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History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Historians place the past in context using historical sources such as written documents, oral accounts, ecological markers, and material objects including art and artifacts.

History also includes the academic discipline which uses narrative to describe, examine, question, and analyze a sequence of past events, and investigate the patterns of cause and effect that are related to them. Historians seek to understand and represent the past through narratives. They often debate which narrative best explains an event, as well as the significance of different causes and effects. Historians also debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.

Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends. History differs from myth in that it is supported by evidence. However, ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. History is often taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.

Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is often considered (within the Western tradition) to be the "father of history", or, the "father of lies". Along with his contemporary Thucydides, he helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals, was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived.

History Media

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Jerusalem from BL Eg 1070, f. 5

Jerusalem from BL Eg 1070, f. 5

Full-page miniature of Jerusalem and the Dome of the Rock Image taken from f. 5 of Book of Hours, Use of Paris ('The Hours of René d'Anjou'). Written in Latin, calendar and rubrics in French.

Tartariae sive Magni Chami Regni tÿpus.

Tartariae sive Magni Chami Regni tÿpus.

Covers northern Asia. Relief shown pictorially. From Abraham Ortelius's atlas: Theatrvm Orbis Terrarvm, 1603 ed. Hand col. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Includes tex... more

Ierusalem, cum suburbiis, prout tempore Christi floruit, accurate notatis omnibus insignibus et praecipuè iis locis... /

Ierusalem, cum suburbiis, prout tempore Christi floruit, accurate nota...

Relief shown pictorially. German. Titles in Latin and German. Shows Jerusalem during the time of Christ. Includes descriptive text in German. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image.

Sublime and beautiful reflections on the French revolution, or the man in the moon at large

Sublime and beautiful reflections on the French revolution, or the man...

Print shows Edmund Burke sitting at a desk on a crescent moon, holding a quill pen, an open "pamphlet" and an inkwell are on the desk, broken chains hang from his wrists; a scene on the front of the desk, label... more

Nuku Hiva sõdalane / Nuku Hivan warrior

Nuku Hiva sõdalane / Nuku Hivan warrior

Nukuhiivalased olid tugevalt tätoveeritud erinevate geomeetriliste kujunditega. Nende tätoveeringud omasid ka teatud sotsiaalset tähendust – mida tugevamini tätoveeritud, seda tähtsama isikuga oli hõimustruktuu... more

The Scott Monument under Construction

The Scott Monument under Construction

Robert Adamson, David Octavius Hill..1843..Accession no. PGP HA 424 .Medium Calotype print .Size 20.10 x 14.90 cm .Credit Provenance unknown..For more information please select here ( http://www.nationalgalleri... more

[Masonic chart]

[Masonic chart]

This record contains unverified data from PGA shelflist card. Associated name on shelflist card: Humphreys.

Footbridges and Elaborate Commercial Building, S. China

Footbridges and Elaborate Commercial Building, S. China

Attributed to Felice A. Beato (Italy, 1825-1908) Italy, 1860 Photographs Albumen silver print. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Philip Feldman (M.83.302.54)

Women in Helsinki, 1906

Women in Helsinki, 1906

Pi och Ulla Berg, Pa Nyberg och Elsa Berg på Skatudden ca 1906. .Foto Frans Nyberg..slsa817_35_84.Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katajanokka ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katajanokka ) ..Ur boken Helsingfors... more

Man and child

Man and child

SFFf-1992078.0005..Description: The girl is probably Anna Øye, later married Nordang (1906-1997). The man holding her is Elling J. Øyehol (born 1841) from Heimste-Holen...Photographer: S. J. Beckett...www.fylke... more

Berlin 1937, Berliner Dom (Berlin Cathedral)

Berlin 1937, Berliner Dom (Berlin Cathedral)

Beskrivelse:Domkirken i Berlin. Pyntede gater i Berlin, Arbeidets dag (1. mai)/ Berlins 700 års jubileum. Store folkemengder, flagg med hakekors. Maistang. Berliner Dom..Fotograf: Thomas Neumann.År: 1937.Kamera... more

[Boeing B-17F Flying Fortress, Mt. Rainier]

[Boeing B-17F Flying Fortress, Mt. Rainier]

Title: [Boeing Flying Fortress, Mt. Rainier]...Creator: Richie, Robert Yarnall, 1908-1984..Date: April 1943..Place: Mount Rainier, Washington..Part Of: Robert Yarnall Richie photograph collection..Physical Desc... more

Alchemist
Wiesbaden Synagogue Burning

Wiesbaden Synagogue Burning

Description: Wiesbaden Synagogue Burning; Kristallnacht; November Pogroms..Creator/Photographer: Unknown..Medium: Black and white photographic print . .Date: 9 November 1939..Repository: Leo Baeck Institute ( ... more

