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Israel, officially known as the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although international recognition of the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem is limited.

Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age. The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces. The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, the expulsion of the Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by immigration to Palestine.

During the first half of the 20th century, the land was controlled as a mandate of the British Empire from 1920-1948, having been ceded by the Ottomans at the end of the First World War. Not long after, the Second World War saw the mandate bombed heavily and Yishuv Jews serve for the Allies, after the British agreed to supply arms and form a Jewish Brigade in 1944. Among growing tension and the British eager to appease both Arab and Jewish propositions, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine in 1947 recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders. The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, and since the Six-Day War in June 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim). Subsequent legislative acts have resulted in the full application of Israeli law within the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, as well as its partial application in the West Bank via "pipelining" into Israeli settlements. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is internationally considered to be the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement, while Israel has signed peace treaties with both Egypt and Jordan.

In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people. The country is a liberal democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member. It has the world's 31st-largest economy by nominal GDP, and is the most developed country currently in conflict. It has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training, percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree, research and development spending by GDP percentage, women's safety, life expectancy, innovativeness, and happiness.

Israel Media

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Ierusalem, cum suburbiis, prout tempore Christi floruit, accurate notatis omnibus insignibus et praecipuè iis locis... /

Ierusalem, cum suburbiis, prout tempore Christi floruit, accurate nota...

Relief shown pictorially. German. Titles in Latin and German. Shows Jerusalem during the time of Christ. Includes descriptive text in German. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image.

Lamp

Lamp

Attributed to Palestine, Samaria

Reed Mat
Reed Mat
Nuns from BL Stowe 39, f. 8v

Nuns from BL Stowe 39, f. 8v

Miniatures of nuns in various activities, illustrating the treatise The Abbey of the Holy Ghost. Image taken from f. 8v of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 10v); Debate... More

Building from BL Stowe 39, f. 24v

Building from BL Stowe 39, f. 24v

Marginal drawing of a man building. Image taken from f. 24v of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 10v); Debate for the Soul (f. 32r-32v). Written in English.

Nuns from BL Stowe 39, f. 8v

Nuns from BL Stowe 39, f. 8v

Miniatures of nuns in various activities, illustrating the treatise The Abbey of the Holy Ghost. Image taken from f. 8v of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 10v); Debate... More

Tree from BL Stowe 39, f. 14

Tree from BL Stowe 39, f. 14

Drawing of a diagrammatic tree inscribed with the twelve degrees of meekness. Image taken from f. 14 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 10v); Debate for the Soul (f. 3... More

Tree from BL Stowe 39, f. 24

Tree from BL Stowe 39, f. 24

Drawing of a diagrammatic tree. Image taken from f. 24 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 10v); Debate for the Soul (f. 32r-32v). Written in English.

Detail from BL Stowe 39, f. 9

Detail from BL Stowe 39, f. 9

Detail of figures, in the lower register of Mercy and Pity, offering bread and drink to a young man with crutches, and right, Confession with a priest. Image taken from f. 9 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. ... More

Nuns from BL Stowe 39, ff. 8v-9

Nuns from BL Stowe 39, ff. 8v-9

Miniatures of nuns in various activities, illustrating the treatise The Abbey of the Holy Ghost. Image taken from ff. 8v-9 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 10v); Deb... More

Living Cross from BL Stowe 39, f. 23v

Living Cross from BL Stowe 39, f. 23v

Text page with a marginal drawing of the Living Cross. Image taken from f. 23v of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 10v); Debate for the Soul (f. 32r-32v). Written in English.

Detail from BL Stowe 39, f. 9

Detail from BL Stowe 39, f. 9

Detail of drawing of nuns, including the personification of Decorum with acolyte and nuns, as see, hear, speak, and think no evil. Image taken from f. 9 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Des... More

Nuns from BL Stowe 39, f. 9

Nuns from BL Stowe 39, f. 9

Miniature of nuns in various activities, personifying various traits described in the treatise The Abbey of the Holy Ghost. Image taken from f. 9 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of ... More

Detail from BL Stowe 39, f. 8v

Detail from BL Stowe 39, f. 8v

Detail of a miniature of nuns in various activities, illustrating the treatise The Abbey of the Holy Ghost. Image taken from f. 8v of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 1... More

