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Topic: jpl ref

1972
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1994
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Deep Space Antenna 210' at Goldstone, CA  (JPL ref: P-116594AC) ARC-1972-A72-2699

Deep Space Antenna 210' at Goldstone, CA (JPL ref: P-116594AC) ARC-19...

Deep Space Antenna 210' at Goldstone, CA (JPL ref: P-116594AC)

Viking 2 A utopian bright summer afternoon on Mars -- Looking south from Viking 2 on September 7, 1976 the orange-red surface of the nearly level plain upon which the spacecraft sits is seen strewn with rocks as large as three feet across.  Many of these rocks are porous and sponge-like, similar to some of Earth's volcanic rocks.  Other rocks are coarse-grained such as the large rock at lower left.  Between the rocks, the surface is blanketed with fine-grained materials that, in places, is piled into small drifts and banked against some of the larger blocks.  The cylindrical mast with the orange cable is the low-gain antenna used to receive cammands form Earth.  (JPL ref: P-17690 color) ARC-1976-AC76-1011-2-15

Viking 2 A utopian bright summer afternoon on Mars -- Looking south fr...

Viking 2 A utopian bright summer afternoon on Mars -- Looking south from Viking 2 on September 7, 1976 the orange-red surface of the nearly level plain upon which the spacecraft sits is seen strewn with rocks a... more

Photo by Voyager 1 Jupiter's satellite Io poses before the giant planet in this photo returned Jan 17, 1979 from a distance of 29 million miles (47 million kilometers). The satellite's shadow can be seen falling on the face of Jupiter at left. Io is traveling from left to right in its one-and-three-quarter-day orbit around Jupiter. Even from this great distance the image of Io shows dark poles and bright equatorial region. Voyager 1 will make its closest approach to Jupiter  174, 000 miles (280,000 kilometer) on March 5. It will then continue to Saturn in November 1980. This color photo was assembled at Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab from three black and white images taken through filters. The Voyagers are managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (JPL Ref: P-20946C) ARC-1979-AC79-0143-4

Photo by Voyager 1 Jupiter's satellite Io poses before the giant plane...

Photo by Voyager 1 Jupiter's satellite Io poses before the giant planet in this photo returned Jan 17, 1979 from a distance of 29 million miles (47 million kilometers). The satellite's shadow can be seen fallin... more

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) above Jupiter's clouds. Although both satellites have about the same brightness, Io's color is very different from Europa's. Io's equatorial region show two types of material -- dark orange, broken by several bright spots -- producing a mottled appearance. The poles are darker and reddish. Preliminary evidence suggests color variations within and between the polar regions.  Io's surface composition is unknown, but scientists believe it may be a mixture of salts and sulfur.  Erupoa is less strongly colored, although still relatively dark at short wavelengths. Markings on Eruopa are less evident that on the other satellites, although this picture shows darker regions toward the trailing half of the visible disk. Jupiter at this point is about 20 million kilometers (12.4 million miles) from the spacecraft.  At this resolution (about 400 kimometers or 250 miles) there is evidence of circular motion in Jupiter's atmosphere. While the dominant large-scale motions are west-to-east, small-scale movement includes eddy-like circulation within and between the bands.  (JPL ref: P-21082) ARC-1979-A79-0164-1

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Eu...

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) abo... more

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) above Jupiter's clouds. Although both satellites have about the same brightness, Io's color is very different from Europa's. Io's equatorial region show two types of material -- dark orange, broken by several bright spots -- producing a mottled appearance. The poles are darker and reddish. Preliminary evidence suggests color variations within and between the polar regions.  Io's surface composition is unknown, but scientists believe it may be a mixture of salts and sulfur.  Erupoa is less strongly colored, although still relatively dark at short wavelengths. Markings on Eruopa are less evident that on the other satellites, although this picture shows darker regions toward the trailing half of the visible disk. Jupiter at this point is about 20 million kilometers (12.4 million miles) from the spacecraft.  At this resolution (about 400 kimometers or 250 miles) there is evidence of circular motion in Jupiter's atmosphere. While the dominant large-scale motions are west-to-east, small-scale movement includes eddy-like circulation within and between the bands.  (JPL ref: P-21082) ARC-1979-AC79-0164-1

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Eu...

