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The 19th (nineteenth) century began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900. The term is often used to refer to the 1800s, the century between January 1, 1800 and December 31, 1899. The 19th century was the ninth century of the 2nd millennium.

The 19th century saw large amounts of social change; slavery was abolished, and the First and Second Industrial Revolutions (which also overlap with the 18th and 20th centuries, respectively) led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity. The Islamic gunpowder empires were formally dissolved and European imperialism brought much of South Asia, Southeast Asia and almost all of Africa under colonial rule.

It was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Zulu Kingdom, First French, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire (essentially replacing the Holy Roman Empire), the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Italy and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire, and its Indian allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in the Caucasus, central and far eastern Asia. The Ottoman Empire went through a period of westernization and reform known as the Tanzimat, vastly increasing their control over their core territories in Anatolia and the Near East. Despite this, the sick man of Europe remained in a period of decline, losing territory in the Balkans, Egypt, and North Africa.

The remaining powers in the Indian subcontinent such as the Kingdom of Mysore and its French allies, Nawabs of Bengal, Maratha Empire, Sikh Empire and the princely states of the Nizam of Hyderabad, suffered a massive decline, and their dissatisfaction with British East India Company's rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, marking its dissolution, however, it was later ruled directly by the British Crown through the establishment of the British Raj.

The British Empire grew rapidly in the first half of the century, especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one-quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale.

19th century Media

1,020,055 media by topicpage 1 of 10201
Nuku Hiva sõdalane / Nuku Hivan warrior

Nuku Hiva sõdalane / Nuku Hivan warrior

Nukuhiivalased olid tugevalt tätoveeritud erinevate geomeetriliste kujunditega. Nende tätoveeringud omasid ka teatud sotsiaalset tähendust – mida tugevamini tätoveeritud, seda tähtsama isikuga oli hõimustruktuu... More

Andrew Jackson, president of the United States / painted by W.J. Hubard ; C.G. Childs Lithr.; drawn by A. Newsam, pupil to C.G. Childs.

Andrew Jackson, president of the United States / painted by W.J. Hubar...

Print shows Andrew Jackson, full-length portrait, sitting in a chair, facing front, with legs crossed and hands on lap.

Shrine of the Annunciation Nazareth April 20th 1839 / David Roberts, R.A.

Shrine of the Annunciation Nazareth April 20th 1839 / David Roberts, R...

Illus. in: The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt and Nubia / from drawings made on the spot by David Roberts ... ; lithographed by Louis Haghe. London : F.G. Moon, 1842-1845, v. 1, pts. 5-6, p. 1. Surroga... More

David Octavius Hill - The Scott Monument under Construction

David Octavius Hill - The Scott Monument under Construction

Robert Adamson, David Octavius Hill..1843..Accession no. PGP HA 424 .Medium Calotype print .Size 20.10 x 14.90 cm .Credit Provenance unknown..For more information please select here ( http://www.nationalgalleri... More

[Masonic chart] - Print, Library of Congress collection

[Masonic chart] - Print, Library of Congress collection

This record contains unverified data from PGA shelflist card. Associated name on shelflist card: Humphreys.

Innere Ansicht der katholischen Hof-Kirche zu Dresden

Innere Ansicht der katholischen Hof-Kirche zu Dresden

Sr. Königlichen Hoheit dem Prinzen Johann, Herzog zu Sachsen &c: &c in tiefster Ehrfurcht gewidmet von Philipp Weidner

British Officer from Sir William Dixson's collection of ambrotype portraits, ca. 1857-1858, possibly by Thomas Glaister

British Officer from Sir William Dixson's collection of ambrotype port...

Format: Ambrotype..Find more detailed information about this photographic collection: acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=446193 ( http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=4461... More

Footbridges and Elaborate Commercial Building, S. China

Footbridges and Elaborate Commercial Building, S. China

Attributed to Felice A. Beato (Italy, 1825-1908) Italy, 1860 Photographs Albumen silver print. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Philip Feldman (M.83.302.54)

Lady. Female portrait of American Civil War time by Mathew Brady.

Lady. Female portrait of American Civil War time by Mathew Brady.

