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A spinner in the Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A spinner in the Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

The queen of industry, or the new south / Th. Nast.

The queen of industry, or the new south / Th. Nast.

[Women and machinery in New England cotton mill, ca. 1900]

[Women and machinery in New England cotton mill, ca. 1900]

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Hugh Dedman, 50 Hill St. Salisbury, N.C. Been doffing 2 or 3 years. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina.

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Hugh Dedman, 50 Hill St. Salisbury, N.C. Been doffing 2 or 3 years.  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina.

Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Eddie Williamson (taller). Been in mill 3 years. John Eliot--Been in mill 7 years. Witness, S.R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina.

Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Eddie Williamson (taller). Been in mill 3 years. John Eliot--Been in mill 7 years. Witness, S.R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina.

Some adolescents working in Maple Cotton Mill, Dillon, S.C. Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Some adolescents working in Maple Cotton Mill, Dillon, S.C.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Group of boys working in Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills. Smallest boy in middle said has been in the mill off and on for 5 yrs. Spins now. Nov. 30, 1909[sic]. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Group of boys working in Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills. Smallest boy in middle said has been in the mill off and on for 5 yrs. Spins now. Nov. 30, 1909[sic].  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Jasper Prevatt (smallest). Has doffed 3 years. Ben--Runs 3 sides. In mill 4 years. Lillian (next) Winds--In mill 8 years. Blennie (next). Bertha--winds. In mill 8 years. Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Jasper Prevatt (smallest). Has doffed 3 years. Ben--Runs 3 sides. In mill 4 years. Lillian (next) Winds--In mill 8 years. Blennie (next). Bertha--winds. In mill 8 years.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Azy Warn--Winds. Stella Warn (little one) spins 4 sides. "Been at it a long time." Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Azy Warn--Winds. Stella Warn (little one) spins 4 sides. "Been at it a long time."  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Group of employees in Lancaster (S.C.) Cotton Mills. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Group of employees in Lancaster (S.C.) Cotton Mills.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Dillon (S.C.) Mills. Charley Baxley. Has doffed 4 years. Gets 50 cents. Had been out hunting. Dillon, South Carolina.

Dillon (S.C.) Mills. Charley Baxley. Has doffed 4 years. Gets 50 cents. Had been out hunting.  Dillon, South Carolina.

Some operatives--Dillon Mill, Dillon, S.C. Smallest girl said she "helps." Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Some operatives--Dillon Mill, Dillon, S.C. Smallest girl said she "helps."  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Group of boys from Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. Spending Saturday behind the barn. Overseer came up and I couldn't get names or ages. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Group of boys from Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. Spending Saturday behind the barn. Overseer came up and I couldn't get names or ages.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Carolina cotton mill worker and his family all are working. Location: South Carolina.

Carolina cotton mill worker and his family all are working.  Location: South Carolina.

Maple Mill, Dillon S.C. Tebie Calder--Been in mill 1 year--runs 4 sides. Little sister-- Tince--Mother said, "She helps." Bystander said she works regularly and that plenty of other little ones do. Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Maple Mill, Dillon S.C. Tebie Calder--Been in mill 1 year--runs 4 sides. Little sister-- Tince--Mother said, "She helps." Bystander said she works regularly and that plenty of other little ones do.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. Smallest chap said he had been in mill for 2 years. Many youngster here. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina.

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. Smallest chap said he had been in mill for 2 years. Many youngster here.  Location: Cherryville, North Carolina.

The doffers in Whitnel (N.C.) Mfg. Co. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina.

The doffers in Whitnel (N.C.) Mfg. Co.  Location: Whitnel, North Carolina.

Closing Hour, 3 p.m. Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Zoe Lanier. Help sister in mill. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Closing Hour, 3 p.m. Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Zoe Lanier. Help sister in mill.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Whitnel (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Everyone in this family except the mother, works in the mill. Father earns $1.00 a day. Smallest girl, Annie Philips, been there only a few months, earns nearly a dollar a day. Next in size, Clara Phillips, 13 years old, Been there 3 or 4 years, earns over a dollar a day. Next, Daisy Philips. Next, Mary Philips. A dollar a day each. Oldest is married and husband is in the mill. The superintendent said it is unusual for the father to work when children get large enough to work. He usually loafs. That's why the mills are so full of children. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina.