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) abo... more

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was taken a few minutes after midnight (PST) Feb. 25 by Voyager 1.  The distance to Callisto was 8,023,000 kilometers (4.98 million miles).  The hemisphere in this picture shows a fairly uniform surface dotted with brighter spots that are up to several hundred kilometers across.  Scientists believe the spots may be impact craters but higher-resolution photos will be necessary before the features can be interpreted.  Callisto is about the same size as the planet Mercury--about 5,000 kilometers (3,000 miles) in diameter.  Callisto is less massive than Mercury, however, giving it a density less than twice that of water.  Scientists believe Callisto, therefore, is composed of a mixture of rock and ice (up to about 50 percent by weight).  Its surface is darker than those of the other Galilean satellites, but is still about twice as bright as Earth's Moon.  This black-and-white photo was taken through a violet filter.  Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21149) ARC-1979-A79-7027

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellite...

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was taken a few minutes after midnight (PST) Feb. 25 by Voyager 1. The distance to Callisto was 8,023,000 kilometers (4.98 million miles... more

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million miles) from Jupiter.  The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation apart, and that together they depict four days in the life of the centuries-old Red Spot.  The pictures clearly demonstrate changes in circulation around the Red Spot during the 40-hour period.  The photos were taken through a blue filter.  Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21148) ARC-1979-AC79-7008

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and ...

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million miles) from Jupiter. The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation apa... more

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million  miles) from Jupiter.  The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation apart, so that together they depict four days in the life of the centuries-old Red Spot.  The pictures clearly demonstrate changes in circulation around the Red Spot during the 40-hour period.  The photos were taken through a blue filter.  Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21148) ARC-1979-A79-7028

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and ...

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million miles) from Jupiter. The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation ap... more

This mosaic of Jupiter was assembled from nine individual photos taken through an orange filter by Voyager 1 on Feb. 6, 1979, when the spacecraft was 4.7 million miles (7.8 million kilometers) from Jupiter.  Distortion of the mosaic, especially where portions of the limb have been fitted together, is caused by rotation of the planet during the 96-second intervals between individual pictures.  The large atmospheric feature just below and to the right of center is the Great Red Spot.  The complex structure of the cloud formations seen over the entire planet gives some hint of the equally complex motions in the Voyager 1 time-lapse photography.  The smallest atomospheric features seen in this view are approximately 85 miles (140 kilometers) across.  Voyager project is managed and controlled by Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science.  (JPL ref. No. P-21146) ARC-1979-A79-7029

This mosaic of Jupiter was assembled from nine individual photos taken...

This mosaic of Jupiter was assembled from nine individual photos taken through an orange filter by Voyager 1 on Feb. 6, 1979, when the spacecraft was 4.7 million miles (7.8 million kilometers) from Jupiter. Di... more

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of planet. (JPL ref. No. P-21147) ARC-1979-AC79-7009

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of planet. (JPL ref. No. P-21147)...

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of planet. (JPL ref. No. P-21147)

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of Jupiter's Satellite Io.  (JPL ref. No. P-21206) ARC-1979-A79-7015

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of Jupiter's Satellite Io. (JPL ...

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of Jupiter's Satellite Io. (JPL ref. No. P-21206)

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosic of Great Red Spot.  (JPL ref. No. P-21203) ARC-1979-AC79-7012

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosic of Great Red Spot. (JPL ref. No. ...

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosic of Great Red Spot. (JPL ref. No. P-21203)

As Voyager 1 approches Jupiter three of its moons can be seen JPL ref. No. C-206 ARC-1979-AC79-7111

As Voyager 1 approches Jupiter three of its moons can be seen JPL ref....

