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Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great

Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great

Following the premature death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE, his generals, friends, and heirs engaged in forty years of wars over his empire. Lysimachus (reigned 323–281 BCE), one of Alexander’s companions ... more

Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great

Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great

The Hellenistic period spans the nearly three hundred years between the death of Alexander the Great ofMacedonia (323 BCE) and that of Cleopatra VII of Egypt (30 BCE), a descendant of one of Alexander’s general... more

Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great

Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great

Coinage of Hellenistic RulersThe Hellenistic period spans the nearly three hundred years between the death of Alexander the Great ofMacedonia (323 BCE) and that of Cleopatra VII of Egypt (30 BCE), a descendant ... more

Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great Wearing the Head of the Nemean Lion as a Helmet

Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great Wearing the Head of ...

Herakles was the consummate hero. Temples across Greece and South Italy were dedicated to him, the son of Zeus, and Romans, who knew him as Hercules, celebrated him as a role model. With brute force, determinat... more

Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great

Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Alexander the Great

Following the premature death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE, his generals, friends, and heirs engaged in forty years of wars over his empire. Lysimachus (reigned 323–281 BCE), one of Alexander’s companions ... more

Side Panel of a Sarcophagus

Side Panel of a Sarcophagus

This panel was once the side wall of a massive stone coffin. It is decorated in relief with a scene taken from the life of the Greek mythical hero Meleager, who led the hunt for a wild boar that was terrorizing... more

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 32v-33

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 32v-33

Miniature of Candace receiving a letter; miniature of Candaculus complaining to Alexander about the loss of his wife. Image taken from ff. 32v-33 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoir... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38

Miniature of Alexander surrounded by advisors; miniature of Alexander encountering strange beasts; miniature of Alexander encountering beasts with curved horns. Image taken from f. 38 of Historia de proeliis, t... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 27v-28

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 27v-28

Miniature of Alexander building a city; miniatures of Alexander encountering members of the strange tribes of India. Image taken from ff. 27v-28 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 37v

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 37v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander being lowered into the sea in a cask. Image taken from f. 37v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Writ... more

Alexander's army from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 9v-10

Alexander's army from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 9v-10

Miniature of Alexander's army on the march; miniature of Alexander's army at sea. Image taken from ff. 9v-10 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other ro... more

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 31v-32

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 31v-32

Miniature of Alexander ascending a mountain; miniature of Alexander finding an old man asleep; miniature of the trees of the sun and the moon; miniature of wild beasts being presented to Alexander. Image taken ... more

Jobas giving Alexander poison from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 41v

Jobas giving Alexander poison from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 41v

Miniature of Jobas giving Alexander poison at a dining table; miniature of Alexander making out his will. Image taken from f. 41v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Al... more

Coronation of Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 7

Coronation of Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 7

Miniature of the coronation of Alexander. Image taken from f. 7 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38

Detail of a miniature of Alexander encountering strange beasts. Image taken from f. 38 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 39v

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 39v

Miniatures of Alexander encountering various strange beasts, including the caladrius bird. Image taken from f. 39v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and ot... more

Alexander in battle from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 47

Alexander in battle from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 47

Miniature of Alexander in battle. Image taken from f. 47 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander burning a wild man from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 31

Alexander burning a wild man from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 31

Detail of miniature of Alexander burning a wild man. Image taken from f. 31 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 22v-23

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 22v-23

Miniature of Alexander receiving a letter from Porrus; miniature of the battle of Alexander and Porrus. Image taken from ff. 22v-23 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi ... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 36

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 36

Miniature of Alexander encountering a group of women who live in water. Image taken from f. 36 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Writte... more

Philip and Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 7v-8

Philip and Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 7v-8

Miniature of Philip and Alexander discussing envoys; miniature of Philip and Alexander setting out against Armenia; miniature of Pausanias and others marching against Philip. Image taken from ff. 7v-8 of Histor... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 40v

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 40v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander consulting an astronomer about the monstrous birth of a half-human, half-beast child. Image taken from f. 40v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 38v-39

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 38v-39

Miniature of Alexander battling against giant men; miniature of Alexander encountering blemmyae (men with heads on their torsos); miniature of Alexander encountering sheep-headed dragons; miniature of Alexander... more

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 30v-31

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 30v-31

Miniature of Alexander receiving a letter from Dindimus; miniature of Alexander having the letter from Dindimus inscribed on a column; miniature of Alexander battling giants; miniature of Alexander burning a wi... more

Alexander in Jerusalem from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 11v

Alexander in Jerusalem from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 11v

Miniature of Alexander in Jerusalem, being met by chief priests and others. Image taken from f. 11v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. W... more

Alexander battling the beasts from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 26

Alexander battling the beasts from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 26

