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Austria ( (listen), ; German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯ç] (listen)), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich, listen ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (Bundesländer), one of which is Vienna, Austria's capital and its largest city. It is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. Austria occupies an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of nearly 9 million people. While German is the country's official language, many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects.

Austria initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. As an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation but pursued its own course independently of the other German states. Following the Austro-Prussian War and the compromise with Hungary, the Dual Monarchy was established.

Austria was involved in World War I under Emperor Franz Joseph following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, the presumptive successor to the Austro-Hungarian throne. After the defeat and the dissolution of the Monarchy, the Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed with the intent of the union with Germany, which eventually failed because of the Allied Powers and the state remained unrecognized. In 1919 the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor of Austria. In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, who became the Chancellor of the German Reich, achieved the annexation of Austria by the Anschluss. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic.

Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected Federal President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of the federal government. Major urban areas of Austria include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita terms. The country has achieved a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. Vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators.

The Second Republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995. It plays host to the OSCE and OPEC and is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999.

Austria Media

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Verteidiger der Foramestellung
Zeichnet 7. Kriegsanleihe / Alfred Offner.

Zeichnet 7. Kriegsanleihe / Alfred Offner.

Poster shows soldiers and their weapons behind a barricade of Austrian coins. Text: Subscribe to the 7th War Loan, Vienna Commercial Bank. Title from item.

Folding fan, bronze, Europe
Cup and saucer
Ogee ripple frame
Mitre, 11th century

Mitre, 11th century

Made in Tyrol, Austria (possibly)

Tyrol Mitre
Crucifix, 12th century
Prick Spur
Saint John the Evangelist
Tyrol Textile, 13th century
Mourning Virgin, 12th century
Maximilian from BL Harley 6199, f. 73v

Maximilian from BL Harley 6199, f. 73v

Miniature of Maximilian, Archduke of Austria. Image taken from f. 73v of Statuts de l'Ordre de la Toison d'Or (index Statutes and Armorial of the Order of the Golden Fleece). Written in French.

Molded Tile, 12th century

Molded Tile, 12th century

Made in Niederosterreich, Austria

Saint John the Evangelist
Maximilian of Austria from BL YT 32, f. 15

Maximilian of Austria from BL YT 32, f. 15

Miniature of Maximilian of Austria giving a knight's sword to his son, Philip, who stands with Mary of Burgundy, the daughter of Charles the Bold. With a scatter border of flowers and acanthus, and a man takin... More

Mitre, 12th century

Mitre, 12th century

Made in Salzburg, Austrian

Maximilian of Austria from BL YT 32, f. 15

Maximilian of Austria from BL YT 32, f. 15

Miniature of Maximilian of Austria giving a knight's sword to his son, Philip, who stands with Mary of Burgundy, the daughter of Charles the Bold. With a scatter border of flowers and acanthus, and a man takin... More

Mourning Virgin, 13th century
Virgin and Child
Maximilian from BL Harley 6199, f. 73v

Maximilian from BL Harley 6199, f. 73v

Detail of a miniature of Maximilian, Archduke of Austria. Image taken from f. 73v of Statuts de l'Ordre de la Toison d'Or (index Statutes and Armorial of the Order of the Golden Fleece). Written in French.

Box with Enamel Plaques

Box with Enamel Plaques

Made in probably Vienna, Austria

Box with Enamel Plaques
Tracery Light, 13th century
Saint George and the Dragon
Saint George and the Dragon
Saint George, 14th century

Saint George, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Triangular-shaped Tracery Light
Triangular-shaped Tracery Light

Triangular-shaped Tracery Light

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Stained Glass Panel with Emperor Henry II
Trefoil-shaped Tracery Light

Trefoil-shaped Tracery Light

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Stained Glass Panel with Queen Kunigunde
Saint Nicholas, 14th century

Saint Nicholas, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Quatrefoil-shaped Tracery Light
Ornamental Lancet Heads, The Cloisters
Saint Philip, 14th century

Saint Philip, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Trefoil-shaped Tracery Light
Triangular-shaped Tracery Light
Ornamental Lancet Heads

Ornamental Lancet Heads

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Saint Agnes, 14th century

Saint Agnes, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Saint Augustine, 14th century

Saint Augustine, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Saint Lawrence, 14th century

Saint Lawrence, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Ornamental Lancet Heads, The Cloisters
Saint Martin, 14th century

Saint Martin, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Trefoil-shaped Tracery Light

Trefoil-shaped Tracery Light

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Panel with the Harrowing of Hell

Panel with the Harrowing of Hell

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Saint Erhard, 14th century
Dormition of the Virgin

Dormition of the Virgin

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Triangular-shaped Tracery Light

Triangular-shaped Tracery Light

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Saint Ambrose, 14th century

Saint Ambrose, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Ornamental Lancet Heads

Ornamental Lancet Heads

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Stained Glass Panel with Emperor Henry II
Doubting Thomas, 14th century

Doubting Thomas, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Stained Glass Panel with Queen Kunigunde
Quatrefoil-shaped Tracery Light

Quatrefoil-shaped Tracery Light

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Triangular-shaped Tracery Light
Trefoil-shaped Tracery Light
Madonna of Mercy

Madonna of Mercy

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Triangular-shaped Tracery Light

Triangular-shaped Tracery Light

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Saint Thomas, 14th century

Saint Thomas, 14th century

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Noli Me Tangere

Noli Me Tangere

Made in Carinthia, Austria

Madonna of Mercy
The Virgin from an Annunciation
The Angel Gabriel from an Annunciation Group
Architectural canopy, 14th century
Architectural canopy, 14th century

Architectural canopy, 14th century

Made in Lower Austria, Austria

The Presentation in the Temple
Cusped Lancet head

Cusped Lancet head

Made in Ebreichsdorf, Austria

The Agony in the Garden
Christ Before Pilate, The Cloisters
Panel with the Annunciation
The Agony in the Garden
Architectural canopy, 14th century
Adoration of the Magi from Seven Scenes from the Life of Christ
Architectural canopy, 14th century
Architectural canopy, 14th century

Architectural canopy, 14th century

Made in Lower Austria, Austria

Architectural canopy, 14th century

Architectural canopy, 14th century

Made in Lower Austria, Austria

The Baptism of Christ
Architectural canopy, 14th century

Architectural canopy, 14th century

Made in Lower Austria, Austria

The Virgin from an Annunciation
Architectural canopy, 14th century

Architectural canopy, 14th century

Made in Lower Austria, Austria

Adoration of the Magi from Seven Scenes from the Life of Christ
The Baptism of Christ
Architectural canopy, 14th century
The Harrowing of Hell

The Harrowing of Hell

Made in Lower Austria, Austria

The Angel Gabriel from an Annunciation Group
The Presentation in the Temple

The Presentation in the Temple

Made in Lower Austria, Austria

The Harrowing of Hell
Christ Before Pilate

Christ Before Pilate

Made in Lower Austria, Austria

Architectural canopy, 14th century
Adoration of the Magi from Seven Scenes from the Life of Christ
Architectural Canopy, 14th century
Panel with the Annunciation
Cusped Lancet head, The Cloisters
Architectural Canopy, 14th century
Architectural canopy, 14th century
Architectural canopy, 14th century

Architectural canopy, 14th century

Made in Lower Austria, Austria

Roundel, 14th century
Serving Knife, copper alloy, Europe
Knife Case, 14th century
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