight (PST) Feb. 25 by Voyager 1.  The distance to Callisto was 8,023,000 kilometers (4.98 million miles).  The hemisphere in this picture shows a fairly uniform surface dotted with brighter spots that are up to several hundred kilometers across.  Scientists believe the spots may be impact craters but higher-resolution photos will be necessary before the features can be interpreted.  Callisto is about the same size as the planet Mercury--about 5,000 kilometers (3,000 miles) in diameter.  Callisto is less massive than Mercury, however, giving it a density less than twice that of water.  Scientists believe Callisto, therefore, is composed of a mixture of rock and ice (up to about 50 percent by weight).  Its surface is darker than those of the other Galilean satellites, but is still about twice as bright as Earth's Moon.  This black-and-white photo was taken through a violet filter.  Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21149) ARC-1979-A79-7027

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellite...

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was taken a few minutes after midnight (PST) Feb. 25 by Voyager 1. The distance to Callisto was 8,023,000 kilometers (4.98 million miles... more

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million miles) from Jupiter.  The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation apart, and that together they depict four days in the life of the centuries-old Red Spot.  The pictures clearly demonstrate changes in circulation around the Red Spot during the 40-hour period.  The photos were taken through a blue filter.  Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21148) ARC-1979-AC79-7008

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and ...

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million miles) from Jupiter. The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation apa... more

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million  miles) from Jupiter.  The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation apart, so that together they depict four days in the life of the centuries-old Red Spot.  The pictures clearly demonstrate changes in circulation around the Red Spot during the 40-hour period.  The photos were taken through a blue filter.  Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21148) ARC-1979-A79-7028

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and ...

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million miles) from Jupiter. The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation ap... more

This mosaic of Jupiter was assembled from nine individual photos taken through an orange filter by Voyager 1 on Feb. 6, 1979, when the spacecraft was 4.7 million miles (7.8 million kilometers) from Jupiter.  Distortion of the mosaic, especially where portions of the limb have been fitted together, is caused by rotation of the planet during the 96-second intervals between individual pictures.  The large atmospheric feature just below and to the right of center is the Great Red Spot.  The complex structure of the cloud formations seen over the entire planet gives some hint of the equally complex motions in the Voyager 1 time-lapse photography.  The smallest atomospheric features seen in this view are approximately 85 miles (140 kilometers) across.  Voyager project is managed and controlled by Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science.  (JPL ref. No. P-21146) ARC-1979-A79-7029

This mosaic of Jupiter was assembled from nine individual photos taken...

This mosaic of Jupiter was assembled from nine individual photos taken through an orange filter by Voyager 1 on Feb. 6, 1979, when the spacecraft was 4.7 million miles (7.8 million kilometers) from Jupiter. Di... more

Range : 7 million kilometers (5 million miles) Callisto is the outermost Galilean satellite of Jupiter and the darkest of the four, but still twice as bright as Earth's Moon.  Mottled appearance from bright and dark patches; bright ones look like rayed or brite craters on our Moon.  This face of Callisto is always turned toward Jupiter.  Photo taken through violet filter. ARC-1979-A79-7017

Range : 7 million kilometers (5 million miles) Callisto is the outermo...

Range : 7 million kilometers (5 million miles) Callisto is the outermost Galilean satellite of Jupiter and the darkest of the four, but still twice as bright as Earth's Moon. Mottled appearance from bright and... more

Range : 7 million kilometers (5 million miles) Callisto is Jupiter's outermost Galilean satellites and darkest of  the four(but almost twice as bright as Earth's Moon).  Mottled appearance from bright and dark patches.  Bright spots seem like rayed or bright halved craters seen on our Moon.  This face is always turned toward Jupiter.  Photo taken through violet filter.  Ganymede is slightly larger than Mercury but much less dense (twice the density of water).  Its surface brightness is 4 times of Earth's Moon.  Mare regions (dark features) are like the Moon's but have twice the brightness, and believed to be unlikely of rock or lava as the Moon's are.  It's north pole seems covered with brighter material and may be water frost.  Scattered brighter spots may be related to impact craters or source of fresh ice. ARC-1979-A79-7020

Range : 7 million kilometers (5 million miles) Callisto is Jupiter's o...

Range : 7 million kilometers (5 million miles) Callisto is Jupiter's outermost Galilean satellites and darkest of the four(but almost twice as bright as Earth's Moon). Mottled appearance from bright and dark ... more

Range : 5.9 million kilometers (3.66 million miles) Europa is Jupiter's 2nd Galilean satellite from the planet.  Photo taken early morning and through a violet filter.  Faint swirls and Linear Patterns show in the equarorial region(which is darker than the poles). The hemisphere shown always faces Jupiter.  North is up.  Europa is the brightest of the Galilian satellites but shows low contrast on this hemisphere. Density and size is similar to Earth's Moon.  Indications of water ice or ground water on surface is shown ARC-1979-A79-7018

Range : 5.9 million kilometers (3.66 million miles) Europa is Jupiter'...