Debate for the Soul from BL Stowe 39, f. 32v

Debate for the Soul from BL Stowe 39, f. 32v

Miniature of the Debate for the Soul, with a naked man being held by the hair by a devil with a hook, and speared by death, with an angel on the right, Christ with raised hands, and a kneeling Mary interceding ... More

Preacher from BL Stowe 39, ff. 10v-11

Preacher from BL Stowe 39, ff. 10v-11

Miniature of a preacher, and of a man holding a rosary with lions. Image taken from ff. 10v-11 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 10v); Debate for the Soul (f. 32r-32v... More

Detail from BL Stowe 39, f. 8v

Detail from BL Stowe 39, f. 8v

Detail of a miniature of nuns in various activities, illustrating the treatise The Abbey of the Holy Ghost. Image taken from f. 8v of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 1... More

Cattle of Israel from BL Or 2737, f. 75

Cattle of Israel from BL Or 2737, f. 75

Full-page miniature of the Israelites' cattle, which are safe and sound, illustrationof the biblical passage, 'And Pharaoh sent, and behold, there was not one of the cattle of the people of Israel dead (Ex. 9:7... More

Dialogue with Death from BL Stowe 39, f. 32

Dialogue with Death from BL Stowe 39, f. 32

Miniature of a pope, a king, and a knight, being threatened by a skeleton with a spear illustrating the Dialogue with Death. Image taken from f. 32 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert o... More

Mary and Child from BL Stowe 39, f. 10

Mary and Child from BL Stowe 39, f. 10

Miniature of a standing Mary holding the Christ Child, who holds a gird on a string, with a kneeling woman and heraldic device. Image taken from f. 10 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Deser... More

Dialogue with Death from BL Stowe 39, ff. 31v-32

Dialogue with Death from BL Stowe 39, ff. 31v-32

Illuminated initial 'O' and miniature illustrating the Dialogue with Death, with a pope, a king, a knight, and death personified as a skeleton with a spear. Image taken from ff. 31v-32 of The Abbey of the Holy ... More

Herod from BL YT 13, f. 93v

Herod from BL YT 13, f. 93v

Bas-de-page scene of an enthroned Herod giving a letter to a kneeling messenger, with a caption reading, 'Cy comau[n]da herodes p[ar] ses lettres de fere venyr le mestres de la ley'. Image taken from f. 93v of ... More

Three Magi and Herod from BL YT 13, f. 93

Three Magi and Herod from BL YT 13, f. 93

Bas-de-page scene of the Three Magi before an enthroned Herod, with a caption reading, 'Cy vienent les .iii roys de vaunt herodes'. Image taken from f. 93 of Book of Hours, Use of Sarum ('The Taymouth Hours'). ... More

Herod and knights from BL YT 13, f. 97v

Herod and knights from BL YT 13, f. 97v

Bas-de-page scene from the Massacre of the Innocents, of Herod commanding two knights, with a caption reading, 'Cy coma[n]de herodes ses gens doccire toutes les enfaunz'. Image taken from f. 97v of Book of Hour... More

John before Herod from BL YT 13, f. 105

John before Herod from BL YT 13, f. 105

Bas-de-page scene of John the Baptist reproaching an enthroned Herod Antipas, who is holding a sword, with a caption reading, ‘Cy seint iohan le Baptist rep[ri]st herodes de sun pecche.’ Image taken from f. 105... More

Tribes of Israel from BL Royal 19 D VII, f. 155

Tribes of Israel from BL Royal 19 D VII, f. 155

Miniature of tents of the twelve tribes of Israel, with a full border and a foliate initial 'L'(iber), at the beginning of Matthew. Image taken from f. 155 of Bible historiale complétée (Proverbs - Revelation).... More

Illuminated initial from BL Stowe 39, f. 4

Illuminated initial from BL Stowe 39, f. 4

Illuminated initial and border. Image taken from f. 4 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10); Vado mori; Desert of Religion (ff. 10v); Debate for the Soul (f. 32r-32v). Written in English.

Queen from BL Add 18196, ff. 14-22, and 28-40, f. 22

Queen from BL Add 18196, ff. 14-22, and 28-40, f. 22

Historiated initial 'D' of a holy queen, measuring 90 x 85 mm (right bottom). Image taken from f. 22 of Cuttings from a Dominican choir book.

