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Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα, Ellada, [eˈlaða]), officially the Hellenic Republic and also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkans, Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. It shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km (8,498 mi) in length, featuring many islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres (9,573 ft). The country consists of nine traditional geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands (including the Dodecanese and Cyclades), Thrace, Crete, and the Ionian Islands.

Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilization, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis (singular polis), which spanned the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Philip II of Macedon united most of present-day Greece in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great rapidly conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. The subsequent Hellenistic period saw the height of Greek culture and influence in antiquity. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, which adopted the Greek language and culture. The Greek Orthodox Church, which emerged in the first century AD, helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox world. After falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, Greece emerged as a modern nation state in 1830 following a war of independence. The country's rich historical legacy is reflected in part by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic, and a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy, and a high quality of life, ranking simultaneously very high in the Human Development Index. Its economy is the largest in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities (precursor to the European Union) and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. It is also a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF). Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power.

Greece Media

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Terracotta fragment of an oinochoe: chous (jug)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Lead disk with a hole in the center

Lead disk with a hole in the center

Small flat votive figurines of cast lead have been found in great quantities at the ancient sanctuaries of Laconia; over one hundred thousand, dating from the seventh century B.C. to the Classical period, were ... More

Bronze strigil, bronze, Europe, ancient Greece
Bronze kylix (drinking cup), bronze
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Greek Terracotta oinochoe (jug), Greece
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Archaic Vase fragment, terracota, Europe, Greece

Archaic Vase fragment, terracota, Europe, Greece

Fragment from the rim of a chalice. Archaic

Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Gold ring with a garnet

Gold ring with a garnet

Gold ring with a garnet. Hellenistic

Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragments of kylikes: Lip cup (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of an undetermined shape
Terracotta fragments of column-kraters (bowls for mixing wine and water)
Terracotta fragment of a mastoid (drinking cup with narrow base) ?
Terracotta fragment of a hydria (water jar) or terracotta fragment of a pelike (jar)
Terracotta fragments of kylikes (drinking cups)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Vase fragment, terracota, Europe, Greece

Vase fragment, terracota, Europe, Greece

Accession Number: 26.199.260

Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix: Lip cup (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta squat lekythos (oil flask)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragments of open shapes
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Marble stele (grave marker) of Eukleia
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragments of pots; unglazed on the inside
Terracotta fragment of a lekythos (oil flask)
Statuette of a warrior-11

Statuette of a warrior-11

Accession Number: 24.195.76

Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Lead figure of a goddess with an aegis, probably Athena

Lead figure of a goddess with an aegis, probably Athena

Small flat votive figurines of cast lead have been found in great quantities at the ancient sanctuaries of Laconia; over one hundred thousand, dating from the seventh century B.C. to the Classical period, were ... More

Terracotta fragment of an undetermined shape
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim of a cup with spirals and band
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta roundel with mask of Pan

Terracotta roundel with mask of Pan

Roundel with the face of Pan attached. Hellenistic

Terracotta fragments of kylikes (drinking cups)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a krater (deep bowl)
Terracotta fragments of skyphoi (deep drinking cups)
Terracotta fragments of kylikes (drinking cups)
Terracotta fragments of column-kraters (bowls for mixing wine and water)
Terracotta fragment of a closed shape
Vase fragment, terracota, Europe, Greece

Vase fragment, terracota, Europe, Greece

Accession Number: 07.232.129 Early Minoan II

Terracotta fragments of kylikes (drinking cups)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Shell pestle/polisher, early Cycladic II

Shell pestle/polisher, early Cycladic II

Small pestle or polisher carved from a piece of shell. Early Cycladic II

Greek Glass striped mosaic bowl
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Terracotta rim fragment of a skyphos (deep drinking cup)
Terracotta fragment of a kylix (drinking cup)
Steatite seal with bridge handle

Steatite seal with bridge handle

S-spirals in quadrilateral formation. Early Minoan II–III

Terracotta fragment of a krater (bowl for mixing wine and water)?
Terracotta fragment of a calyx-krater (bowl for mixing wine and water)
Terracotta fragments of kylikes (drinking cups)
Volute-krater fragment, Greece
Terracotta rim fragments of kylikes (drinking cups)
Terracotta fragment of a pot; unglazed on the inside
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