Range : 5.9 million kilometers (3.66 million miles) Europa is Jupiter's 2nd Galilean satellite from the planet. Photo taken early morning and through a violet filter. Faint swirls and Linear Patterns show in ... more

Range :  4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) Ganymede is Jupiter's Largest Galilean satellites and 3rd from the planet.  Photo taken after midnight  Ganymede is slightly larger than Mercury but much less dense (twice the density of water).  Its surface brightness is 4 times of Earth's Moon.  Mare regions (dark features) are like the Moon's but have twice the brightness, and believed to be unlikely of rock or lava as the Moon's are.  It's north pole seems covered with brighter material and may be water frost.  Scattered brighter spots may be related to impact craters or source of fresh ice. ARC-1979-A79-7016

Range : 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) Ganymede is Jupite...

Range : 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) Ganymede is Jupiter's Largest Galilean satellites and 3rd from the planet. Photo taken after midnight Ganymede is slightly larger than Mercury but much less... more

P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io movie' sequence. The white and orange patches probably are deposits of sulphur compounds and other volcanic materials. The Voyager 2 pictures of this region will be much more detailed. ARC-1979-AC79-7076

P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This pictu...

P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io... more

P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io movie' sequence. The white and orange patches probably are deposits of sulphur compounds and other volcanic materials. The Voyager 2 pictures of this region will be much more detailed. ARC-1979-A79-7076

P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This pict...

P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'I... more

P-21742 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyager 2 image shows the region of Jupiter extending from the equator to the southern polar latitudes in the neighborhood of the Great Red Spot. A white oval, different from the one observed in a similiar position at the time of the Voyager 1 encounter, is situated south of the Great Red Spot. The region of white clouds now extends from east of the red spot and around its northern boundary, preventing small cloud vortices from circling the feature. The disturbed region west of the red spot has also changed since the equivalent Voyager 1 image. It shows more small scale structure and cloud vortices being formed out of the wave structures. ARC-1979-A79-7077

P-21742 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyag...

P-21742 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyager 2 image shows the region of Jupiter extending from the equator to the southern polar latitudes in the neighborhood of the Great Red Spot.... more

P-21742 C Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyager 2 image shows the region of Jupiter extending from the equator to the southern polar latitudes in the neighborhood of the Great Red Spot. A white oval, different from the one observed in a similiar position at the time of the Voyager 1 encounter, is situated south of the Great Red Spot. The region of white clouds now extends from east of the red spot and around its northern boundary, preventing small cloud vortices from circling the feature. The disturbed region west of the red spot has also changed since the equivalent Voyager 1 image. It shows more small scale structure and cloud vortices being formed out of the wave structures. ARC-1979-AC79-7077

P-21742 C Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyage...

P-21742 C Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyager 2 image shows the region of Jupiter extending from the equator to the southern polar latitudes in the neighborhood of the Great Red Spot. ... more

P-21744 C Range: 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) In this image of Europa acquired by Voyager 2, global scale dark streaks are becoming visible. Europa, the size of the earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice as indicated by ground based spectrometers and its brightness. The central longitude of this view is 235° west. Bright rayed impact craters which are abundant on ancient Ganymede and Callisto would easily be visible at this range. The suggestion is that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes. ARC-1979-AC79-7078

P-21744 C Range: 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) In this im...

P-21744 C Range: 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) In this image of Europa acquired by Voyager 2, global scale dark streaks are becoming visible. Europa, the size of the earth's moon, is apparently cov... more

P-21739 BW Range: 4.7 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This picture of Io was taken as Voyager 2 closes in on the Jovian system. Scientists are studying these distant views of Io for evidences of changes since Voyager 1 observations in March of  79. Voyager 1 discovered that Io, the innermost of the Galilean satellites, is the most volcanically active body yet seen in the solar system, surpassing even earth. In this picture, the first volcano discovered by Voyager 1 is again visible in the lower left portion of the disk as a dark oval with a dark spot in the center.  In March, this volcano appeared as a heart-shaped marking, not a symmetrical oval. Scientists believe that the non-symmetric markings earlier resulted from a constriction in the mouth of the volcanic vent causing erupting material to extrude preferentially in certain directions. Apparently, the volcanic eruptive activity, which sends material to altitudes of 280 kilometers (175 miles) or more above this volcano, has changed the vent geometry or dislodged an obstruction. Such changes in the form of eruptive fountains are common in terrestial volcanos, although on a much smaller scale than on Io. ARC-1979-A79-7074

P-21739 BW Range: 4.7 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This pict...

P-21739 BW Range: 4.7 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This picture of Io was taken as Voyager 2 closes in on the Jovian system. Scientists are studying these distant views of Io for evidences of changes ... more

P-21738 BW Raange: 4.76 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This Voyager 2 picture of Io was taken in ultraviolet light and shows one of the volcanic eruption plumes first photographed by Voyager 1. (the bright spot on the right limb) The plume is more than 200 kilometers (124 miles) high. The volcano apparently has been erupting since it was observed by Voyager 1 in March, 1979. This suggests that the volcanoes on Io probably are in continuous eruption. ARC-1979-A79-7073

P-21738 BW Raange: 4.76 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This Vo...

P-21738 BW Raange: 4.76 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This Voyager 2 picture of Io was taken in ultraviolet light and shows one of the volcanic eruption plumes first photographed by Voyager 1. (the bri... more

P-21740 C Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 shows the moon covered with bright spots which are metoerite impact craters--a fact originally discovered from the high resolution pictures taken by Voyager 1. Scientists believe that heavily cratered terrains like these on Callisto are indicative of ancient planetary surfaces. Voyager 2 mapped the side of Callisto not seen by Voyager 1. The obsure dark streaks in this area may be fault zones, but higher resolution pictures are needed for identification. ARC-1979-AC79-7075

P-21740 C Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture o...

