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Aristocracy (Greek: ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos 'excellent', and κράτος, kratos 'rule') is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class, the aristocrats. The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning 'rule of the best'.

At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece, the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy, rule by an individual. The term was first used by such ancient Greeks as Aristotle and Plato, who used it to describe a system where only the best of the citizens, chosen through a careful process of selection, would become rulers, and hereditary rule would actually have been forbidden, unless the rulers' children performed best and were better endowed with the attributes that make a person fit to rule compared with every other citizen in the polity. Hereditary rule in this understanding is more related to Oligarchy, a corrupted form of Aristocracy where there is rule by a few, but not by the best. Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Xenophon and the Spartans considered Aristocracy (the ideal form of rule by the few) to be inherently better than the ideal form of rule by the many (Democracy), but they also considered the corrupted form of Aristocracy (Oligarchy) to be worse than the corrupted form of Democracy (Mob Rule). This belief was rooted in the assumption that the masses could only produce average policy, while the best of men could produce the best policy, if they were indeed the best of men. Later Polybius in his analysis of the Roman Constitution used the concept of aristocracy to describe his conception of a republic as a mixed form of government, along with democracy and monarchy in their conception from then, as a system of checks and balances, where each element checks the excesses of the other. In practice, aristocracy often leads to hereditary government, after which the hereditary monarch appoints officers as they see fit.

In modern times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class, and has since been contrasted with democracy.

Aristocracy Media

90,278 media by topicpage 1 of 903
Queen Victoria, c.1870.

Queen Victoria, c.1870.

By Andre-Adolphe-Eugene Disderi .....A cabinet card sized woodburytype of Queen Victoria (1819-1901), taken in about 1870 by the French photographer Disderi (1819-1889). This is from the 'Disderi' album in the ... more

Czar Nicholas II

Czar Nicholas II

Artist: C.L. Co..Artist Bio: German publishing company, active early 20th century.Creation Date: 1913.Process: postcard.Credit Line: Gift of Stephen White ... more

HM the Gyalmo, HH Prince Palden, HH Princess Hope

HM the Gyalmo, HH Prince Palden, HH Princess Hope

Photograph shows Queen Hope Cooke with her children, Prince Palden and Princess Hope Leezum, Gangtok, Sikkim.

King & Queen and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales

King & Queen and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales

King George V, Queen Mary and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, taken during a visit to the Western Front in France. They are positioned in front of a large brick building with French windows. The King and Queen are ... more

[King Palden Thondup Namgyal accepting scarves, including one scarf from Alice Kandell, at his coronation, Gangtok, Sikkim]

[King Palden Thondup Namgyal accepting scarves, including one scarf fr...

Title devised by Library staff. Slide used for the presentation: "A Tour of the Lost Kingdom: Sikkim" by Dr. Alice S. Kandell and Hope Cooke, Library of Congress, March 13, 2010. Webcast available at: http://... more

[King and Queen of Sikkim and their daughter Hope Leezum watch birthday celebrations, Gangtok, Sikkim]

[King and Queen of Sikkim and their daughter Hope Leezum watch birthda...

Title devised by Library staff. Date from information for related slide: LC-KAN05-69. Slide used for the presentation: "A Tour of the Lost Kingdom: Sikkim" by Dr. Alice S. Kandell and Hope Cooke, Library of Co... more

Princess Hope & Queen Hope in the palace, Sikkim

Princess Hope & Queen Hope in the palace, Sikkim

Date from information on related slide: LC-KAN05-0072. Title from item. Forms part of: Dr. Alice S. Kandell Collection of Sikkim Photographs (Library of Congress). Also represented in LOT 14034-2, pg. no. 027 ... more

[Hope Cooke, Queen of Sikkim, seated, three-quarter length portrait, facing left]

[Hope Cooke, Queen of Sikkim, seated, three-quarter length portrait, f...