As Voyager 1 approches Jupiter three of its moons can be seen JPL ref. No. C-206

Range :  1,450,000 km. ( 900,000 miles ) Jupiter's faint ring system is shown here as two orange lines protrude from the left toward Jupiter's limb.  This colorful composite was taken in Jupiter's shadow through orange and violet filters. The colorful images of Jupiter's limb are evidence of the spacecraft motion dering this long exposure.  Voyager 2 was about 2 degrees below the plane of the ring when this was shot, leaving the lower ring image cut short by Jupiter's shadow on the ring. (JPL ref No. P-21779) ARC-1979-AC79-7117

Range : 1,450,000 km. ( 900,000 miles ) Jupiter's faint ring system i...

Range : 1,450,000 km. ( 900,000 miles ) Jupiter's faint ring system is shown here as two orange lines protrude from the left toward Jupiter's limb. This colorful composite was taken in Jupiter's shadow throug... more

Artist: C Kallas Jupiter Mission: Pioneer Galileo Entry Probe Artwork (heatshield separation) (jpl ref: 4S30599) ARC-1989-AC89-0146-3

Artist: C Kallas Jupiter Mission: Pioneer Galileo Entry Probe Artwork ...

Artist: C Kallas Jupiter Mission: Pioneer Galileo Entry Probe Artwork (heatshield separation) (jpl ref: 4S30599)

Range :  8.6 million kilometers (5.3 million miles) The Voyager took this 61 second exposure through the clear filter with the narrow angle camera of Neptune.  The Voyager cameras were programmed to make a systematic search for faint ring arcs and new satellites.  The bright upper corner of the image is due to a residual image from a previous long exposure of the planet.  The portion of the arc visible here is approximately 35 degrees in longitudinal extent, making it approximately 38,000 kilometers (24,000 miles) in length, and is broken up into three segments separated from each other by approximately 5 degrees.  The trailing edge is at the upper right and has an abrupt end while the leading edge seems to fade into the background more gradually.  This arc orbits very close to one of the newly discovered Neptune satellites, 1989N4.  Close-up studies of this ring arc will be carried out in the coming days which will give higher spatial resolution at different lighting angles. (JPL Ref: P-34617) ARC-1989-A89-7004

Range : 8.6 million kilometers (5.3 million miles) The Voyager took t...

Range : 8.6 million kilometers (5.3 million miles) The Voyager took this 61 second exposure through the clear filter with the narrow angle camera of Neptune. The Voyager cameras were programmed to make a syst... more

Photo by Voyager 2 (JPL) During August 16 and 17, 1989, the Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera was used to photograph Neptune almost continuously, recording approximately two and one-half rotations of the planet. These images represent the most complete set of full disk Neptune images that the spacecraft will acquire. This picture from the sequence shows two of the four cloud features which have been tracked by the Voyager cameras during the past two months. The large dark oval near the western limb (the left edge) is at a latitude of 22 degrees south and circuits Neptune every 18.3 hours. The bright clouds immediately to the south and east of this oval are seen to substantially  change their appearances in periods as short as four hours. The second dark spot, at 54 degrees south latitude near the terminator (lower right edge), circuits Neptune every 16.1 hours. This image has been processed to enchance the visibility of small features, at some sacrifice of color fidelity. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications. (JPL Ref: A-34611  Voyager 2-N29) ARC-1989-AC89-7001

Photo by Voyager 2 (JPL) During August 16 and 17, 1989, the Voyager 2 ...