Whitnel (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Everyone in this family except the mother, works in the mill. Father earns $1.00 a day. Smallest girl, Annie Philips, been there only a few months, earns nearly a dollar a day. Next in size, Clara Phillips, 13 years old, Been there 3 or 4 years, earns over a dollar a day. Next, Daisy Philips. Next, Mary Philips. A dollar a day each. Oldest is married and husband is in the mill. The superintendent said it is unusual for the father to work when children get large enough to work. He usually loafs. That's why the mills are so full of children.  Location: Whitnel, North Carolina.

Trenton Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Smallest boy,--Tom Jenkins. Said 13 years old. Been in mill 3 years. Brother Walter Jenkins. Said 15 years old. Been in mill four years. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Trenton Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Smallest boy,--Tom Jenkins. Said 13 years old. Been in mill 3 years. Brother Walter Jenkins. Said 15 years old. Been in mill four years.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Willie Lee, 24 Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. 10 years old. Been in mill 2 months. Doffer. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Willie Lee, 24 Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. 10 years old. Been in mill 2 months. Doffer.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

11 years old. Beginning to doff. Son of one of Gastonia's preachers . His two brothers, 14 and 16 years old, are also in the mill. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

11 years old. Beginning to doff. Son of one of Gastonia's preachers . His two brothers, 14 and 16 years old, are also in the mill.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Willie Crocker, (barefoot) Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. 13 years old-- "worked since I was 6 years old." Lost part of finger in gear of machinery. Fred Crocker--11 years old. 1 year in mill. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Willie Crocker, (barefoot) Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. 13 years old-- "worked since I was 6 years old." Lost part of finger in gear of machinery. Fred Crocker--11 years old. 1 year in mill.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Lea Rabb, 84 Main St., Loray Mills, Gastonia, N.C. 12 years old. 5 years in the mill. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Lea Rabb, 84 Main St., Loray Mills, Gastonia, N.C. 12 years old. 5 years in the mill.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Slide No. 404. Smallest girl, runs and 4 sides, been in this mill for 3 years. The oldest girl said she goes to school but couldn't spell her own name.

Slide No. 404. Smallest girl, runs and 4 sides, been in this mill for 3 years. The oldest girl said she goes to school but couldn't spell her own name.

Lincoln Cotton Mills, Evansville, Ind. Girl at Stafford Loom. Boys sprinkling floor. (See report of conditions under which they work.) Location: Evansville, Indiana.

Lincoln Cotton Mills, Evansville, Ind. Girl at Stafford Loom. Boys sprinkling floor. (See report of conditions under which they work.)  Location: Evansville, Indiana.

Young doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Young doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newberry Mills, (S.C.) Noon hour. Dec. 3, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newberry Mills, (S.C.) Noon hour. Dec. 3, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Closing hour Loray Mill, Gastonia, N.C. November 7, 1908. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Closing hour Loray Mill, Gastonia, N.C.  November 7, 1908. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newberry Mills, Newberry, S.C. Going home to dinner. Dec. 3/08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newberry Mills, Newberry, S.C. Going home to dinner. Dec. 3/08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Gastonia, N.C. Boy on right hand works nights. Sunday, November 9 [i.e., 8?], 1908. This mill was running nights at the time this photograph was taken. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Gastonia, N.C. Boy on right hand works nights. Sunday, November 9 [i.e., 8?], 1908.  This mill was running nights at the time this photograph was taken.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior Bounds--Beginning. Next, Rollin Hudson - 3 years in mill. Next, Lloyd Willoughby - 3 years in mill. Next, Preston Torrent - 8 years in mill. 6 years night work - 14 years old now. "Haven't been in school more'n 3 days in my whole life." Father blind. 2 older sisters and 1 younger brother work in mill now. Has doffed all 8 years. Gets about 60 cents a day. Asked him if he didn't get tired, "No, when you get used to it you don't get tired. Some of the boys goes to sleep when they begin." Showed a remarkable degree of refinement and consideration for others. Work has not blunted this. Sunday, Dec. 6/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior Bounds--Beginning. Next, Rollin Hudson - 3 years in mill. Next, Lloyd Willoughby - 3 years in mill. Next, Preston Torrent - 8 years in mill. 6 years night work - 14 years old now. "Haven't been in school more'n 3 days in my whole life." Father blind. 2 older sisters and 1 younger brother work in mill now. Has doffed all 8 years. Gets about 60 cents a day. Asked him if he didn't get tired, "No, when you get used to it you don't get tired. Some of the boys goes to sleep when they begin." Showed a remarkable degree of refinement and consideration for others. Work has not blunted this. Sunday, Dec. 6/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Mill folks, Salisbury Mills, (N.C.) Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Mill folks, Salisbury Mills, (N.C.)  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Daniel Mill, Lincolnton, N.C. Group of women and two girls. Shows type of adolescent. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Daniel Mill, Lincolnton, N.C. Group of women and two girls. Shows type of adolescent.  Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Small boy working in Cocheco Mfg. Co., Dover, N.H. Others much smaller and younger there. Location: Dover, New Hampshire.

