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Egypt ( (listen) EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصرMiṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage along the Nile Delta back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.

Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt declared itself a republic, and in 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government, a semi-presidential republic has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian or heading an authoritarian regime, responsible for perpetuating the country's problematic human rights record.

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the thirteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt is considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide. With one of the largest and most diversified economies in the Middle East, which is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century, Egypt has the third-largest economy in Africa, the world's 40th-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the 19-largest by PPP. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the African Union, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Egypt Media

75,385 media by topicpage 1 of 754
Woman posed as sphinx

Woman posed as sphinx

Accession Number: 1983:0063:0002..Maker: Dr. W. Simon..Title: Woman posed as sphinx..Date: ca. 1910..Medium: color plate, screen (Autochrome) process..Dimensions: Image: 8 x 8 cm Overall: 10 x 12.6 cm..George... More

Inlay fragments (12), Egypt, Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BCE)
Inlay, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC

Inlay, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Nespekashuty (TT 312, MMA 509), MMA excavations, 1922–23 Late Period, Saite

Palette for painting of Vizier Amenemopet
Jar, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC

Jar, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC

From Egypt Predynastic Period

Raised relief fragment, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC

Raised relief fragment, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Nespekashuty (TT 312, MMA 509), 1st chamber E. wall; 8th register (middle), MMA excavations, 1922–23 Late Period, Saite

Ostracon, Egypt

Ostracon, Egypt

From Egypt Late Period or later

Ostracon, Egypt, Late Period (525-332 BCE)

Ostracon, Egypt, Late Period (525-332 BCE)

From Egypt, Western Desert; Kharga Oasis, Hibis, MMA excavations, 1908–10 Late Period–Ptolemaic Period

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Pyramid complex of Senwosret I, north temple gateway, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Oxyrhynchus fish, Egypt, Late Period (525-332 BCE)

Oxyrhynchus fish, Egypt, Late Period (525-332 BCE)

From Egypt Late Period–Ptolemaic Period

Worker Shabti of Nany, Upper Egypt

Worker Shabti of Nany, Upper Egypt

Shabti dolls were funerary figures in ancient Egypt that accompanied the deceased to the after-life. Shabti's name is derived from the Egyptian swb for stick but also corresponds to the word for `answer' (wsb) ... More

Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb

Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb MMA 60, Chamber B, Burial of Henettawy C (4), MMA excavations, 1923–24 Third Intermediate Period

Model Fire-stick, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Model Fire-stick, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Priests' Cemetery, Tomb of Senwosretankh (MMA 211), MMA excavations, 1921–22 Middle Kingdom

Funerary Cone of High Priest of Amun Djehuty

Funerary Cone of High Priest of Amun Djehuty

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, 17-18th Dynasty Cemetery, near tomb 2, MMA excavations, 1912–13 New Kingdom

Funerary Cone of the Chief of the Medjay Didu

Funerary Cone of the Chief of the Medjay Didu

See 15.10.6 Found Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Khokha, Tomb MMA 828 (MMA H 4), courtyard rubbish, MMA excavations, 1915 New Kingdom

Game peg, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Game peg, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, Cemetery, MMA excavations, 1906–07 Middle Kingdom

Mat, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Mat, Metropolitan Museum of Art

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, Temple of Hatshepsut, Carnarvon/Carter excavations New Kingdom

Menat fragment, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Menat fragment, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Hatshepsut Hole, Hathor Shrine, MMA excavations, 1922–23 New Kingdom

Menat fragment, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Menat fragment, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Hatshepsut Hole, MMA excavations, 1922–23 New Kingdom

Leopard-Head Girdle of Sithathoryunet

Leopard-Head Girdle of Sithathoryunet

From Egypt, Fayum Entrance Area, Lahun, Tomb of Sithathoryunet (BSA Tomb 8), Chamber E, box 1, BSAE excavations 1914 Middle Kingdom

Floral plaque, Egypt, Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BCE)

Floral plaque, Egypt, Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BCE)

From Egypt Ptolemaic Period–Roman Period

Tool, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC

Tool, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC

From Egypt, Fayum, camp II (CII), Petrie excavations, 1926 Predynastic Period

Unattached Spacers from a Bracelet or Anklet of Sithathoryunet

Unattached Spacers from a Bracelet or Anklet of Sithathoryunet

From Egypt, Fayum Entrance Area, Lahun, Tomb of Sithathoryunet (BSA Tomb 8), Chamber E, box 1, BSAE excavations 1914 Middle Kingdom

Scarab Inscribed for the Female Horus Wosretkau (Hatshepsut)

Scarab Inscribed for the Female Horus Wosretkau (Hatshepsut)

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Temple of Hatshepsut, Foundation Deposit 7 (G), MMA excavations, 1926–27 New Kingdom

Scarab, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Scarab, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, cemetery south of pyramid, between Houses A1.2 & A2.4, Pit 334, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Scarab, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Scarab, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, Tomb CC 37, Hall (C), burial 36, inside coffin, Carnarvon/Carter excavations, 1911 New Kingdom

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Pyramid complex of Senwosret I, north temple gateway, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Pyramid complex of Senwosret I, north temple gateway, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Pyramid complex of Senwosret I, north temple gateway, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Seals (3) from net, Egypt, Greco-Roman Period, 332 BCE – 642 CE

Seals (3) from net, Egypt, Greco-Roman Period, 332 BCE – 642 CE

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Priests' houses, near, Roman burial XXI, MMA excavations, 1923–24 Roman Period

Worker Shabti of Nany, Upper Egypt

Worker Shabti of Nany, Upper Egypt

Shabti dolls were funerary figures in ancient Egypt that accompanied the deceased to the after-life. Shabti's name is derived from the Egyptian swb for stick but also corresponds to the word for `answer' (wsb) ... More

White cross-lined ware beaker with hippos

White cross-lined ware beaker with hippos

From Egypt Predynastic, Naqada II

Votive Menat fragments, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Votive Menat fragments, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Hatshepsut Hole, Hathor Shrine, MMA excavations, 1922–23 New Kingdom

Shabti of Hor, Egypt, Third Intermediate Period (1070–664 BC)

Shabti of Hor, Egypt, Third Intermediate Period (1070–664 BC)

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Temple of Hatshepsut, southeast lower court in rubbish, MMA excavations, 1923–24 Third Intermediate Period

Linen Mark Recording the Name Wabetamun

Linen Mark Recording the Name Wabetamun

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Sheikh Abd el-Qurna, below the Tomb of Senenmut (TT 71), burial 1, on mummy, MMA excavations, 1935–36 New Kingdom

Raised relief fragment, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC

Raised relief fragment, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Nespekashuty (TT 312, MMA 509), Undetermined, MMA excavations, 1922–23 Late Period, Saite

Relief fragment probably from the tomb of Khety

Relief fragment probably from the tomb of Khety

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Neferu or Khety (TT 319/311, MMA 31/508), MMA excavations, 1923–24 Middle Kingdom

Scarab, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Scarab, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Hatshepsut Hole, Hathor Shrine, MMA excavations, 1922–23 New Kingdom

Scarab, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Scarab, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt New Kingdom, Ramesside

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