[U.S. Flight Navigator, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, World War II]

[U.S. Flight Navigator, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, World War II]

Title: [U.S. Flight Navigator, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, World War II]..Creator: Richie, Robert Yarnall, 1908-1984..Date: April or May 1943..Place: Mitchel Field Air Force Base, Long Island, New York..Part O... more

Mission Mfg., ''Miss Mission'' series in color

Mission Mfg., ''Miss Mission'' series in color

Title: Mission Mfg., ''Miss Mission'' series in color ..Alternative Title: [Mission Manufacturing Co., ''Miss Mission'' series in color]..Creator: Robert Yarnall Richie ..Date: August 1944..Place: Housto... more

[Woman taping wire, Chrysler Corporation]

[Woman taping wire, Chrysler Corporation]

Title: [Woman taping wire, Chrysler Corporation] . .Creator: Richie, Robert Yarnall (1908-1984) ..Date: 1944 ..Part Of: Robert Yarnall Richie photographs..Physical Description: 1 transparency: film, ... more

Tasmanian Convicts

Tasmanian Convicts

Tasmanian Convicts

[Central Dome, Paris Exposition, 1889]

[Central Dome, Paris Exposition, 1889]

Originals in PR12, LOT 6634.

Roundel with griffin heads
Engraving
Marble head of Herakles

Marble head of Herakles

Copy of a Greek statue of the 3rd or 2nd century B.C.

Earrings
Stamp seal

Stamp seal

Iran Sasanian

Hieroglyphic Panel

Hieroglyphic Panel

The Maya developed hieroglyphic writing to record the names, births, marriages, alliances, victories and coronations, and deaths of their rulers. Mythological events and religious happenings were also carefully... more

Seated scribe from BL YT 26, f. 2

Seated scribe from BL YT 26, f. 2

Miniature of a scribe writing at a desk (thought to be Bede), from the preface to Bede's prose Life of St Cuthbert. Image taken from f. 2 of Prose Life of Cuthbert; extracts from the Historia Ecclesiastica (His... more

Cuthbert at a synod from BL YT 26, f. 53v

Cuthbert at a synod from BL YT 26, f. 53v

Miniature of Cuthbert accepting the bishopric at a synod of fellow monks, from Chapter 24 of Bede's prose Life of St Cuthbert. Image taken from f. 53v of Prose Life of Cuthbert; extracts from the Historia Eccle... more

Canon table from BL Royal 1 E VI, f. 6

Canon table from BL Royal 1 E VI, f. 6

Canon table with a zoomorphic decoration in the 'Trewhiddle Style'. Image taken from f. 6 of Gospels, imperfect (the 'Royal Bible'). Written in Latin.

Dice
Lintel

Lintel

This monster – who is traditionally identifed with the demon Kala – protected the entrances to Hindu and Buddhist temples against evil spirits. The stone was once placed above the entrance to one of the 240 sma... more

Philosophy visiting Boethius from BL Harley 2688, f. 22v

Philosophy visiting Boethius from BL Harley 2688, f. 22v

Drawing of Philosophy visiting Boethius in prison. Image taken from f. 22v of Miscellany, including a wind rose (f. 17), a Greek and Latin grammatical list (ff. 19-22), and an excerpt from the 'Proverbia Salomo... more

John the Baptist from BL Eg 1139, f. 206

John the Baptist from BL Eg 1139, f. 206

Detail of miniature of John the Baptist. Image taken from f. 206 of Psalter (The 'Melisende Psalter') with canticles, prayers, and litany. Written in Latin.

Haggai from BL Harley 2803, f. 281

Haggai from BL Harley 2803, f. 281

Detail of a historiated initial 'I'(n anno) depicting the standing prophet holding a scroll, at the beginning of Haggai (Aggaeus). Image taken from f. 281 of Bible (the 'Worms Bible') (index Frankenthal Bible),... more

Decorated headpiece and initial from BL Arundel 529, ff. 5v-6

Decorated headpiece and initial from BL Arundel 529, ff. 5v-6

Simple headpiece and intial 'T'(on) in an extract from Cyril of Scythopolis's Life of Euthymius of Palestine. Image taken from ff. 5v-6 of Theological extracts and various letters. Written in Greek.

Cow from BL Harley 4751, f. 23

Cow from BL Harley 4751, f. 23

Detail of a miniature of woman milking a cow, who is licking its calf. Image taken from f. 23 of Bestiary, with extracts from Giraldus Cambrensis on Irish birds. Written in Latin.