Small boy working in Cocheco Mfg. Co., Dover, N.H. Others much smaller and younger there.  Location: Dover, New Hampshire.

(Tallest) Sam Bigham, Eureka Cotton Mills. Been in mill 10 years. (Next) Washey Dover--Been in 3 years. (Next) Lloyd Barnado--2 years in mill. (Smallest) Ernst Floyd--10 years old, 52 inches high. Been in mill 2 years. Spins--60 cents a day. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

(Tallest) Sam Bigham, Eureka Cotton Mills. Been in mill 10 years. (Next) Washey Dover--Been in 3 years. (Next) Lloyd Barnado--2 years in mill. (Smallest) Ernst Floyd--10 years old, 52 inches high. Been in mill 2 years. Spins--60 cents a day. Witness S.R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Jamie Sherley, (girl) Wylie Mills, Chester, S.C. Been in mill 6 years. Ambro Sherley--11 years old. Been in mill over 1 year. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Jamie Sherley, (girl) Wylie Mills, Chester, S.C. Been in mill 6 years. Ambro Sherley--11 years old. Been in mill over 1 year.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

A spinner in Cycle Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. She was 49 inches high. Been there "bout 2 years." 50 operatives and there were 10 children that looked to be under 12 years of age. Location: Newton, North Carolina.

A spinner in Cycle Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. She was 49 inches high. Been there "bout 2 years." 50 operatives and there were 10 children that looked to be under 12 years of age.  Location: Newton, North Carolina.

Maple Mills, Dillon, S.C. Ruth Barnhill (elder). Been at it 4 years. Run 6 sides. Emma Barnhill 4 years in mill. 4 sides. Looked 10 years old. Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Maple Mills, Dillon, S.C. Ruth Barnhill (elder). Been at it 4 years. Run 6 sides. Emma Barnhill 4 years in mill. 4 sides. Looked 10 years old.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Trenton Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Tom Jenkins (left hand end) 13 years old, been in mill 3 year. Walter Jenkins, 15 years old. 4 years in mill. John Glover, (right hand) 16 years old, at mill 5 years. Closing hour, 3 p.m. Saturday, Nov. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Trenton Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Tom Jenkins (left hand end) 13 years old, been in mill 3 year. Walter Jenkins, 15 years old. 4 years in mill. John Glover, (right hand) 16 years old, at mill 5 years. Closing hour, 3 p.m. Saturday, Nov.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

One of the smallest spinners in the Mollahan Mills. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina.

One of the smallest spinners in the Mollahan Mills. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina.

A few of the employees in the Clinton Mills, Clinton, S.C., going home from work. Many others as small were in evidence. Superintendent wouldn't allow me to take photos inside. Photo by flashlight. Location: Clinton, South Carolina.

A few of the employees in the Clinton Mills, Clinton, S.C., going home from work. Many others as small were in evidence. Superintendent wouldn't allow me to take photos inside. Photo by flashlight.  Location: Clinton, South Carolina.

Frank Craneshaw. Has doffed for 3 years in Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Gets 75 cents a day. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Frank Craneshaw. Has doffed for 3 years in Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Gets 75 cents a day.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Noon hour, Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Noon hour, Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Newberry Mills (S.C.) Noon hour. All are working here. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina.

Newberry Mills (S.C.) Noon hour. All are working here. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina.

Lancaster (S.C.) Cotton Mills, Wesley Strand (with gun). Has been in mill 1 year. Been sick lately. Rochel Stokes. In mill 1 year. Said he had trouble and quit. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Lancaster (S.C.) Cotton Mills, Wesley Strand (with gun). Has been in mill 1 year. Been sick lately. Rochel Stokes. In mill 1 year. Said he had trouble and quit.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

3 doffer boys, Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Charley Gregory (boy with white collar). Been in mill 8 years. Has worked nights four years. David and Dick work daytime. Witness, S.R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina.