Original Caption: Lady..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1597..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady, Mathew,... More

B.C.A. 1911 No.s 53 to 55 on plan

B.C.A. 1911 No.s 53 to 55 on plan

Creator: Alexander R. Hogg for Belfast Corporation..Date: 11th February 1915..Description: B.C.A. 1911 No.s 53 to 55 on plan. Streets in photo: May Street, Market Street. Premises in photo: Hugh B. Lavery The ... More

Queen Victoria, c.1870.

Queen Victoria, c.1870.

By Andre-Adolphe-Eugene Disderi .....A cabinet card sized woodburytype of Queen Victoria (1819-1901), taken in about 1870 by the French photographer Disderi (1819-1889). This is from the 'Disderi' album in the ... More

Arrested Alfred Thompson, Mugshot photograph, England

Arrested Alfred Thompson, Mugshot photograph, England

Name: Alfred Thompson .Arrested for: Larceny.Arrested at: North Shields Police Station.Arrested on; 31st August 1902.Tyne and Wear Archives ref: DX1388-1-5-Alfred Thompson..These images are a selection from an ... More

Italian Street Musicians

Italian Street Musicians

From 'Street Life in London', 1877, by John Thomson and Adolphe Smith:.. Then there is something irresistible in the bright glitter of his eyes, in. his cheerful gait, and his fascinating manners; While English... More

[William Howard Taft, full-length portrait, standing, facing right, in a mason's garb]

[William Howard Taft, full-length portrait, standing, facing right, in...

Copyright Alex. Washn. Lodge #22, A.F.& A.M., Alexandria, Va.

'Torquay, Victoria Parade From the Pier'

'Torquay, Victoria Parade From the Pier'

Creator: Francis Bedford (1816 - 1894).Date: c. 1880.Format: Albumen print.Collection: National Media Museum Collection ( http://www.nationalmediamuseum.org.uk/Collection/Photography ) .Inventory no: 1990-5037... More

This train is now ready to depart

This train is now ready to depart

Description: "Photograph of railway guard giving the signal to the engine driver." Photograph by RL Sirus...Date: 1884..Our Catalogue Reference: COPY 1/369/256 ( http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/catalogue/dis... More

Flood, Bonaventure Depot, Montreal, QC, 1886

Flood, Bonaventure Depot, Montreal, QC, 1886

MP-0000.236.2.Flood, Bonaventure Depot, Montreal, QC, 1886.George Charles Arless.1886, 19th century.Notman photographic Archives - McCord Museum ( http://www.musee-mccord.qc.ca/en/keys/collections/ ) ..MP-0000.... More

[King Kelly, Chicago White Stockings, baseball card portrait]

[King Kelly, Chicago White Stockings, baseball card portrait]

Baseball card title devised by Library staff. Issued by: Goodwin & Company. "$10,000"- -caption on card. Forms part of: Baseball cards from the Benjamin K. Edwards Collection.

Portrett av Fridtjof Nansen, 1889

Portrett av Fridtjof Nansen, 1889

Tittel / Title: Portrett av Fridtjof Nansen.Motiv / Motif: Fridtjof Nansen.Dato / Date: 1889.Fotograf / Photographer: L. Szacinski.Sted / Place: Oslo.Eier / Owner Institution: Nasjonalbiblioteket / National Li... More

Dude sweet music, superb costumes.

Dude sweet music, superb costumes.

Harry Montague's Comedy Company. Forms part of: Theatrical poster collection (Library of Congress)

[Holstengate, Lubeck, Germany], Vintage Postcard by Detroit Publishing Co.

[Holstengate, Lubeck, Germany], Vintage Postcard by Detroit Publishing...

Title from the Detroit Publishing Co., catalogue J foreign section. Detroit, Mich. : Detroit Photographic Company, 1905. Print no. "1879". Forms part of: Views of Germany in the Photochrom print collection.