P-21740 C Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 shows the moon covered with bright spots which are metoerite impact craters--a fact originally discovered from... more

P-21747 C Range: 2,200,000 miles This image shows a region of the Jovian atmosphere from approximately 25° N to the equatorial region. The north temperate jet, at approximately 23° N, where the wind speed is about 150 meters per second, is seen as a dark brown line from the left-hand edge to the right-hand corner of the picture. The wispy clouds of the north equatorial belt appear as shades of brown. The lower right-hand corner of the image shows the brighter (white) clouds of the equatorial region. A small blue area is apparent near the lower edge, which corresponds to a region free of the upper clouds, where it is possible to penetrate to cloud layers approximately 60 kilometers below the visible surface. ARC-1979-AC79-7081

P-21747 C Range: 2,200,000 miles This image shows a region of the Jovi...

P-21747 C Range: 2,200,000 miles This image shows a region of the Jovian atmosphere from approximately 25° N to the equatorial region. The north temperate jet, at approximately 23° N, where the wind speed is ... more

P-21746 BW Range: 390,000 kilometers (245,000 miles) This photomosaic of Callisto is composed of nine frames. The impact crater distribution is very uniform across the disk. Notable are the very bright rayed craters that probably are very young. Near the limb is a giant probable impact structure. Several large structures were discovered by Voyager 1. This one is smaller than the largest one found by Voyager 1 but is more clearly shown. About 15 concentric rings surround the bright central spot. Many hundreds of moderate sized impacts are also seen, a few with bright radial ray patterns. The limb is very smooth confirming that no high topography has been seen on the satellite, and observation consistent with its icy composition. ARC-1979-A79-7080

P-21746 BW Range: 390,000 kilometers (245,000 miles) This photomosaic ...

P-21746 BW Range: 390,000 kilometers (245,000 miles) This photomosaic of Callisto is composed of nine frames. The impact crater distribution is very uniform across the disk. Notable are the very bright rayed cr... more

P-21752 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows detail about 20 kilometers across and is somewhat higher resolution than the best Voyager 1 image. The part of Europa shown is the hemisphere that will be viewed at even higher resolution during another Voyager 2 encounter with Europa. Color reconstruction in this image was slightly enhanced to bring out detail in the complicated mottled region on the west limb, containing some of the linear fracture-like features discovered by Voyager 1. The regions in the north and south polar areas which appear bluish in this version are in fact white. ARC-1979-AC79-7084

P-21752 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows det...

P-21752 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows detail about 20 kilometers across and is somewhat higher resolution than the best Voyager 1 image. The part of Europa shown is the hemisphere t... more

Range :  85,000 kilometers (53,000 miles) This photo of Jupiter's satellite Ganymede shows ancient cratered terrain.  A variety of impact craters of different ages are shown.  The brightest craters are the youngest.  The ejecta blankets fade with age.  The center shows a bright patch that represents the rebounding of the floor of the crater.  The dirty ice has lost all topography except for faint circular patterns.  Also shown are the 'Callisto type' curved troughs and ridges that mark an ancient enormous impact basin.  The basin itself has been destroyed by later geologic processes.  Only the ring features are preserved on the ancient surface.   Near the bottom of the picture, these curved features are trumcated by the younger grooved terrain. ARC-1979-A79-7097

Range : 85,000 kilometers (53,000 miles) This photo of Jupiter's sate...

Range : 85,000 kilometers (53,000 miles) This photo of Jupiter's satellite Ganymede shows ancient cratered terrain. A variety of impact craters of different ages are shown. The brightest craters are the youn... more

P-21747 BW Range: 2,200,000 miles This image shows a region of the Jovian atmosphere from approximately 25° N to the equatorial region. The north temperate jet, at approximately 23° N, where the wind speed is about 150 meters per second, is seen as a dark brown line from the left-hand edge to the right-hand corner of the picture. The wispy clouds of the north equatorial belt appear as shades of brown. The lower right-hand corner of the image shows the brighter (white) clouds of the equatorial region. A small blue area is apparent near the lower edge, which corresponds to a region free of the upper clouds, where it is possible to penetrate to cloud layers approximately 60 kilometers below the visible surface. ARC-1979-A79-7081

P-21747 BW Range: 2,200,000 miles This image shows a region of the Jov...

P-21747 BW Range: 2,200,000 miles This image shows a region of the Jovian atmosphere from approximately 25° N to the equatorial region. The north temperate jet, at approximately 23° N, where the wind speed is... more

P-21749 C Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograph of Ganymede, the largest satellite of Jupiter, is shown at approximately the same distance as that photographed at close range by Voyager 1 in March. This picture, taken by Voyager 2, illustrates well the light, bluish regions near the north and south poles. It is known that there is exposed water ice on the surface of Ganymede, and pehaps these polar caps are composed of a light covering of water ice or frost. Voyager 2 will pass within 63,000 kilometers (39,000 miles) of Ganymede. ARC-1979-AC79-7082

P-21749 C Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograp...