3 doffer boys, Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Charley Gregory (boy with white collar). Been in mill 8 years. Has worked nights four years. David and Dick work daytime. Witness, S.R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina.

Doffers in Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Others as small and some smaller. Little girls too. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Doffers in Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Others as small and some smaller. Little girls too.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

A few of the girls going home from Loray mill, Gastonia, N.C. Many others younger. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

A few of the girls going home from Loray mill, Gastonia, N.C. Many others younger.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina.

Noon hour, Ivey mill, hickory, N.C. Location: Hickory, North Carolina. / Photo by [...]

Noon hour, Ivey mill, hickory, N.C. Location: Hickory, North Carolina. / Photo by [...]

A quiet game of marbles. All the boys work in the Salisbury (N.C.) cotton mill. The boy shooting is Henry Dedman, a warper. Been in mill 5 years. His grandmother said "I don't like to have ' em play marbles on Sunday, but when can they play?" "Yes he stands the mill work pretty well. Early getting' up is the makin' of 'em." Location: Salisbury, North Carolina.

A quiet game of marbles. All the boys work in the Salisbury (N.C.) cotton mill. The boy shooting is Henry Dedman, a warper. Been in mill 5 years. His grandmother said "I don't like to have ' em play marbles on Sunday, but when can they play?" "Yes he stands the mill work pretty well. Early getting' up is the makin' of 'em."  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina.

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Fred Butler, (smallest). Been in mill 2 years. Others one year. Witness, S.R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina.

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Fred Butler, (smallest). Been in mill 2 years. Others one year. Witness, S.R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina.

Young women (spooler) Kelser Mfg. Co., Salisbury, N.C. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina.

Young women (spooler) Kelser Mfg. Co., Salisbury, N.C.  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina.

Group of boys working in Lancaster S.C. Cotton mills. Smallest boy said he had worked in the mill off and on for five years. Spins now. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Group of boys working in Lancaster S.C. Cotton mills. Smallest boy said he had worked in the mill off and on for five years. Spins now.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Maple Mills, Dillon, S.C. John Roberts, Been in mill 2 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides. Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Maple Mills, Dillon, S.C. John Roberts, Been in mill 2 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Lawrence Collins, Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Has doffed for years in the above mill. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Lawrence Collins, Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Has doffed for years in the above mill.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C. Mother said she is very good hand at spinning. Been at it 3 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides, about 50 cents a day. Little sister Lettie helps. Mother said "she is learnin'." Looked 7 years old. Dec. 2/08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Clinton, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C. Mother said she is very good hand at spinning. Been at it 3 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides, about 50 cents a day. Little sister Lettie helps. Mother said "she is learnin'." Looked 7 years old. Dec. 2/08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Clinton, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Group of mill hands working in Salisbury, N.C. Cotton Mills. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Group of mill hands working in Salisbury, N.C. Cotton Mills.  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Some of the operatives, Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Some of the operatives, Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

T. A. Wright, Supt. of the Whitnell [sic?] (N.C.) Cotton Mfg. Co. A typical boss,--except hat he was less gruff and suspicious than most. Began mill work at 10 years old. Been at it 18 years. I asked him if he excepts to send his own children to work in the mill. He smiled grimly, " Not if I keep my health, They're going to get an education." He said parents are responsible for so many children in the mills. Father loafs just as soon as children get old enough to work. Dec. 22, 08. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

T. A. Wright, Supt. of the Whitnell [sic?] (N.C.) Cotton Mfg. Co. A typical boss,--except hat he was less gruff and suspicious than most. Began mill work at 10 years old. Been at it 18 years. I asked him if he excepts to send his own children to work in the mill. He smiled grimly, " Not if I keep my health, They're going to get an education." He said parents are responsible for so many children in the mills. Father loafs just as soon as children get old enough to work. Dec. 22, 08.  Location: Whitnel, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dillon Mills, Dillon, S.C. Lizzie Davis, (smallest). Been in mill 2 years. Next--Nettie Arnet - Been in mill 8 years. Next--Monnie McCraney, been in mill 3 years. Next--Vater Arnet, been in mill 8 years. Next--Mattie Connor, spinners and Winders. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08. Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dillon Mills, Dillon, S.C. Lizzie Davis, (smallest). Been in mill 2 years. Next--Nettie Arnet - Been in mill 8 years. Next--Monnie McCraney, been in mill 3 years. Next--Vater Arnet, been in mill 8 years. Next--Mattie Connor, spinners and Winders. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A spinner in Clyde Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A spinner in Clyde Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C.  Location: Newton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

On streets near Daniel Mill. Lincolnton, N.C. Right hand boy--Dan Biggerstaff. 10 years old. Has worked 3 years. Goes to school now (he says). Left hand, John Erwin. Said 11 years old. Has worked nights. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina.