Photo by Voyager 2 (JPL) During August 16 and 17, 1989, the Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera was used to photograph Neptune almost continuously, recording approximately two and one-half rotations of the planet. Th... more

Photo by Voyager 2 (jpl) These images show changes in the clouds around Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS) over a four and one-half-day period. From top to bottom the images show successive rotations of the planet -- an  interval of about 18 hours. The GDS is at a mean latitude of 20 degrees south, and covers about 30 degrees of longitude. The violet filter of the Voyager narrow angle camera was used to produce these images at distances ranging from 17 million kilometers (10.5 million miles) at the top, to 10 million kiloeters (6.2 million miles) at the bottom. The images have been mapped on to a rectangular latitude-longitude grid to remove the effects of changing viewing geometry and the changing distance to Neptune. The sequence shows a large change in the western end (left side) of the GDS, where dark extension apparent in the earlier images converges into an extended string of small dark spots over the next five rotations. This 'string of beads' extends from the GDS a surprisingly large angle relative to horizontal lines of constant latitude. The large bright cloud at the southen (bottom) boarder of the GDS is a more or less permanent companion of the GDS -- reminiscent of flow around the Great Red Spot in Jupiter's atmosphere. This activity of the GDS is surprising because the total energy flux from the sun and from Neptune's interior is only 5 percent as large as the total energy flux on Jupiter. (JPL Ref: P-34610  Voyager 2-N23) ARC-1989-A89-7000

Photo by Voyager 2 (jpl) These images show changes in the clouds aroun...

Photo by Voyager 2 (jpl) These images show changes in the clouds around Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS) over a four and one-half-day period. From top to bottom the images show successive rotations of the planet... more

Voyager II Imagery; Neptune. This bulls-eye view of Neptune's small dark spot (D2) was obtained by Voyager 2's narrow-angle camera , when Neptune was within 1.1 million km (680,000 miles) of the planet. The smallest structures that can be seen are 20 km (12 miles) across. This unplanned photograph was obtained when the infrared spectrograph was mapping the  the highest-resolution view of the feature taken during the flyby. Banding surrounding the feature indicates unseen strong winds, while structues within the bright spot suggest both active upwelling of clouds and rotation about the center. A rotation rate has not yet been measured, but the v-shaped structure near the right edge of the bright area indicates that the spot rotates clockwise. Unlike the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, which rotates counterclockwise, if the D2 spot on Neptune rotates clockwise, the material will be descending in the dark oval region. The fact that infrared data will yield temperature information about the region above the clouds makes this observation especially valuable. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applicaitons.  (JPL ref: P-34749  Voyager N-71) taken during the flyby. Banding surrounding the feature indicates unseen strong winds, while structures within the bright spot suggest both active upwelling of clouds and rotation about the center. A rotation rate has not yest been measured, but the Vv-sphped ARC-1989-A89-7058

Voyager II Imagery; Neptune. This bulls-eye view of Neptune's small da...

Voyager II Imagery; Neptune. This bulls-eye view of Neptune's small dark spot (D2) was obtained by Voyager 2's narrow-angle camera , when Neptune was within 1.1 million km (680,000 miles) of the planet. The sma... more

Voyager II Imagery, Neptune: This is one of the most detailed views of the surface of Triton taken by Voyager 2 on its flyby of the large satellite of Neptune early in the morning of August 25, 1989. The picture was stored on the tape recorder and relayed to Earth later. Taken from a distanT ce of only 40,000 km (25, 000 miles), the frame is about 220 kilometers (140 miles) across and shows details as small as 750 meters (0.5 miles). Most of the area is covered by a peculiar landscape of roughly circular depressions separated  by rugged ridges. This type of terrain, which covers large tracts of Triton's northern hemisphere, is unlike anything seen elsewhere in the solar system. The depressions are probably not impact craters: They are too similar in size and too regularly spaced. Their origin is still unknown, but may involve local melting and collapse of the icy surface. A conspicuous set of grooves and ridges cuts across the landscape, indicating fracturing and deformation of Triton's surface. The rarity of impact craters suggests a young surface by solar-system standards, probably less than a few billion years old. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.  (JPL ref: P-34722 Voyager N-60 ) ARC-1989-AC89-7055

Voyager II Imagery, Neptune: This is one of the most detailed views of...