P-21749 C Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograph of Ganymede, the largest satellite of Jupiter, is shown at approximately the same distance as that photographed at close range by Voyager ... more

P-21749 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograph of Ganymede, the largest satellite of Jupiter, is shown at approximately the same distance as that photographed at close range by Voyager 1 in March. This picture, taken by Voyager 2, illustrates well the light, bluish regions near the north and south poles. It is known that there is exposed water ice on the surface of Ganymede, and pehaps these polar caps are composed of a light covering of water ice or frost. Voyager 2 will pass within 63,000 kilometers (39,000 miles) of Ganymede. ARC-1979-A79-7082

P-21749 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photogra...

P-21749 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograph of Ganymede, the largest satellite of Jupiter, is shown at approximately the same distance as that photographed at close range by Voyager... more

P-21752 BW Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows detail about 20 kilometers across and is somewhat higher resolution than the best Voyager 1 image. The part of Europa shown is the hemisphere that will be viewed at even higher resolution during another Voyager 2 encounter with Europa. Color reconstruction in this image was slightly enhanced to bring out detail in the complicated mottled region on the west limb, containing some of the linear fracture-like features discovered by Voyager 1. The regions in the north and south polar areas which appear bluish in this version are in fact white. ARC-1979-A79-7084

P-21752 BW Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows de...

P-21752 BW Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows detail about 20 kilometers across and is somewhat higher resolution than the best Voyager 1 image. The part of Europa shown is the hemisphere ... more

Range :  1 million kilometers Voyager 2 completed a dramatic 10 hour time lapse photo sequence to monitor the active volcanos on Jupiter's moon Io following the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter.  This picture is one of about 200 images that will be used to generate a time lapse motion picture to illustrate Io's volcanic activity.  On the bright limb, two of the plumes (P-5 & P-6) discovered in March by Voyager 1 are again visible.  The plumes are spewing materials to a height of about 100 kilometers. ARC-1979-A79-7094

Range : 1 million kilometers Voyager 2 completed a dramatic 10 hour t...

Range : 1 million kilometers Voyager 2 completed a dramatic 10 hour time lapse photo sequence to monitor the active volcanos on Jupiter's moon Io following the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. This p... more

P-21758 BW Range: 246,000 kilometers (152,000 miles) This picture by Voyager 2 is the first close look ever obtained of Jupiter's satellite, Europa. The linear crack-like features had been seen from a much greater distance by Voyager 1 but this image provides a resolution of about four kilometers (2.5 miles). The complicated linear features appear even more like cracks or huge fractures in these images. Also seen are somewhat darker mottled regions which appear to have a slightly pitted appearance, perhaps due to small scale craters. No large craters (more than five kilometers in diameter) are easily identifiable in the Europa photographs to date, suggesting that this satellite has a young surface relative to Ganymede and Callisto, although not perhaps as young as Io's. Various models for Europa's structure will be tested during analysis of these images, including the possibility that the surface is a thin ice crust overlying water or softer ice and that the fracture systems seen are breaks in that crust. Resurfacing mechanisms such as production of fresh ice or snow along the cracks and cold glacier-like flows are being considered as possibilities for removing evidence of impact events. Europa thus appears to truly be a satellite with many properties intermediate between Ganymede and Io. ARC-1979-A79-7087

P-21758 BW Range: 246,000 kilometers (152,000 miles) This picture by V...

P-21758 BW Range: 246,000 kilometers (152,000 miles) This picture by Voyager 2 is the first close look ever obtained of Jupiter's satellite, Europa. The linear crack-like features had been seen from a much grea... more

Range :  225,000 kilometers (140,625 miles) This image of the Jovian moon Europa was taken by Voyager 2 along the evening terminator, which best shows the surface topography of complex narrow ridges, seen as curved bright streaks, 5 to 10 kilometers wide, and typically 100 kilometers in length.  The area shown is about 600 by 800 kilometers, and the smallest features visible are about 4 kilometers in size.  Also visable are dark bands, more diffused in character, 20 to 40 kilometers wide and hundreds to thousands of kilometers in length.  A few features are suggestive of impact craters but are rare, indication that the surface thought to be dominantly ice is still active, perhaps warmed by tidal heating like Io.  The larger icy satellites, Callisto and Ganymede, are evidently colder with much more rigid crusts and ancient impact craters.  The complex intersection of dark markings and bright ridges suggest that the surface has been fractured and material from beneath has welled up to fill the cracks. ARC-1979-A79-7093

Range : 225,000 kilometers (140,625 miles) This image of the Jovian m...

Range : 225,000 kilometers (140,625 miles) This image of the Jovian moon Europa was taken by Voyager 2 along the evening terminator, which best shows the surface topography of complex narrow ridges, seen as cu... more

100,000 kilometers (62,000 miles) This photomosaic of Ganymede, Jupiter's largest satellite, shows many impact craters, some with bright ray systems.  The rough mountainous terrain at lower right is the outer portion of a large fresh impact basin which post-dates most of the other terrain.  At bottom, portions of grooved terrain transect other portions indication they are younger.  This may be the result of the intrusion of new icy material which comprises the crust of Ganymede.  The dark patches of heavily cratered terrain (right center) are probably ancient icy material formed prior to the grooved terrain.  The large rayed crater at upper center is about 150 kilometers (93 miles) in diameter. ARC-1979-A79-7096

100,000 kilometers (62,000 miles) This photomosaic of Ganymede, Jupite...