On streets near Daniel Mill. Lincolnton, N.C. Right hand boy--Dan Biggerstaff. 10 years old. Has worked 3 years. Goes to school now (he says). Left hand, John Erwin. Said 11 years old. Has worked nights.  Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina.

Some operatives in An Indianapolis Cotton Mill at the Noon Hour. Aug., 1908. Wit., E. N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana. / Photo by [...]

Some operatives in An Indianapolis Cotton Mill at the Noon Hour. Aug., 1908. Wit., E. N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana. / Photo by [...]

Bob Burton, Gastonia, N.C. 15 years old. A typical adolescent, overgrown, thin, anaemic [sic]. Been in mill for 8 years. Doffing still in Ozark Mills. Gastonia, North Carolina.

Bob Burton, Gastonia, N.C. 15 years old. A typical adolescent, overgrown, thin, anaemic [sic]. Been in mill for 8 years. Doffing still in Ozark Mills.  Gastonia, North Carolina.

Tallest boy Johnnie Younts, 72 Kirk Street. Works in Salisbury Mills, N.C. Has worked in cotton mill for 8 years. Began at 7 years old. When can he get any education? Other boy one year in mill. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina.

Tallest boy Johnnie Younts, 72 Kirk Street. Works in Salisbury Mills, N.C. Has worked in cotton mill for 8 years. Began at 7 years old. When can he get any education? Other boy one year in mill.  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina.

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Archie Love (See Photo 328). Said (after hesitating) "I am 14 years old." Doesn't look it. Been in mill 3 years. Worked 5 months nights at the start. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Archie Love (See Photo 328). Said (after hesitating) "I am 14 years old." Doesn't look it. Been in mill 3 years. Worked 5 months nights at the start.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Etta Squires,--12 years old. Been in mill 3 years. Runs 5 sides. Mother was very proud of this. She own two houses and doesn't work in the mill herself. Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Etta Squires,--12 years old. Been in mill 3 years. Runs 5 sides. Mother was very proud of this. She own two houses and doesn't work in the mill herself.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

N. W. Bigham--In mill 5 years. (Boy) Brown Morison--In mill 2-1/2 years. 13 years old. Doffs--75 cents a day. Eureka Cotton Mills, Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

N. W. Bigham--In mill 5 years. (Boy) Brown Morison--In mill 2-1/2 years. 13 years old. Doffs--75 cents a day. Eureka Cotton Mills, Witness S.R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

One of spinners in Whitnel Cotton Mfg. Co. (N.C.) She was 51 inches high. Had been in mill 1 year, some at night. Runs 4 sides, 48 cents a day. When asked how old, she hesitated, then said "I don't remember," Then confidentially, "I'm not old enough to work, but I do just the same." Out of 50 employees, ten children about her age. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina.

One of spinners in Whitnel Cotton Mfg. Co. (N.C.) She was 51 inches high. Had been in mill 1 year, some at night. Runs 4 sides, 48 cents a day. When asked how old, she hesitated, then said "I don't remember," Then confidentially, "I'm not old enough to work, but I do just the same." Out of 50 employees, ten children about her age.  Location: Whitnel, North Carolina.

Rhodes Mfg. Company, Lincolnton, N.C. Old man inspecting yarn. Been in cotton mills over 20 years. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina.

Rhodes Mfg. Company, Lincolnton, N.C. Old man inspecting yarn. Been in cotton mills over 20 years.  Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina.

Some Sweepers in a N.C. cotton mill. N.C. Location: North Carolina.

Some Sweepers in a N.C. cotton mill. N.C.  Location: North Carolina.

Clyde Cotton Mills, Newton, N.C. Doffers in the above mill. 50 operatives, 10 of them small boys and girls like these. Location: Newton, North Carolina.

Clyde Cotton Mills, Newton, N.C. Doffers in the above mill. 50 operatives, 10 of them small boys and girls like these.  Location: Newton, North Carolina.