Title devised by Library staff. Date from related slide: LC-KAN05-072. Slide used for the presentation: "A Tour of the Lost Kingdom: Sikkim" by Dr. Alice S. Kandell and Hope Cooke, Library of Congress, March 1... more

[Palden Thondup Namgyal, King of Sikkim, and Hope Cooke, Queen of Sikkim, in brocaded dress, walking to the Tsuklakhang Main Temple (Palace Temple) during the King's birthday celebration, Gangtok, Sikkim]

[Palden Thondup Namgyal, King of Sikkim, and Hope Cooke, Queen of Sikk...

Title devised by Library staff. Date from information for related slide: LC-KAN05-69. Slide used for the presentation: "A Tour of the Lost Kingdom: Sikkim" by Dr. Alice S. Kandell and Hope Cooke, Library of Co... more

Ecgfrith visiting Cuthbert from BL YT 26, f. 51

Ecgfrith visiting Cuthbert from BL YT 26, f. 51

Miniature of Ecgfrith, king of the English, along with his bishop Trumwine, visiting Cuthbert at Lindisfarne, from Chapter 24 of Bede's prose Life of St Cuthbert. Image taken from f. 51 of Prose Life of Cuthber... more

Full-page architectural border from BL Harley 3046, f. 10

Full-page architectural border from BL Harley 3046, f. 10

Full-page architectural border in colours and gold with a large historiated initial 'D'(ominus) with Pope Gregory the Great, putti, Jerome and another Church father, and the arms of Ferdinand I of Aragon, king ... more

Wax seal of Floris, Count of Holland

Wax seal of Floris, Count of Holland

Zegel met tegenzegel in bruine was van graaf Floris V van Holland. Voorzijde: een naar rechts galopperend paard met een man in volle wapenrusting. De man heeft een zwaard in de opgeheven rechterhand en in de li... more

Egbert from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 1

Egbert from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 1

Detail from the roll of three kings: Egbert (or Ecgberht), king of the West Saxons, his son Æthelwulf, and king Beorhtric, with a man on stilts playing a pipe with an animal-head. Image taken from Membrane 1 of... more

Cnut from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 4

Cnut from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 4

Detail from the roll of Cnut, king of England, Denmark, and Norway, and his sons Harald Harefoot and Harthacnut. Image taken from Membrane 4 of Genealogical chronicle of the English Kings. Written in French.

King Alured from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 2

King Alured from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 2

Detail from the roll of king Alured (or Alfred, king of the West Saxons and of the Anglo-Saxons) and his daughter Alfled (or Æthelflæd). Image taken from Membrane 2 of Genealogical chronicle of the English King... more

From Richard I, Duke of Normandy to Henry II from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 5

From Richard I, Duke of Normandy to Henry II from BL Royal 14 B V, Mem...

Detail from the roll of the descendants of Richard I the Fearless, Duke of Normandy, to Henry II and his descendants. Image taken from Membrane 5 of Genealogical chronicle of the English Kings. Written in French.

Rollo and his descendants from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 4 and 5

Rollo and his descendants from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 4 and 5

Detail from the roll: Rolo, duke of Normandy, his son William with his son Richard and his descendents, and William the Conqueror, with a marginal scene of a hare on a horse hunting a deer. Image taken from Me... more

From Cnut to Richard I, Duke of Normandy from BL Royal 14 B V, Membrane 4

From Cnut to Richard I, Duke of Normandy from BL Royal 14 B V, Membran...

Fragment of the roll with the genealogical line of Cnut, roundels of Edward the Confessor and Harold Godwinson, and the line of the Normam ancestors of William the Conqueror: Rollo, William and Richard I the Fe... more

Annunciation to Zacharias from BL Royal 3 D VI, f. 234

Annunciation to Zacharias from BL Royal 3 D VI, f. 234

Historiated initial 'F'(uit) of an angel and Zacharias censing the altar, with a full bar-border with foliate cornerpieces, marginal animals (including a squirrel, lion, rabbit, birds, dog, peacock and hybrids)... more