100,000 kilometers (62,000 miles) This photomosaic of Ganymede, Jupiter's largest satellite, shows many impact craters, some with bright ray systems. The rough mountainous terrain at lower right is the outer p... more

P-21757 BW Range: 2 million kilometers (1.25 million miles) Jupiter's thin ring of particles was photographed by Voyager 2 on its approach to the giant planet. The spacecraft was 2.5° above the plane of the ring. Segments of both sides of the faint ring were captured in this picture. The ring was first photographed in an edge-on configuration by Voyager 1 and was measured then to have a radial extent of about 55, 000 kilometers (34,000 miles) from Jupiter's cloud tops. With this picture, it is possible to determine that the ring is much narrower radially than the individual rings of Saturn. This image has had an extreme contrast enhancement process applied to it which brought out some white blotches in the central region and makes the ring appear discontinuous and non-uniform in brightness. These effects are all artifacts of the processing. ARC-1979-A79-7086

P-21757 BW Range: 2 million kilometers (1.25 million miles) Jupiter's ...

P-21757 BW Range: 2 million kilometers (1.25 million miles) Jupiter's thin ring of particles was photographed by Voyager 2 on its approach to the giant planet. The spacecraft was 2.5° above the plane of the ri... more

P-21751 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This Voyager 2 color photo of Ganymede, the largest Galilean satellite, shows a large dark circular feature about 3200 kilometers in diameter with narrow closely-spaced light bands traversing its surface. The bright spots dotting the surface are relatively recent impact craters, while the lighter circular areas may be older impact areas. The light branching bands are ridged and grooved terrain first seen on Voyager 1 and are younger than the more heavily cratered dark regions. The nature of the brightish region covering the northern part of the dark circular fature is uncertain, but it may be some type of condensate. Most of the features seen on the surface of Ganymede are probably both internal and external responses of the very thick icy layer which comprises the crust of this satellite. ARC-1979-AC79-7083

P-21751 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This Voyager 2 color photo of ...

P-21751 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This Voyager 2 color photo of Ganymede, the largest Galilean satellite, shows a large dark circular feature about 3200 kilometers in diameter with narrow closely-spaced l... more

P-21761 C Range: 313,000 kilometers (194,000 miles) This color reconstruction of part of the northern hemisphere of Ganymede shows a scene approximately 1,300 kilometers (806 miles) across. It shows part of dark, densely cratered block which is bound on the south by lighter, and less cratered grooved terrain. The dark blocks are believed to be the oldest parts of Ganymede's surface. Numerous craters are visible, many with central peaks. The large bright circular features have little relief and are probably the remnants of old, large craters that have been annealed by flow of the icy near-surface material. The closely-spaced arcuate, linear features are probably analogous to similiar features on Ganymede which surround a large impact basin. The linear features here may indicate the former presence of a large impact basin to the southwest. ARC-1979-AC79-7089

P-21761 C Range: 313,000 kilometers (194,000 miles) This color reconst...

P-21761 C Range: 313,000 kilometers (194,000 miles) This color reconstruction of part of the northern hemisphere of Ganymede shows a scene approximately 1,300 kilometers (806 miles) across. It shows part of dar... more

Range :  1.2 million kilometers (750,000 miles) This picture of Io is one of the last sequence of 'volcano watch' pictures planned as a time lapse study of the nearest of Jupiter's Galilean satellites.  The sunlit crescent of Io is seen at the left, and the night side illuminated by light reflected from Jupiter can also be seen.  Three volcanic eruption plumes are visible on the limb.  All three were previously seen by Voyager 1.  On the bright limb Plume 5 (upper) and Plume 6 (lower) are about 100 km high, while Plume 2 on the dark limb is about 185 km high and 325 km wide.  The dimensions of Plume 2 are about 1 1/2 times greater than during the Boyager 1 encounter, indicating that the intensity of the eruptions has increased during the four-month time interval between the Boyager encounters.  The three volcanic eruptions and at least three others have apparently been active at roughly the same intesity or greater for a period of at least four months. ARC-1979-A79-7099

Range : 1.2 million kilometers (750,000 miles) This picture of Io is ...

Range : 1.2 million kilometers (750,000 miles) This picture of Io is one of the last sequence of 'volcano watch' pictures planned as a time lapse study of the nearest of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. The sun... more

P-21760 C This color image of the Jovian moon Europa, which is the size of our moon, is thought to have a crust of ice perhaps 100 kilometers thick which overlies the silicate crust. The complex array of streaks indicate that the crust has been fractured and filled by materials from the interior. The lack of relief, any visible mountains or craters, on its bright limb is consistent with a thick ice crust. In contrast to its icy neighbors, Ganymede and Callisto, Europa has very few impact craters. One possible candidate is the small feature near the center of this image with radiating rays and a bright circular interior. The relative absence of features and low topography suggests the crust is young and warm a few kilometers below the surface. The tidal heating process suggested for Io also may be heating Europa's interior at a lower rate. ARC-1979-AC79-7088

P-21760 C This color image of the Jovian moon Europa, which is the siz...