Some of the young women in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina.

Some of the young women in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina.

Minnie Love (see photo 327), Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Been in mill since 7 yrs. old. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Minnie Love (see photo 327), Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Been in mill since 7 yrs. old. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

A few of the youngsters employed in Clinton Mills (S.C.) Going home from work. Location: Clinton, South Carolina.

A few of the youngsters employed in Clinton Mills (S.C.) Going home from work.  Location: Clinton, South Carolina.

Will Morrill, Wylie Mill; Chester, S.C. Been in mill 5 years. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Will Morrill, Wylie Mill; Chester, S.C. Been in mill 5 years.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Spinners and doffers, Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Dozens of them in this mill. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Spinners and doffers, Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Dozens of them in this mill.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Dillon Mill (tallest) Lizzie McKenzie, Has helped 1/2 year. Mamie Baxley (holding baby). Been in mill 3 years. Runs 4 sides = 40 cents a day. Maud & Daisy "help." Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Dillon Mill (tallest) Lizzie McKenzie, Has helped 1/2 year. Mamie Baxley (holding baby). Been in mill 3 years. Runs 4 sides = 40 cents a day. Maud & Daisy "help."  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Otis Mehaffy. 4 years in mill. Small boy "helps sister" Saturdays and after school. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Otis Mehaffy. 4 years in mill. Small boy "helps sister" Saturdays and after school. Witness S.R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Boys going home from Sunday School. Right to left. Willie Long - in mill 4 yrs.; James Hurley; Lloyd Long - 12 yrs., in mill 2 yrs.; Spurgeon Price - 13 yrs., in mill 3 yrs.; Clarence Price - 14 yrs., in mill 3 yrs.; Charley Caswell- in mill 3 yrs. Gastonia, North Carolina.

Boys going home from Sunday School. Right to left. Willie Long - in mill 4 yrs.; James Hurley; Lloyd Long - 12 yrs., in mill 2 yrs.; Spurgeon Price - 13 yrs., in mill 3 yrs.; Clarence Price - 14 yrs., in mill 3 yrs.; Charley Caswell- in mill 3 yrs.  Gastonia, North Carolina.

Springstein Mill, Chester, S.C. Malcolm Rogers (Boy with hat) 54 inches high. Be[e]n in mill 3 years. Started at 25 cents and now makes $1.00 a day. Spins part time and doffer part time. Other boy goes to school and helps in mill afternoons and Saturdays. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Springstein Mill, Chester, S.C. Malcolm Rogers (Boy with hat) 54 inches high. Be[e]n in mill 3 years. Started at 25 cents and now makes $1.00 a day. Spins part time and doffer part time. Other boy goes to school and helps in mill afternoons and Saturdays. Witness S.R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Maggie Wooten (Largest), creels on warper. Lillie Anderson--Oldest of two sisters. Been in mill five years. Runs only 4 sides. Minnie Anderson, - youngest- runs 8 sides. Been in mill 4 year. One finds many such cases where youngest sister does twice the amount of work. Nov. 28/08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Maggie Wooten (Largest), creels on warper. Lillie Anderson--Oldest of two sisters. Been in mill five years. Runs only 4 sides. Minnie Anderson, - youngest- runs 8 sides. Been in mill 4 year. One finds many such cases where youngest sister does twice the amount of work. Nov. 28/08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Girls in Daniel Mill, Lincolnton, N.C. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Girls in Daniel Mill, Lincolnton, N.C.  Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A Saturday ball game. Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Boy with glove, Malcom Rogers. (See photo 329). Next to him - Ben Deaton--12 years old. 52 inches high. Weaver. Runs 6 looms at $1.00 a day. 2 years in mill. I asked him if it wasn't hard work. "Hardest part if it is I have to stretch so much to reach up." (Tallest boy) John Lewis--12 years old. 1 yr. in mill. Weaves--4 looms. Got 40 cents to start. 60 cents now a day. Brother and father in mills. Nov. 28/08 Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A Saturday ball game. Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Boy with glove, Malcom Rogers. (See photo 329). Next to him - Ben Deaton--12 years old. 52 inches high. Weaver. Runs 6 looms at $1.00 a day. 2 years in mill. I asked him if it wasn't hard work. "Hardest part if it is I have to stretch so much to reach up." (Tallest boy) John Lewis--12 years old. 1 yr. in mill. Weaves--4 looms. Got 40 cents to start. 60 cents now a day. Brother and father in mills. Nov. 28/08 Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Some of "hands." Sunday, Dec. 6, 08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Some of "hands." Sunday, Dec. 6, 08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mill. A game of marbles. All these boys work in the mill. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mill. A game of marbles. All these boys work in the mill.  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