Herod from BL YT 13, f. 94

Herod from BL YT 13, f. 94

Bas-de-page scene of an enthroned Herod listening as six masters of the law show him the prophecies from an open book, with a caption reading ‘Cy vienent les mestres devaut herodes et disorient la p[ro]phecie d... More

John the Baptist from BL YT 13, f. 105v

John the Baptist from BL YT 13, f. 105v

Bas-de-page scene of John the Baptist being pushed into a prison tower by a blue- and green-skinned man holding a club, with a caption reading, ‘Cy est seint iohan en p[ri]sone p[ar] le coma[n]dem[en]t de herod... More

Lion and bear from BL Stowe 39, ff. 22v-23

Lion and bear from BL Stowe 39, ff. 22v-23

Illuminated initial 'I'(n) and miniature of a a lion and a bear before a tree, and a diagrammatic tree illustrating the Desert of Religion. Image taken from ff. 22v-23 of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (ff. 4-10);... More

Diagrams of the Holy Land from BL Add 26878, f. 205

Diagrams of the Holy Land from BL Add 26878, f. 205

Diagrams of the Holy Land, at Numbers 34. Image taken from f. 205 of Pentateuch with Targum Onkelos and Rashi's commentary (ff. 1-272), Five Scrolls (~Hamesh megillot~; ff. 273-311v) and ~Haftarot~(ff. 312-381)... More

Diagrams of the Holy Land from BL Add 26878, f. 205

Diagrams of the Holy Land from BL Add 26878, f. 205

Detail: diagrams of the Holy Land, at Numbers 34. Image taken from f. 205 of Pentateuch with Targum Onkelos and Rashi's commentary (ff. 1-272), Five Scrolls (~Hamesh megillot~; ff. 273-311v) and ~Haftarot~(ff. ... More

Christ at table from BL YT 13, f. 106

Christ at table from BL YT 13, f. 106

Miniature of the Feast in the house of Simon, with Christ at table between a man and a woman, while Mary Magdalen, with a gold casket by her, kneels and washes Christ's feet, with a bas-de-page scene of John th... More

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Gezicht op een binnenplaats van een paleis waar wanhopige moeders proberen hun kinderen te beschermen tegen de soldaten van Herodes. Op de voorgrond drie vrouwen treurend bij de dode lichamen van hun kinderen.

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Gezicht op een binnenplaats van een paleis waar wanhopige moeders proberen hun kinderen te beschermen tegen de soldaten van Herodes. Op de voorgrond drie vrouwen treurend bij de dode lichamen van hun kinderen.

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Gezicht op een binnenplaats van een paleis waar wanhopige moeders proberen hun kinderen te beschermen tegen de soldaten van Herodes. Op de voorgrond drie vrouwen treurend bij de dode lichamen van hun kinderen.

[Christ praying on the Mount of Olives] / M.S.

[Christ praying on the Mount of Olives] / M.S.

Martin Schongauer, also known as Martin Schön or Hübsch Martin by his contemporaries, was an Alsatian engraver and painter. He was the most important printmaker north of the Alps before Albrecht Dürer, a younge... More

De kindermoord te Bethlehem

De kindermoord te Bethlehem

Herodes zit op een troon, terwijl om hem heen vele kleine jongetjes worden vermoord door soldaten. Een vrouw smeekt Herodes om genade. Op de achtergrond is te zien hoe Jozef en Maria met het Christuskind naar E... More

De onthoofding van Johannes de Doper (fragment)

De onthoofding van Johannes de Doper (fragment)

Deel van een voorstelling van de onthoofding van Johannes de Doper. Meer precies gaat het om Salomé die het hoofd van Johannes de Doper aan Herodias, aan tafel gezeten naast Herodes, aanbiedt.

De onthoofding van Johannes de Doper

De onthoofding van Johannes de Doper

Voorstelling van de onthoofding van Johannes de Doper. Links ontvangt Salomé het hoofd van Johannes van de beul, het bloedende lijf van de Doper aan hun voeten. Rechts biedt Salomé het hoofd aan Herodias, aan t... More

Herodes from BL Royal 14 E V, f. 313v

Herodes from BL Royal 14 E V, f. 313v

Detail of a miniature of the death of Herodes, with an inscription on the wall, 'Ainsi va le monde / tousdis / jouyeulx', at the beginning of chapter 7 of book 6. Image taken from f. 313v of De casibus virorum ... More