P-21760 C This color image of the Jovian moon Europa, which is the size of our moon, is thought to have a crust of ice perhaps 100 kilometers thick which overlies the silicate crust. The complex array of streak... more

P-21760 BW This color image of the Jovian moon Europa, which is the size of our moon, is thought to have a crust of ice perhaps 100 kilometers thick which overlies the silicate crust. The complex array of streaks indicate that the crust has been fractured and filled by materials from the interior. The lack of relief, any visible mountains or craters, on its bright limb is consistent with a thick ice crust. In contrast to its icy neighbors, Ganymede and Callisto, Europa has very few impact craters. One possible candidate is the small feature near the center of this image with radiating rays and a bright circular interior. The relative absence of features and low topography suggests the crust is young and warm a few kilometers below the surface. The tidal heating process suggested for Io also may be heating Europa's interior at a lower rate. ARC-1979-A79-7088

P-21760 BW This color image of the Jovian moon Europa, which is the si...

P-21760 BW This color image of the Jovian moon Europa, which is the size of our moon, is thought to have a crust of ice perhaps 100 kilometers thick which overlies the silicate crust. The complex array of strea... more

P-21762 C This color picture of Ganymede in the region 30° S 180° W shows features as small as 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across. Shown is a bright halo impact crater that shows the fresh material thrown out of the crater. In the background is bright grooved terrain that may be the result of shearing of the surface materials along fault planes. The dark background material is the ancient heavily cratered terrain--the oldest material preserved on the Ganymede surface. ARC-1979-AC79-7090

P-21762 C This color picture of Ganymede in the region 30° S 180° W ...

P-21762 C This color picture of Ganymede in the region 30° S 180° W shows features as small as 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across. Shown is a bright halo impact crater that shows the fresh material thrown out of... more

P-21763 C Range: 1,400,000 kilometers (870,000 miles) Jupiter's thin ring of particles was photographed by Voyager 2's telescope-equipped TV camera through three color filters to provide this color representation. During the three long exposures the spacecraft drifted, smearing out the ring image. The linear feature just above the ring is a star trail. True color of the ring cannot be deduced from this photo. ARC-1979-AC79-7091

P-21763 C Range: 1,400,000 kilometers (870,000 miles) Jupiter's thin r...

P-21763 C Range: 1,400,000 kilometers (870,000 miles) Jupiter's thin ring of particles was photographed by Voyager 2's telescope-equipped TV camera through three color filters to provide this color representati... more

Range :  312, 000 kilometers (195,000 miles) This photo of Ganymede (Ice Giant) was taken from Voyager 2 and shows features down to about 5 to 6 kilometers across.  Different types of terrain common on Ganymede's surface are visible.  The boundary of the largest region of dark ancient terrain on Ganymede can be seen to the east (right), revealing some of the light linear features which may be all that remains of a large ancient impact structure similar to the large ring structure on Callisto.  The broad light regions running through the image are the typical grooved structures seen within another example of what might be evidence of large scale lateral motion in Ganymede's crust.  The band of grooved terrain (about 100 kilometers wide) in this region appears to be offset by 50 kilometers or more on the left hand edge by a linear feature perpendicular to it.  A feature similar to this one was previously discovered by Voyager 1.  These are the first clear examples of strike-slip style faulting on any planet other than Earth.  Many examples of craters of all ages can be seen in this image, ranging from fresh, bright ray craters to large, subdued circular markings thought to be the 'scars' of large ancient impacts that have been flatteded by glacier-like flows. ARC-1979-AC79-7095

Range : 312, 000 kilometers (195,000 miles) This photo of Ganymede (I...

Range : 312, 000 kilometers (195,000 miles) This photo of Ganymede (Ice Giant) was taken from Voyager 2 and shows features down to about 5 to 6 kilometers across. Different types of terrain common on Ganymede... more

Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars

Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars

Gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater in Noachis Terra. This high resolution view (top left) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) shows channels and associated aprons o... more

Range :  660,000 kilometers (400,000 miles) Time :  5:05 am PST This Voyager 1 picture of Mimas shows a large impact structure at 110 degrees W Long., located on that face of the moon which leads Mimas in its orbit.  The feature, about 130 kilometers in diameter (80 miles), is more than 1/4 the diameter of the entire moon.  This is a particularly interesting feature in view of its large diameter compared with the size of the satellite, and may have the largest crater diameter/satillite diameter ratio in the solar system.  The crater has a raised rim and central peak, typical of large impact structures on terrestrial planets.  Additional smaller craters, 15-45 kilometers in diameter, can be seen scattered across the surface, particularly alon the terminator.  Mimas is one of the smaller Saturnian satellites with a low density implying its chief component is ice. ARC-1980-A80-7034

Range : 660,000 kilometers (400,000 miles) Time : 5:05 am PST This V...