Miniature of Alexander battling dragons; miniature of Alexander battling crabs; miniature of Alexander battling a three-horned beast. Image taken from f. 26 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La v... more

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 26v-27

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 26v-27

Miniature of Alexander unhorsing Porrus; miniature of the death of Porrus; miniature of the burial of Porrus. Image taken from ff. 26v-27 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bo... more

Philip and Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 5

Philip and Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 5

Miniature of Philip of Macedon taking Alexander to Aristotle. Image taken from f. 5 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander encountering strange beasts from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 35v

Alexander encountering strange beasts from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 35v

Miniatures of Alexander encountering various strange beasts in India. Image taken from f. 35v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written... more

Alexander and griffins from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 37

Alexander and griffins from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 37

Detail of a miniature of Alexander being carried by griffins into the sky, with a crowd of spectators below. Image taken from f. 37 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi ... more

Philip and Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 8v-9

Philip and Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 8v-9

Miniature of the defeat of Philip; miniature of the battle of Alexander and Pausanias; miniature of Alexander enthroned with Bucephalus under his feet. Image taken from ff. 8v-9 of Historia de proeliis, transla... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 36v

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 36v

Miniature of Alexander pulling down the city of King Ambira. Image taken from f. 36v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 37v

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 37v

Miniature of Alexander being lowered into the sea in a cask (a submarine). Image taken from f. 37v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Wr... more

Alexander, the Persians, and Darius from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 17v-18

Alexander, the Persians, and Darius from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 17v-18

Miniature of the battle between Alexander and the Persians; miniature of Alexander receiving the keys to the city; miniatures of the correspondence between Alexander and Darius. Image taken from ff. 17v-18 of H... more

Alexander and Darius from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 12v-13

Alexander and Darius from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 12v-13

Miniatures of the correspondence between Alexander and Darius. Image taken from ff. 12v-13 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander and Candace from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 33v

Alexander and Candace from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 33v

Miniature of Alexander rescuing Candace. Image taken from f. 33v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Darius, Alexander and Olympias from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 13v-14

Darius, Alexander and Olympias from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 13v-14

Miniature of Darius at a dining table; miniature of the meeting between Alexander and Olympias. Image taken from ff. 13v-14 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandr... more

Darius and Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 14v-15

Darius and Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 14v-15

Miniature of the meeting between Alexander and Darius; miniature of Alexander speaking to his army. Image taken from ff. 14v-15 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alix... more

Alexander attacking from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 19v

Alexander attacking from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 19v

Miniature of Alexander attacking Darius' city. Image taken from f. 19v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander and the Persians from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 15v

Alexander and the Persians from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 15v

Miniature of the battle between Alexander and the Persians. Image taken from f. 15v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander and the Queen of the Amazons from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 25

Alexander and the Queen of the Amazons from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 25

Miniature of the meeting between Alexander and the queen of the Amazons. Image taken from f. 25 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Writt... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38

Detail of a miniature of Alexander encountering beasts with curved horns. Image taken from f. 38 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Writ... more

Alexander and the cave dwellers from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 28

Alexander and the cave dwellers from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 28

Miniature of Alexander encountering members of a cave-dwelling tribe in India. Image taken from f. 28 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances.... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38v

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38v

Miniature of Alexander battling against giant men; miniature of Alexander encountering blemmyae (men with heads on their torsos); miniature of Alexander encountering sheep-headed dragons. Image taken from f. 38... more

Death of Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 43v

Death of Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 43v

Miniature of the death of Alexander. Image taken from f. 43v of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander and crabs from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 26

Alexander and crabs from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 26

Detail of a miniature of Alexander and his soldiers fighting with crabs, with a preliminary sketch in the lower margin. Image taken from f. 26 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire d... more

Alexander in battle from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 47

Alexander in battle from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 47

Detail of a miniature of Alexander in battle. Image taken from f. 47 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 28v-29

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 28v-29

Alexander receiving messages from a tribe in India known as the gymnosophists; Alexander encountering an elephant. Image taken from ff. 28v-29 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire d... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 40

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 40

Detail of a miniature of Alexander sending letters to Olympias and Aristotle, mistakenly represented as a woman. Image taken from f. 40 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon ... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 38

Detail of a miniature of Alexander surrounded by advisors. Image taken from f. 38 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, and other romances. Written in French.

