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Bumper 1948 spoils of war the americans, science technology.

Bumper 1948 spoils of war the americans, science technology.

Officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency

Officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency

Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V assembled LOX (Liquid Oxygen) and fuel tanks - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V assembled LOX (Liquid Oxygen) and fuel tanks  - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program - at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama

Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program - at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama

Saturn V first stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V first stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program - J-2 engine

Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program - J-2 engine

Saturn I Booster - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn I Booster - Saturn Apollo Program

Wernher von Braun and President Dwight D. Eisenhower

Wernher von Braun and President Dwight D. Eisenhower

Saturn C1 - Apollo Program

Saturn C1 - Apollo Program

First Saturn (SA-1) Launch

First Saturn (SA-1) Launch

Saturn I launch vehicle - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn I launch vehicle - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

The members of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics visited the Marshall Space Flight Center

The members of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics visited the Marshall Space Flight Center

Around Marshall

Around Marshall

The members of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics visited the Marshall Space Flight Center

The members of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics visited the Marshall Space Flight Center

Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

Photograph of Liftoff of Aurora 7 Spacecraft

Photograph of Liftoff of Aurora 7 Spacecraft

Artist Concept - Saturn Launch

Artist Concept - Saturn Launch

Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

Apollo/Saturn

Apollo/Saturn

Apollo/Saturn

Apollo/Saturn

Saturn Apollo Program - working on a mock up of the S-IC thrust structure

Saturn Apollo Program - working on a mock up of the S-IC thrust structure

The Saturn I (SA-4) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, March 28, 1963. The fourth launch of Saturn launch vehicles developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. Like SA-3, the SA-4 flight’s upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for "Project Highwater" physics experiment. Release of this vast quantity of water in a near-space environment marked the second purely scientific large-scale experiment. The SA-4 was the last Block I rocket launch. n/a

The Saturn I (SA-4) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, March 28, 1963. The fourth launch of Saturn launch vehicles developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern.  Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. Like SA-3, the SA-4 flight’s upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for "Project Highwater" physics experiment. Release of this vast quantity of water in a near-space environment marked the second purely scientific large-scale experiment. The SA-4 was the last Block I rocket launch. n/a

The Saturn I (SA-4) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, March 28, 1963. The fourth launch of Saturn launch vehicles, developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. Like SA-3, the SA-4 flight’s upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for "Project Highwater" physics experiment. Release of this vast quantity of water in a near-space environment marked the second purely scientific large-scale experiment. The SA-4 was the last Block I rocket launch. n/a

The Saturn I (SA-4) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, March 28, 1963. The fourth launch of Saturn launch vehicles, developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern.  Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. Like SA-3, the SA-4 flight’s upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for "Project Highwater" physics experiment. Release of this vast quantity of water in a near-space environment marked the second purely scientific large-scale experiment. The SA-4 was the last Block I rocket launch. n/a

Full scale engineering mock-up of Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program

Full scale engineering mock-up of Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V Tanks Mated

Saturn V Tanks Mated

The launch of the SA-5 - Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

The launch of the SA-5 - Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

The launch of the SA-5 - Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

The launch of the SA-5 - Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

Radio Frequency Interference Test - Launch Complex (LC)-37A - Cape

Radio Frequency Interference Test - Launch Complex (LC)-37A - Cape

The launch of the SA-7 (Saturn I Block II) - Saturn Apollo Program

The launch of the SA-7 (Saturn I Block II) - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn IB at Dynamic Test Stand - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn IB at Dynamic Test Stand - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V chart - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V chart - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn I - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IC-T stage (static testing stage)

 Saturn V S-IC-T stage (static testing stage)

Saturn V - S-IC-T stage is hoisted into the S-IC static test stand

Saturn V - S-IC-T stage is hoisted into the S-IC static test stand

Saturn V S-IC-T stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IC-T stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IC static test stand - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IC static test stand - Saturn Apollo Program

First night launch of a Saturn I launch vehicle

First night launch of a Saturn I launch vehicle

Wernher von Braun and Governor of Alabama George Wallace

Wernher von Braun and Governor of Alabama George Wallace

Apollo Saturn V Test Vehicle

Apollo Saturn V Test Vehicle

AS-203 Launch

AS-203 Launch

Workers at Cape Kennedy watched a Saturn 1B lift off

Workers at Cape Kennedy watched a Saturn 1B lift off

Apollo Saturn V Test Vehicle

Apollo Saturn V Test Vehicle

Saturn V ground test booster - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V ground test booster - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn IB - AS-201, the first Saturn IB launch vehicle