Range : 660,000 kilometers (400,000 miles) Time : 5:05 am PST This Voyager 1 picture of Mimas shows a large impact structure at 110 degrees W Long., located on that face of the moon which leads Mimas in its o... more

Range :  4.1 million km. ( 2.5 million miles ) P-29466B/W Voyager 2 has discovered  two 'shepard' satellites associated with the rings of Uranus. The two moons, designated 1986U7 and 1986U8, are seen here on either side of the bright Epsilon Ring. All nine of the known Uranian rings are visible here. The image was proccessed to enhance narrow features. The Epsilon Ring appears surrounded by a dark halo as a result of this proccessing. Occasional blips seen on the ring are also artifacts. Lying inward from the Epsilon Ring are the Delta, Gamma, and Eta Rings; then the Beta abd Alpha Rings; and finally, the barely visible 4, 5, and 6 Rings. The rings have been studied since their discovery in 1977, through observations of how they diminish the light of stars they pass in front of. This image is the first direct observationn of all nine rings in reflected sunlight. They range in width from about 100 km. (60 mi.) at the widest part of the Epsilon Ring to only a few kilometers  for most of the others. The discovery of the two ring moons 1986U7 and 1986U8 is a major advance in our understanding of the structure of the Uranian rings and is in good agreement with theoretical predictions of how these narrow rings are kept from spreading out. Based on likely surface brightness properties, the moons are of roughly 20 and 30 km. diameter, respectively. ARC-1981-A86-7006

Range : 4.1 million km. ( 2.5 million miles ) P-29466B/W Voyager 2 ha...

Range : 4.1 million km. ( 2.5 million miles ) P-29466B/W Voyager 2 has discovered two 'shepard' satellites associated with the rings of Uranus. The two moons, designated 1986U7 and 1986U8, are seen here on ei... more

Royal Thai Army Special Forces personnel demonstrate visual tracking techniques to members of the 374th Combat Control Team during jungle survival cross-training at the 1ST Special Forces Regiment, 20 kilometers from Koke Kathiem Air Base

Royal Thai Army Special Forces personnel demonstrate visual tracking t...

The original finding aid described this photograph as: Country: Thailand (THA) Scene Camera Operator: SSGT Daniel C. Perez Release Status: Released to Public Combined Military Service Digital Photographic Files

Royal Thai Army Special Forces personnel demonstrate visual tracking techniques to members of the 374th Combat Control Team during jungle survival cross-training at the 1ST Special Forces Regiment, 20 kilometers from Koke Kathiem Air Base

Royal Thai Army Special Forces personnel demonstrate visual tracking t...

The original finding aid described this photograph as: Country: Thailand (THA) Scene Camera Operator: SSGT Daniel C. Perez Release Status: Released to Public Combined Military Service Digital Photographic Files

An overhead view of one of the trains of the Moscow subway system pulling into the Prospect Mira station. Approximately 7 million people use this subway to get to work each day. The system is 215 kilometers in length

An overhead view of one of the trains of the Moscow subway system pull...

The original finding aid described this photograph as: Base: Moscow Country: Russia (RUS) Scene Camera Operator: Don S. Montgomery, USN (Ret.) Release Status: Released to Public Combined Military Service Di... more

Range : 2.52 million miles (1.56 million miles) P-29481B/W Voyager 2 returned this photograph with all nine known Uranus rings visible from a 15 sec. exposure through the narrow angle camera. The rings are quite dark and very narrow. The most prominent and outermost of the nine, Epsilon, is seen at top. The next three in toward Uranus, called Delta, Gamma, and Eta, are much fainter and more narrow than Epsilon ring. Then come Beta and Alpha rings, and finally, the innermost grouping, known simply as the 4,5, & 6 rings. The last three are very faint and are at the limit of detection for the Voyager camera. Uranus' rings range in width from about 100 km. (60 mi.) at the widest part of the Epsilon ring, to only a few kilometers for most of the others. this iamge was processed to enhance narrow features; the bright dots are imperfections on the camera detector. The resolution scale is about 50 km. (30 mi.) ARC-1986-A86-7011

Range : 2.52 million miles (1.56 million miles) P-29481B/W Voyager 2 r...

Range : 2.52 million miles (1.56 million miles) P-29481B/W Voyager 2 returned this photograph with all nine known Uranus rings visible from a 15 sec. exposure through the narrow angle camera. The rings are quit... more

P-29516 BW Range: 125, 000 kilometers (78,000 miles) Voyager 2's wide-angle camera captured this view of the outer part of the Uranian ring system just 11 minutes before passing though the ring plane. The resolution in this clear-filter view is slightly better than 9 km (6 mi). The brightest, outermost ring is known as epsilon. Interior to epsilon lie (from top) the newly discovered 10th ring of Uranus--designated 1986UR1 and barely visible here--and then the delta, gamma and eta rings. ARC-1986-A86-7032

P-29516 BW Range: 125, 000 kilometers (78,000 miles) Voyager 2's wide-...

P-29516 BW Range: 125, 000 kilometers (78,000 miles) Voyager 2's wide-angle camera captured this view of the outer part of the Uranian ring system just 11 minutes before passing though the ring plane. The resol... more

P-29508BW Range: 1.12 million kilometers (690,000 miles) This clear-filter view of the Uranian rings delta, gamma, eta, beta and alpha (from top) was taken with Voyager 2's narrow-angle camera and clearly illustrates the broad outer component and narrow inner component of the eta ring, which orbits Uranus at a radius of some 47,000 km (29,000 mi). The broad component is considerably more transparent than the dense, narrow inner eta component, as well as the other narrow rings shown. Resolution here is  about 10 km (6 mi). ARC-1986-A86-7024

P-29508BW Range: 1.12 million kilometers (690,000 miles) This clear-fi...