View of Scotland Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. All these boys work in mill. Sunday, Dec. 6/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

View of Scotland Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. All these boys work in mill. Sunday, Dec. 6/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Children of night superintendent, in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. (1) Bessie Moore - runs 4 sides. Has worked two years nights. (2) Frank (smallest). Doffs. Has worked 2 yrs. nights. (3) George (largest). Looked 12 years old. Doffs--3 years of night work, was proud of the fact that he could write his name. Mother said they rather work nights because they had to put in fewer hours then. Sunday, Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Children of night superintendent, in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. (1) Bessie Moore - runs 4 sides. Has worked two years nights. (2) Frank (smallest). Doffs. Has worked 2 yrs. nights. (3) George (largest). Looked 12 years old. Doffs--3 years of night work, was proud of the fact that he could write his name. Mother said they rather work nights because they had to put in fewer hours then. Sunday, Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

John Ghent has worked at spinning for 1 year. Goes to school now. Been Sick. Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

John Ghent has worked at spinning for 1 year. Goes to school now. Been Sick. Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Noon Hour In an Indianapolis Cotton Mill, Aug., 1908. Wit., E. N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana.

Noon Hour In an Indianapolis Cotton Mill, Aug., 1908. Wit., E. N. Clopper.  Location: Indianapolis, Indiana.

Maple Mills, Dillon, S.C. Johnnie. Said, "Aint got no last name," when asked for it. 8 years old. Beginning to "help sister spin." Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Maple Mills, Dillon, S.C. Johnnie. Said, "Aint got no last name," when asked for it. 8 years old. Beginning to "help sister spin."  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Carrie Blanchard. "Don't know how old I am. Mother can tell. She keeps track of these things. She begins to work in mill tomorrow. 'Speks I'll go to help." (Mother said she was 10 years old). Little sister not at work yet. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Carrie Blanchard. "Don't know how old I am. Mother can tell. She keeps track of these things. She begins to work in mill tomorrow. 'Speks I'll go to help." (Mother said she was 10 years old). Little sister not at work yet. Witness S.R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

This was the smallest I could find in the Newton (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Overseer said "She just brings her sister's dinner," but as it was only 9:30 A.M., and as she worked as faithfully as her sister all the time I was in the mill, I judged she was a regular "helper." She looked to be 8 years old. Others there nearly as small. Location: Newton, North Carolina.

This was the smallest I could find in the Newton (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Overseer said "She just brings her sister's dinner," but as it was only 9:30 A.M., and as she worked as faithfully as her sister all the time I was in the mill, I judged she was a regular "helper." She looked to be 8 years old. Others there nearly as small.  Location: Newton, North Carolina.

Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. Tommy Ashville, (smaller boy) 2 years in mill. "Specks I'm about 11." Arthur Shelly, 8 years in mill. 14 years old. Other boys agreed he had been in mill 8 years. Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. Tommy Ashville, (smaller boy) 2 years in mill. "Specks I'm about 11." Arthur Shelly, 8 years in mill. 14 years old. Other boys agreed he had been in mill 8 years.  Location: Chester, South Carolina.

Two spinners in Dillon Mill , Dillon S.C. Both said they had been in mill 7 years. Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Two spinners in Dillon Mill , Dillon S.C. Both said they had been in mill 7 years.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Row of mill men--Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Tallest man is the Baptist preacher J .H. Blanton. His son, the third from him, works in mill. Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

Row of mill men--Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Tallest man is the Baptist preacher J .H. Blanton. His son, the third from him, works in mill.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina.

All ages are employed in Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

All ages are employed in Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina.

Cherryville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. A few of the workers. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina.

Cherryville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. A few of the workers.  Location: Cherryville, North Carolina.

This shows the number of small children on the day shift (50 employees in all) Whitnel, (N.C.) Cotton Mfg. Co. Nearly as many small ones on night shift. This is a new up-to-date mill. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina.

This shows the number of small children on the day shift (50 employees in all) Whitnel, (N.C.) Cotton Mfg. Co. Nearly as many small ones on night shift. This is a new up-to-date mill.  Location: Whitnel, North Carolina.