King of Love from BL Stowe 17, f. 273

King of Love from BL Stowe 17, f. 273

Marginal miniature of the king of love sitting in a tree with two musicians, aiming his arrows at a couple sitting below. Image taken from f. 273 of Book of Hours, Use of Maastricht ('The Maastricht Hours'). Wr... more

Joseph from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16

Joseph from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16

Miniature of the king of Egypt hunting, in the upper register; and of Joseph and the wife of Potiphar, in the lower register. Image taken from f. 16 of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with... more

Moses freeing the Israelites from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 24v

Moses freeing the Israelites from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 24v

Detail of an upper register miniature of Moses freeing the Israelites from the king of Egypt. Image taken from f. 24v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

Coronation of Saul from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 50v

Coronation of Saul from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 50v

Detail of a lower register miniature of the coronation of Saul as the king of Gilgal. Image taken from f. 50v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

Joseph interpreting dreams from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16v

Joseph interpreting dreams from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16v

Detail of a lower register miniature of Joseph interpreting dreams for the king of Egypt. Image taken from f. 16v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

Jacob from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 19v

Jacob from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 19v

Detail of an upper register miniature of Jacob being introduced to the king of Egypt. Image taken from f. 19v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

King's order from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 22v

King's order from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 22v

Detail of an upper register miniature of the king of Egypt demanding that all Jewish infants be killed. Image taken from f. 22v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

Moses and the king of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 24v

Moses and the king of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 24v

Miniature of Moses freeing the Israelites from the king of Egypt, in the upper register; miniature of Moses and the king of Egypt's troops facing each other across the Red Sea, in the lower register. Image take... more

Joseph from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 17v

Joseph from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 17v

Miniature of the king of Egypt making Joseph an overseer, in the upper register; and of Joseph ordering the filling of granaries, in the lower register. Image taken from f. 17v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalt... more

Joseph as overseer from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 17v

Joseph as overseer from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 17v

Detail of an upper register miniature of the king of Egypt making Joseph an overseer. Image taken from f. 17v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

Moses from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 23

Moses from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 23

Detail of a lower register miniature of the king of Egypt and his court seated at table with Moses striking the king of Egypt's son in play. Image taken from f. 23 of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written... more

King of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16

King of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16

Detail of a miniature of the king of Egypt hunting, in the upper register. Image taken from f. 16 of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

Moses from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 23

Moses from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 23

Miniature in two parts of Moses found in the river, in the upper register; and of the king of Egypt and his court seated at table with Moses striking the king of Egypt's son in play, in the lower register. Imag... more

Saul and Samuel from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 50v

Saul and Samuel from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 50v

Miniature of the anointing of Saul by Samuel, in the upper register; and of the coronation of Saul as the king of Gilgal, in the lower register. Image taken from f. 50v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Wr... more

Moses and the king of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 24v

Moses and the king of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 24v

Detail of a lower register miniature of Moses and the king of Egypt's troops facing each other across the Red Sea. Image taken from f. 24v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French im... more

Joseph and Jacob from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 15v

Joseph and Jacob from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 15v

Miniature of Joseph's brothers displaying his coat to Jacob, in the upper register; and of Joseph before the king of Egypt, in the lower register. Image taken from f. 15v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). ... more

King of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 17

King of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 17

Miniature of the king of Egypt and his councillors, in the lower register. Image taken from f. 17 of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

Moses and the king of Egypt's crown from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 23v

Moses and the king of Egypt's crown from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 23v

Miniature of Moses throwing the king of Egypt's crown on a fire, in the upper register; and of Moses helping a Jew fighting with an Egyptian, in the lower register. Image taken from f. 23v of Psalter ('The Quee... more

Jacob and Joseph from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 19v

Jacob and Joseph from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 19v

Miniature of Jacob being introduced to the king of Egypt, in the upper register; miniature of Jacob and Joseph, in the lower register. Image taken from f. 19v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in L... more

Moses and the king of Egypt's crown from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 23v

Moses and the king of Egypt's crown from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 23v

Detail of an upper register miniature of Moses throwing the king of Egypt's crown on a fire. Image taken from f. 23v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