Voyager II Imagery, Neptune: This is one of the most detailed views of the surface of Triton taken by Voyager 2 on its flyby of the large satellite of Neptune early in the morning of August 25, 1989. The pictur... more

Range :  350,000 miles (JPL Ref: P-37329) This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by Galileo at 9:35 am PST.  In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an streroid-size body.  Orientale's dark center is a small mare.  To the right is the lunar near side with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum Below.  Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast bassaltic lava flows.  To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria, but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resemble Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering.  The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters.  This image was 'reprojected' so as to center visibility of small features. ARC-1990-AC91-2016

Range : 350,000 miles (JPL Ref: P-37329) This image of the western he...

Range : 350,000 miles (JPL Ref: P-37329) This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by Galileo at 9:35 am PST. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diamete... more

This color picture of the limb of the Earth, looking north past Antarctica, is a mosaic of 11 images taken during a ten-minute period near 5:45 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, by Galileo's imaging system.  Red, green and violet filters were used.  The picture spans about 1,600 miles across the south polar latitudes of our planet  The morning day/night terminator is toward the right.  The South Pole is out of sight below the picture;  the visible areas of Antarctica are those lying generally south of South America.  The violet-blue envelope of Earth's atmosphere is prominent along the limb to the left.  At lower left, the dark blue Amundsen Sea lies to the left of the Walgreen and Bakutis Coasts.  Beyond it,  Peter Island reacts with the winds to produce a striking pattern of atmosperic waves. (JPL ref. No. P-37340) ARC-1990-AC91-2017

This color picture of the limb of the Earth, looking north past Antarc...

This color picture of the limb of the Earth, looking north past Antarctica, is a mosaic of 11 images taken during a ten-minute period near 5:45 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, by Galileo's imaging system. Red, green an... more

This image is the first full picture showing both asteroid 243 Ida and its newly discovered moon to be transmitted to Earth from NASA's Galileo spacecraft--the first conclusive evidence that natural satellites of asteroids exist.  Ida is the large object to the left, about 56 kilometers (35 miles long).  Ida's natural satellite is the small object to the right.  This portrait was taken by Galileo's charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on August 28, 1993, about 14 minutes before the spacecraft's closest approach to the asteriod, from a range of 10,870 kilometers (6,755 miles).  Ida is a heavily cratered, irregularly shaped asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter-- the 243rd asteroid to be discovered since the first one was found at the beginning of the 19th century.  It is a member of a group of asteroids called the Koronis family.  The small satellite, which is about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) across in this view, has yet to be given a name by astronomers.  It has been provisionally designated '1993 (243) 1' by the International Astronomical Union.  (The numbers denote the year the picture was taken, the asteroid number and the fact that it is the first moon of Ida to be found.)  ALthough the satellite appears to be 'next' to Ida it is actually slightly in the foreground, closer to the spacecraft than Ida.  Combining this image with data from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, the science team estimates that the object is about 100 kilometers (60 miles) away from the center of Ida.  This image is one of a six-frame series taken through different color filters, this one in green.  The spatial resolution in this image is about 100 meters (330 feet) per pixel.  The Galileo spacecraft flew past Ida en route to its final destination, Jupiter, where it will go into orbit in December 1995.  The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the galileo Project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-43731) ARC-1994-A91-2018

This image is the first full picture showing both asteroid 243 Ida and...

This image is the first full picture showing both asteroid 243 Ida and its newly discovered moon to be transmitted to Earth from NASA's Galileo spacecraft--the first conclusive evidence that natural satellites ... more

Photo by Peter McGregor  Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacting Jupiter; impact of Fragment G of Comet Shoemaker-Levy on Jupiter. The fireball is seen 12 minutes after impact at 2.34 microns. The impact A site is seen on the oposite limb of the planet. Image at 2.34 microns with CASPIR by Peter McGregor ANU 2.3m telescope at Siding Spring. (JPL Ref; P-44419) ARC-1994-AC94-0353-3

Photo by Peter McGregor Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacting Jupiter; imp...

Photo by Peter McGregor Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacting Jupiter; impact of Fragment G of Comet Shoemaker-Levy on Jupiter. The fireball is seen 12 minutes after impact at 2.34 microns. The impact A site is see... more