Herodes from BL Royal 14 E V, f. 313v

Herodes from BL Royal 14 E V, f. 313v

Miniature of the death of Herodes, with an inscription on the wall, 'Ainsi va le monde / tousdis / jouyeulx', with a partial border containing the royal arms of Edward IV, at the beginning of chapter 7 of book ... More

Siege of Jerusalem by Crusaders, 1099

Siege of Jerusalem by Crusaders, 1099

Illus. in: Robertus Remensis, Historia itineris contra Turcos (Dutch), Gouda, ca. 1486. Referece copy may be in LOT 7012. This record contains unverified, old data from caption card. Caption card tracings: Incu... More

Onthoofding van Johannes de Doper

Onthoofding van Johannes de Doper

Johannes de Doper geknield, achter hem een beul met opgeheven zwaard. Onder middelste boog van gebouw feestmaal met Herodes aan tafel, hoofd van Johannes wordt op schaal aangedragen.

Herodias met het hoofd van Johannes de Doper

Herodias met het hoofd van Johannes de Doper

In de feestzaal zit Herodias aan tafel. Voor haar ligt het hoofd van Johannes de Doper op een schaal. Naast haar zitten Salome en Herodes. De prent maakt deel uit van een album.

Pheroras en Jozef

Pheroras en Jozef

Twee bloemkelken met twee koningen. Ze hebben een kroon op hun hoofd en een scepter in hun handen. De voorstelling is onderdeel van een stamboom in de Liber Chronicarum. De tekst identificeert de mannen als Phe... More

Phasaël I en Salomé

Phasaël I en Salomé

Twee bloemkelken met een koning en koningin. Ze hebben een kroon op hun hoofd en een scepter in hun handen. De voorstelling is onderdeel van een stamboom in de Liber Chronicarum. De tekst identificeert de man e... More

Herodes Agrippa I

Herodes Agrippa I

Een bloemkelk met een koning. Hij heeft een rijksappel en een scepter in de handen. De tekst identificeert hem als de Herodes Agrippa I. De prent maakt deel uit van een album.

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Wanhopige moeders proberen hun kinderen te beschermen tegen de soldaten van Herodes. Op de achtergrond gebouwen.

Kindermoord te Bethlehem

Kindermoord te Bethlehem

Binnen een hoge ruimte met vele zuilen, zijn soldaten bezig kinderen te vermoorden, terwijl de moeders proberen ze te redden. Koning Herodes kijkt toe.

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Kindermoord te Betlehem

Wanhopige moeders proberen hun kinderen te beschermen tegen de soldaten van Herodes, die met getrokken zwaarden de kinderen uit hun armen trekken. Op de achtergrond een brug en gebouwen.

De kindermoord te Bethlehem

De kindermoord te Bethlehem

Gedrukt van drie blokken. Twee moeders met kinderen, en twee soldaten die elk een kind doden. Koning Herodes te paard kijkt toe. Links en rechts van de voorstelling architectonische ornamentatie.

Christus voor Kajafas, Bespotting, Christus voor Pilatus, Christus voor Herodes

Christus voor Kajafas, Bespotting, Christus voor Pilatus, Christus voo...

De vierde reeks van vier scènes uit de prentserie 'De kleine Passie', hier nog onversneden met 4 afbeeldingen op 1 blad. Linksboven: Christus wordt door gewapende mannen voor Kajafas geleid. Rechtsboven: Christ... More

Christus voor Herodes

Christus voor Herodes

Christus wordt door soldaten voorgeleid aan Herodes. Onder in de marge is een ornament afgebeeld met putti en guirlandes. Geheel onder staat een Duitse tekst in twee regels die de tronende figuur duidt als de h... More

Christus voor Herodes

Christus voor Herodes

Christus wordt door gewapende mannen voor Herodes geleid. Deze prent is onderdeel van de prentserie 'De kleine Passie', bestaande uit een titelprent en 36 bijbelse scènes (voornamelijk uit het Lijdensverhaal).

Christus voor Herodes geleid

Christus voor Herodes geleid

Christus wordt door soldaten, gekleed in wapenrusting met speren en hellebaarden, voor Herodes geleid. Herodes zit op een rijk geornamenteerde troon met putti en hij ondervraagt Christus. De bovenkant van de vo... More

Ruit met Johannes de Doper voor Herodes

Ruit met Johannes de Doper voor Herodes

Ruit, rond, met gebrandschilderde voorstelling in sepia en twee kleuren geel van Johannes de Doper voor Herodes.