P-29508BW Range: 1.12 million kilometers (690,000 miles) This clear-filter view of the Uranian rings delta, gamma, eta, beta and alpha (from top) was taken with Voyager 2's narrow-angle camera and clearly illus... more

P-29522BW Range: 369,000 kilometers (229,000 miles) This is the highest-resolution picture of Titania returned by Voyager 2. The picture is a composite of two images taken through the clear-filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera. The resolution of this image is 13 km (8 mi). Titania is the largest satellite of Uranus, with a diameter of little more than 1,600 km (1,000 mi). Abundant impact craters of many sizes pockmark the ancient surface. The most prominant features are fault valleys that stretch across Titania. They are up to 1,500 km (nearly 1,000 mi) long and as much as 75 km (45 mi) wide. In valleys seen at right center, the sunward-facing walls are very bright. While this is due partly to the lighting angle, the brightness also indicates the presence of a lighter material, possibly young frost deposits. An impact crater more than 200 km (125 mi) in diameter distinguishes the very bottom of the disk; the crater is cut by a younger fault valley more than 100 km (60 mi) wide. An even larger impact crater, perhaps 300 km (180 mi) across, is visible at top. ARC-1986-A86-7038

P-29522BW Range: 369,000 kilometers (229,000 miles) This is the highes...

P-29522BW Range: 369,000 kilometers (229,000 miles) This is the highest-resolution picture of Titania returned by Voyager 2. The picture is a composite of two images taken through the clear-filter of Voyager's ... more

P-29521 BW Range: 557,000 kilometers ( 346, 000 miles) The southern hemisphere of Umbriel displays heavy cratering in this Voyager 2 image. This frame, taken through the clear-filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera, is the most detailed image of Umbriel, with a resolution of about 10 km (6 mi). Umbriel is the darkest of Uranus' larger moons and the one that appears to have experienced the lowest level of geological activity. It has a diameter of about 1,200 km (750 mi) and reflects only 16 percent of the light striking its surface; in the latter respect, Umbriel is similiar to lunar highland areas. Umbriel is heavily cratered but lacks the numerous bright-ray craters seen on the other large Uranian satellites; this results in a relatively uniform surface albedo (reflectivity). The prominent crater on the terminator (upper right) is about 110 km (70 mi) across and has a bright central peak. The strangest feature in this image (at top) is a curious bright ring, the most reflective area seen on Umbriel. The ring is about 140 km (90 mi) in diameter and lies near the satellite's equator. The nature of the ring is not known, although it might be a frost deposit, perhaps associated with an impact crater. Spots against the black background are due to 'noise' in the data. ARC-1986-A86-7037

P-29521 BW Range: 557,000 kilometers ( 346, 000 miles) The southern he...

P-29521 BW Range: 557,000 kilometers ( 346, 000 miles) The southern hemisphere of Umbriel displays heavy cratering in this Voyager 2 image. This frame, taken through the clear-filter of Voyager's narrow-angle c... more

P-29502C Range: 1.04 million kilometers (650,000 miles) This color photo of Umbriel, the darkest of Uranus' five large moons was synthesized from frames exposed with the Voyager narrow-angle camera's violet and clear filters and has a resolution of 19 km (12 mi.). Umbriel is characterized by the darkest surface and smallest brightness variations of any of the large satellites of Uranus. As seen here, the surface is also generally gray and colorless. Nevertheless, at this resolution, considerable topographic detail is revealed, showing that Umbriel's surface is covered by impact craters. The brightest spot (shown at top near the equator at approxiamately 270 ° longitude) appears as a bright ring. Its geological significance is not yet understood. Umbriel has a diameter of about 1,200 km (750 miles) and orbits 267,000 km (166,000 mi) from Uranus' center. The satellite's name, from Alexander Pope's 'Rape of the Lock,' means 'dark angel'. ARC-1986-AC86-7018

P-29502C Range: 1.04 million kilometers (650,000 miles) This color pho...

P-29502C Range: 1.04 million kilometers (650,000 miles) This color photo of Umbriel, the darkest of Uranus' five large moons was synthesized from frames exposed with the Voyager narrow-angle camera's violet and... more

P-29506BW Range: 1.12 million kilometers (690,000 miles) This high-resolution image of the epsilon ring of Uranus is a clear-filter picture from Voyager's narrow-angle camera and has a resolution of about 10 km (6 mi). The epsilon ring, approx. 100 km (60 mi) wide at this location, clearly shows a structural variation. Visible here are a broad, bright outer component about 40 km (25 mi) wide; a darker, middle region of comparable width; and a narrow, bright inner strip about 15 km (9 mi) wide. The epsilon-ring structure seen by Voyager is similiar to that observed from the ground with stellar-occultation techniques. This frame represents the first Voyager image that resolves these features within the epsilon ring. The occasional fuzzy splotches on the outer and innerparts of the ring are artifacts left by the removal of reseau marks (used for making measurements on the image). ARC-1986-A86-7022

P-29506BW Range: 1.12 million kilometers (690,000 miles) This high-res...

P-29506BW Range: 1.12 million kilometers (690,000 miles) This high-resolution image of the epsilon ring of Uranus is a clear-filter picture from Voyager's narrow-angle camera and has a resolution of about 10 km... more