Bathing ...by Beechams

Bathing ...by Beechams

Dressed in the popular ''sailor suits'', the children in this photograph seem to be enjoying themselves in the waves. Behind them are the wheeled bathing huts, which judging by the large advertising boards tha... More

Lewando's French Dye House

Lewando's French Dye House

Persistent URL: digital.lib.muohio.edu/u?/tradecards,4577 ( http://digital.lib.muohio.edu/u?/tradecards,4577 ) .. Subject (TGM): Palettes; Artists' devices; Artists' materials; Paints & varnishes; Animals... More

S.T.W. Sanford & Sons

S.T.W. Sanford & Sons

Persistent URL: digital.lib.muohio.edu/u?/tradecards,3665 ( http://digital.lib.muohio.edu/u?/tradecards,3665 ) .. Subject (TGM): Patent medicines; Hearts; Lighthouses; Seas; Ships; Storms; Pharmacists;

[Da Mulla Palace, Venice, Italy] view, photochrome print postcard.

[Da Mulla Palace, Venice, Italy] view, photochrome print postcard.

Title from the Detroit Publishing Co., Catalogue J foreign section, Detroit, Mich. : Detroit Publishing Company, 1905. Print no. "6997". More information about the Photochrom Print Collection is available at ht... More

Déesse 16, rue Halévy, Paris / / PAL.

Déesse 16, rue Halévy, Paris / / PAL.

Poster shows semi-nude goddess in flight holding bicycle above crowd of bicyclists from all over the world. Title from item.

[Priskuranter]; [Bruksanvisningar]

[Priskuranter]; [Bruksanvisningar]

Husqvarna fabriks aktiebolag, Husqvarna 1885-1899.Ur Kungl. bibliotekets samlingar – [librisid: 14799957].Länk: libris.kb.se/bib/14799957 ( http://libris.kb.se/bib/14799957 )

Þórður Guðjohnsen, Húsavík, with his children. Iceland - Cornell University Library

Þórður Guðjohnsen, Húsavík, with his children. Iceland - Cornell Unive...

Collection: Icelandic and Faroese Photographs of Frederick W.W. Howell, Cornell University Library..Title: Þórður Guðjohnsen, Húsavík, with his children...Date: ca. 1900..Place: Húsavík (Iceland)..Medium: collo... More

Arthur Bloomfield Dawson Steamship

Arthur Bloomfield Dawson Steamship

Photographer: Arthur Bloomfield Dawson.Format: Nitrate Negative.Reference no.: Arthur Bloomfield Dawson Nova Scotia Archives

Women in Helsinki, 1906

Women in Helsinki, 1906

Pi och Ulla Berg, Pa Nyberg och Elsa Berg på Skatudden ca 1906. .Foto Frans Nyberg..slsa817_35_84.Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katajanokka ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katajanokka ) ..Ur boken Helsingfors... More

Man and child, lantern slide

Man and child, lantern slide

SFFf-1992078.0005..Description: The girl is probably Anna Øye, later married Nordang (1906-1997). The man holding her is Elling J. Øyehol (born 1841) from Heimste-Holen...Photographer: S. J. Beckett...www.fylke... More

Wading Women, Nantucket Island Massachusetts

Wading Women, Nantucket Island Massachusetts

Two women in waders from the rear, c. 1900s...Image number: A31-14a

Logging railroad locomotive engine, Oregon

Logging railroad locomotive engine, Oregon

Original Collection: Gerald W. Williams Collection..Item Number: WilliamsG:Ford 20..You can find this image by searching for the item number by clicking here ( http://oregondigital.org/digcol ) . ..Want more? Y... More

[Central Dome, Paris Exposition, 1889]

[Central Dome, Paris Exposition, 1889]

Originals in PR12, LOT 6634.

Kellar, American vaudeville and popular entertainment 1870 1920

Kellar, American vaudeville and popular entertainment 1870 1920

Caption: Levitation. Created and "copyright 1894 by The Strobridge Lith. Co., Cin'ti & New York." No. 6152B. Forms part of: Magic poster collection (Library of Congress)

[Central Dome, Paris Exposition, 1889]

[Central Dome, Paris Exposition, 1889]

Originals in PR12, LOT 6634.

Kellar, American vaudeville and popular entertainment 1870 1920

Kellar, American vaudeville and popular entertainment 1870 1920

Caption: Levitation. Created and "copyright 1894 by The Strobridge Lith. Co., Cin'ti & New York." No. 6152B. Forms part of: Magic poster collection (Library of Congress)

Chinese Xieyin Zhiliu, 19th century
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