King of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 17

King of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 17

Detail of a miniature of the king of Egypt and his councillors, in the lower register. Image taken from f. 17 of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

Joseph from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16v

Joseph from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16v

Miniature of Joseph imprisoned with the king of Egypt's chief baker and butler, in the upper register; miniature of Joseph interpreting dreams for the king of Egypt, in the lower register. Image taken from f. 1... more

Joseph and King of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 15v

Joseph and King of Egypt from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 15v

Detail of a lower register miniature of Joseph before the king of Egypt. Image taken from f. 15v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

Joseph, baker and butler from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16v

Joseph, baker and butler from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 16v

Detail of an upper register miniature of Joseph imprisoned with the king of Egypt's chief baker and butler. Image taken from f. 16v of Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter'). Written in Latin, with French image captions.

King of Egypt and Moses from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 22v

King of Egypt and Moses from BL Royal 2 B VII, f. 22v

Miniature of the king of Egypt demanding that all Jewish infants be killed, in the upper register; of the birth of Moses, and of Moses exposed in the ark on the banks of the Nile, in the lower register. Image t... more

Landromacha from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 193

Landromacha from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 193

Bas-de-page miniature of the wars of Landomacha, the king of Georgia ceding his lands, and the king of Armenia in a mountain fortress. Image taken from f. 193 of Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César, part 3 of the s... more

Landromacha from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 193v

Landromacha from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 193v

Bas-de-page miniature of the imprisonment and tomb of the king of Armenia, and Landomacha and Thamyris and their tombs. Image taken from f. 193v of Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César, part 3 of the second redactio... more

Teuthras from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 62v

Teuthras from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 62v

Bas-de-page miniature of 'La bataile dachiles et de vn roy de Damas' (sic for Teuthras, King of Mysia). Image taken from f. 62v of Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César, part 3 of the second redaction. Written in French.

Adrastus from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 12v

Adrastus from BL Royal 20 D I, f. 12v

Bas-de-page miniature of Adrastus, the son of Talaus, king of Argos, in council. Image taken from f. 12v of Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César, part 3 of the second redaction. Written in French.

Philip and John from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 362

Philip and John from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 362

Detail of a miniature of Philip Augustus and John, king of England, making peace. Image taken from f. 362 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

William killed from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 418

William killed from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 418

Miniature of William, king of the Romans, being killed. Image taken from f. 418 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Battle of Philip Augustus and John of England from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 376v

Battle of Philip Augustus and John of England from BL Royal 16 G VI, f...

Detail of a miniature of a battle of Philip Augustus and John, king of England. Image taken from f. 376v of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Lothaire from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 256

Lothaire from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 256

Miniature of Lothaire meeting the Duke of Eaune. Image taken from f. 256 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

William from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 313v

William from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 313v

Miniature of the deathbed of William, the Duke of Aquitaine. Image taken from f. 313v of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Philip Augustus from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 341

Philip Augustus from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 341

Miniature of Philip Augustus receiving an envoy, and Philip Augustus giving his sister Margaret in marriage to the king of Hungary. Image taken from f. 341 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

John of England and Louis VIII from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 385

John of England and Louis VIII from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 385

Detail of a miniature of a battle with John, king of England, and Louis VIII on the march. Image taken from f. 385 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Coronation of Pharamond from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 3

Coronation of Pharamond from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 3

Detail of a miniature of the coronation of Pharamond, with a pagan ruler and two kings of France, with a full border containing a knight holding a shield with the arms of John II as duke of Normandy before his ... more

Envoys from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 104

Envoys from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 104

Miniature of envoys complaining to the king of Sclavonia abou the murder of merchants, with an illuminated initial 'O'(u). Image taken from f. 104 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Coronation of Pharamond from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 3

Coronation of Pharamond from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 3

Miniature of the coronation of Pharamond, a legendary king of the Franks, with a pagan duke, wearing a circlet, to the left, and two Christian kings of France, to the right, identified by the fleur-de-lis on th... more