Alexander and griffins from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 37

Alexander and griffins from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 37

Miniature of Alexander being carried by griffins into the sky, with a crowd of spectators below. Image taken from f. 37 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French as La vraie ystoire dou bon roi Alixandre, a... more

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 40

Alexander from BL Royal 19 D I, f. 40

Miniature of Alexander receiving tribute from the citizens of Babylon; miniature of sending letters to Olympias and Aristotle, mistakenly represented as a woman. Image taken from f. 40 of Historia de proeliis, ... more

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 29v-30

Alexander in India from BL Royal 19 D I, ff. 29v-30

Three miniatures of Alexander encountering various strange tribes of people in India; miniature of Alexander reaching the river Pison. Image taken from ff. 29v-30 of Historia de proeliis, translated in French a... more

Alexander kneeling to the high preist from BL Royal 17 E VII, f. 227

Alexander kneeling to the high preist from BL Royal 17 E VII, f. 227

Detail of a miniature of Alexander kneeling to the high priest. Image taken from f. 227 of La Bible historiale complétée (Genesis - Psalms). Written in French.

Alexander and Aristotle (Bellum) from BL Royal 6 E VI, f. 188v

Alexander and Aristotle (Bellum) from BL Royal 6 E VI, f. 188v

Detail of a historiated initial 'P'(roceres) of Alexander and Aristotle. Image taken from f. 188v of Omne Bonum (Absolucio-Circumcisio). Written in Latin.

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 40v

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 40v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander praying that the mountains would close in upon a tribe of wicked savages. Image taken from f. 40v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire... more

Alexander and his army from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 19v

Alexander and his army from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 19v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander and his army leaving Macedon, with the temple of Apollo on the right. Image taken from f. 19v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du ... more

Alexander and elephants from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 82v

Alexander and elephants from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 82v

Miniature of Alexander presented with white elephants, and a foliate initial 'L'(endemain) with a partial border, at the beginning of chapter 73. Image taken from f. 82v of Historia de proelis in a French trans... more

Alexander and elephants from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 82v

Alexander and elephants from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 82v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander presented with white elephants, at the beginning of chapter 73. Image taken from f. 82v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon ro... more

Alexander and his fleet from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 20

Alexander and his fleet from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 20

Detail of a miniature of Alexander and his fleet about to set sail. Image taken from f. 20 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). W... more

Alexander enthroned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 18v

Alexander enthroned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 18v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander enthroned, conversing with his subjects. Image taken from f. 18v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alex... more

Alexander defeating Pausanias from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 18

Alexander defeating Pausanias from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 18

Detail of a miniature of Alexander defeating Pausanias. Image taken from f. 18 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander crowned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 14

Alexander crowned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 14

Detail of a miniature of Alexander being crowned by two bishops. Image taken from f. 14 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Writ... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 55v

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 55v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander, at a river crossing, encountering women armed with maces. Image taken from f. 55v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Ali... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 62v

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 62v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander erecting an inscribed column. Image taken from f. 62v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Wri... more

Candace and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 70

Candace and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 70

Detail of a miniature of Candace in her chamber showing Alexander his statue. Image taken from f. 70 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Ale... more

Funeral of Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 92

Funeral of Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 92

Detail of a miniature of the funeral of Alexander. Image taken from f. 92 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander and caladrius birds from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 83

Alexander and caladrius birds from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 83

Detail of a miniature of Alexander enthroned, presented with the caladrius birds, and a foliate initial 'Q'(uant) with a partial border, at the beginning of chapter 74. Image taken from f. 83 of Historia de pro... more

Alexander, Aristotle and Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 12

Alexander, Aristotle and Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 12

Miniature of Alexander and Aristotle, and Bucephalus being brought in by two attendants. Image taken from f. 12 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 57

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 57

Detail of a miniature of Alexander driving off elephants with pigs and musical instruments. Image taken from f. 57 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixan... more

Aristotle and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 10v

Aristotle and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 10v

Detail of a miniature of Aristotle instructing Alexander and three other children in the schoolroom, and Alexander being instructed by others outside. Image taken from f. 10v of Historia de proelis in a French ... more

Alexander and the wild man from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 64

Alexander and the wild man from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 64

Detail of a miniature of Alexander burning a wild man. Image taken from f. 64 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander and Olympias from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 27

Alexander and Olympias from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 27

Detail of a miniature of Olympias in bed, with Alexander holding her hand. Image taken from f. 27 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexan... more

Jobas poisoning Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 88v

Jobas poisoning Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 88v

Detail of a miniature of Jobas serving Alexander with poisoned wine. Image taken from f. 88v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre).... more

Alexander and his fleet from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 20

Alexander and his fleet from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 20

Miniature of Alexander and his fleet about to set sail. Image taken from f. 20 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander, Aristotle and Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 12

Alexander, Aristotle and Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 12

Detail of a miniature of Alexander and Aristotle, and Bucephalus being brought in by two attendants. Image taken from f. 12 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon r... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 50

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 50

Detail of a miniature of Alexander the Great slaying other extraordinary creatures (dragons?). Image taken from f. 50 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Ali... more