Philip and John from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 362v

Philip and John from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 362v

Detail of a miniature of John, king of England, doing homage to Philip Augustus. Image taken from f. 362v of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Chiperic from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 63

Chiperic from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 63

Miniature of Chilperic slaying the Comte de Rouen, with an illuminated initial 'L'(i). Image taken from f. 63 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Louis IX from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 407v

Louis IX from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 407v

Miniature of Louis IX and the king of Cyprus dismissing the envoys. Image taken from f. 407v of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Philip Augustus from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 341

Philip Augustus from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 341

Detail of a miniature of Philip Augustus receiving an envoy, and Philip Augustus giving his sister Margaret in marriage to the king of Hungary. Image taken from f. 341 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. W... more

Sieges and battles from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 375

Sieges and battles from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 375

Detail of a miniature of the sieges and battles of Philip Augustus and John, king of England. Image taken from f. 375 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

King of Cyprus from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 406

King of Cyprus from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 406

Miniature of the king of Cyprus giving Louis IX a letter. Image taken from f. 406 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Philip and John from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 362v

Philip and John from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 362v

Detail of a miniature of John, king of England, doing homage to Philip Augustus. Image taken from f. 362v of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Charlemagne from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 125

Charlemagne from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 125

Miniature of Charlemagne defeating the Duke of Aquitaine. Image taken from f. 125 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

John of England from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 373v

John of England from BL Royal 16 G VI, f. 373v

Detail of a miniature of John, king of England, attacking a castle. Image taken from f. 373v of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis. Written in French.

Crusaders from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 187v

Crusaders from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 187v

Miniature of the king of France and his crusading army on a ship, approaching a fortress manned by Saracens. Image taken from f. 187v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon ro... more

Funeral of the Comte de Nevers from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 216

Funeral of the Comte de Nevers from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 216

Miniature of the funeral of Jean, Comte de Nevers. Image taken from f. 216 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

King of France from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 168

King of France from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 168

Miniature of the king of France and crusading knights on board a ship. Image taken from f. 168 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Writte... more

King of France from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 246

King of France from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 246

Miniature of the king of France sending, and the king of Spain receiving, a message. Image taken from f. 246 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other ro... more

Jean de Vignay from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 136

Jean de Vignay from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 136

Four part miniature of four friars before the Pope; Jean de Vignay translating the book; Jean de Vignay presenting his book to the king of France; friars aboard a ship. Image taken from f. 136 of Historia de pr... more

Crusaders from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 187v

Crusaders from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 187v

Detail of a miniature of the king of France and his crusading army on a ship, approaching a fortress manned by Saracens. Image taken from f. 187v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoir... more

Darius from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 12

Darius from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 12

Miniature of Darius, king of Persia ordering the chiselling of a marble slab in order to make a portrait of Alexander; miniature of Darius corresponding with Alexander. Image taken from f. 12 of Historia de pro... more

Darius from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 12

Darius from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 12

Detail of a miniature of Darius, king of Persia ordering the chiselling of a marble slab in order to make a portrait of Alexander. Image taken from f. 12 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vrai... more

Jean de Vignay from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 136

Jean de Vignay from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 136

Detail of a four part miniature of four friars before the Pope; Jean de Vignay translating the book; Jean de Vignay presenting his book to the king of France; friars aboard a ship. Image taken from f. 136 of Hi... more

Siege of St Germain L'Aiguillet from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 202

Siege of St Germain L'Aiguillet from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 202

Miniature of the siege of St Germain L'Aiguillet by the king of Naples. Image taken from f. 202 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Writt... more

Historiated initial from BL Eg 3277, f. 68v

Historiated initial from BL Eg 3277, f. 68v

Historiated initial 'D'(omine) at Psalm 101: Joab and a mourning David (II Samuel 19:4-5), David sitting at the gate (II Samuel 19: 8), Semei before David (II Samuel 19:18), David sparing Semei (II Samuel 19:... more

Historiated initial from BL Eg 3277, f. 44

Historiated initial from BL Eg 3277, f. 44

Text page with a bar border and an historiated initial 'I'(ubilate) of David being anointed King of Israel, at the beginning of Psalm 65. Image taken from f. 44 of Psalter, Use of Sarum ('The Bohun Psalter and ... more

Historiated initials from BL Eg 3277, f. 60

Historiated initials from BL Eg 3277, f. 60

Text page with a bar border and historiated initials 'F'(undamenta) at the beginning of Psalm 86: David takes the crown of the king of Rabbath (II Samuel 12:30); historiated initial 'D'(omine) at the beginnin... more

Anglia (England) from BL Royal 6 E VI, f. 107

Anglia (England) from BL Royal 6 E VI, f. 107

Detail of an historiated initial 'A'(nglia) of the king of England with a sword and a herald holding a sceptre, and a shield with the arms of England (France and England quarterly). Image taken from f. 107 of O... more

Anglia (England) from BL Royal 6 E VI, f. 107

Anglia (England) from BL Royal 6 E VI, f. 107

Historiated initial 'A', and an historiated initial 'A'(nglia) of the king of England with a sword and a herald holding a sceptre, and a shield with the arms of England (France and England quarterly). Image tak... more

Debate between a clerk and a knight from BL Royal 19 C IV, f. 1v

Debate between a clerk and a knight from BL Royal 19 C IV, f. 1v

Miniature of a debate between a clerk and a knight in a garden, before the king of France and the personifications of Spiritual Power in a Franciscan habit, and Temporal Power represented as a queen, with the a... more

English army from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 102

English army from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 102

Detail of an unfinished miniature of the English army attacking a town, at the beginning of chapter 38 of 'Philip of Valois' book. Image taken from f. 102 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 1270 to 13... more

John of Normandy from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 95

John of Normandy from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 95

Unfinished miniature of John, duke of Normandy and his court, at the beginning of chapter 33 of 'Philip of Valois' book. Image taken from f. 95 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 1270 to 1380). Writte... more

Duke of Brittany's deathbed from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 89v

Duke of Brittany's deathbed from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 89v

Detail of an unfinished miniature of mourners at the deatbed of John, Duke of Brittany. Image taken from f. 89v of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 1270 to 1380). Written in French.

Marriage of Philip from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 182

Marriage of Philip from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 182

Detail of a miniature of the marriage of Philip, the Duke of Burgundy, and Margaret of Flanders. Image taken from f. 182 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 1270 to 1380). Written in French.

King of Bohemia from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 62

King of Bohemia from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 62

Detail of a miniature of the king of Bohemia defeating Austrians and Saracens. Image taken from f. 62 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 1270 to 1380). Written in French.

Siege of Meaux from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 134

Siege of Meaux from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 134

Miniature of the siege of Meaux and the death of the mayor of the town, at the beginning of chapter 77 of 'John the Good' book, with the signature of Richard duke of Gloucester, future Richard III, 'Richard Glo... more

John, king of Scotland from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 28

John, king of Scotland from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 28

Detail of a miniature of John, king of Scotland, being brought before Edward I. Image taken from f. 28 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 1270 to 1380). Written in French.

King of Navarre from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 134v

King of Navarre from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 134v

Detail of a miniature of the king of Navarre addressing the Parisians. Image taken from f. 134v of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 1270 to 1380). Written in French.

Execution of forgers from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 94

Execution of forgers from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 94

Detail of an unfinished miniature of forgers of seals deprived of their hands on a scaffold, in the chapter 32 of 'Philip of Valois' book. Image taken from f. 94 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 127... more

Regent and king of Navarre from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 135v

Regent and king of Navarre from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 135v

Detail of a miniature of the Regent and the king of Navarre conferring in a tent. Image taken from f. 135v of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 1270 to 1380). Written in French.

King of Bohemia from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 62

King of Bohemia from BL Royal 20 C VII, f. 62

Miniature of the king of Bohemia defeating Austrians and Saracens. Image taken from f. 62 of Chroniques de France ou de St Denis (from 1270 to 1380). Written in French.