Saturn IB - AS-201, the first Saturn IB launch vehicle

APOLLO SPACECRAFT 009 - SATURN 1B 201 - ON PAD - COMPLEX 34 - CAPE

APOLLO SPACECRAFT 009 - SATURN 1B 201 - ON PAD - COMPLEX 34 - CAPE

APOLLO/SATURN (A/S) 201 - LAUNCH - CAPE

APOLLO/SATURN (A/S) 201 - LAUNCH - CAPE

Apollo/Saturn V facilities Test Vehicle and Launch Umbilical Tower

Apollo/Saturn V facilities Test Vehicle and Launch Umbilical Tower

APOLLO/SATURN (A/S)- 500-F - LAUNCH COMPLEX (L/C)-39A - CHECKOUT - MERRITT ISLAND - CAPE

APOLLO/SATURN (A/S)- 500-F - LAUNCH COMPLEX (L/C)-39A - CHECKOUT - MERRITT ISLAND - CAPE

AS-203, the third Saturn IB launch - Saturn Apollo Program

AS-203, the third Saturn IB launch - Saturn Apollo Program

Liftoff - Saturn Mission 203 - KSC

Liftoff - Saturn Mission 203 - KSC

APOLLO/SATURN (A/S) 204 - SATURN V THIRD STAGE(S-IVB) ARRIVAL - BARGE PROMISE - CAPE

APOLLO/SATURN (A/S) 204 - SATURN V THIRD STAGE(S-IVB) ARRIVAL  - BARGE PROMISE - CAPE

LIFTOFF - APOLLO/SATURN (A/S)-202 MISSION - KSC

LIFTOFF - APOLLO/SATURN (A/S)-202 MISSION - KSC

The official NASA portrait of astronaut James Lovell

The official NASA portrait of astronaut James Lovell

138-foot long first stage of the Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program

138-foot long first stage of the Saturn V - Saturn Apollo Program

LAUNCH COMPLEX (LC)-34 - APOLLO-SATURN (A/S) MISSION 202 - PRELAUNCH ALERT - KSC

LAUNCH COMPLEX (LC)-34 - APOLLO-SATURN (A/S) MISSION 202 - PRELAUNCH ALERT - KSC

Apollo 4 liftoff

Apollo 4 liftoff

Saturn V Stage at Michould Assembly Facility

Saturn V Stage at Michould Assembly Facility

Apollo 4 Launch

Apollo 4 Launch

Saturn V First Stage Lifted into Test Stand

Saturn V First Stage Lifted into Test Stand

McDornel-Douglas install the Saturn IB S-IVB (second) stage

McDornel-Douglas install the Saturn IB S-IVB (second) stage

Apollo/Saturn 501 Vehicle Preparations

Apollo/Saturn 501 Vehicle Preparations

Saturn V vehicle (SA-501) for the Apollo 4 mission

Saturn V vehicle (SA-501) for the Apollo 4 mission

Saturn V, S-II Stage is Lifted into Test Stand

Saturn V, S-II Stage is Lifted into Test Stand

Saturn VS-II (second) stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn VS-II (second) stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IC-5 (first) flight stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IC-5 (first) flight stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-II (second) stage being hoisted at the S-II-A2 test stand

Saturn V S-II (second) stage being hoisted at the S-II-A2 test stand

Saturn V S-IC-5 (first) flight stage being hoisted into the S-IC-B1 test stand

Saturn V S-IC-5 (first) flight stage being hoisted into the S-IC-B1 test stand

Saturn V test vehicles - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V test vehicles - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IC-5 (first) flight stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IC-5 (first) flight stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V first stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V first stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn IB S-IVB (second) stages in storage at the Douglas Aircraft Company

Saturn IB S-IVB (second) stages in storage at the Douglas Aircraft Company

Top-to-bottom view of the 36-story-tall Saturn Apollo 501 space vehicle with work platforms retracted. VAB, High Bay No.1. KSC-67P-0208

Top-to-bottom view of the 36-story-tall Saturn Apollo 501 space vehicle with work platforms retracted. VAB, High Bay No.1. KSC-67P-0208

A/S 501 ROLLOUT

A/S 501 ROLLOUT

APOLLO/SATURN (A/S) 501 ROLL-OUT - CAPE

APOLLO/SATURN (A/S) 501 ROLL-OUT - CAPE

Saturn Apollo Program illustration

Saturn Apollo Program illustration

Apollo 4 launch

Apollo 4 launch

Early Rockets: The Atlas Mercury, Redstone Mercury; and Saturn C-1.

Early Rockets: The Atlas Mercury, Redstone Mercury; and Saturn C-1.

Saturn V first test flight - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V first test flight - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V vehicle (SA-501) - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V vehicle (SA-501) - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn 501 - Apollo Saturn V liftoff from Complex 39A at 7 a.m. 9 November 1967 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. KSC-67PC-0435

Saturn 501 - Apollo Saturn V liftoff from Complex 39A at 7 a.m. 9 November 1967 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. KSC-67PC-0435

Saturn V first flight - Apollo Program

Saturn V first flight -  Apollo Program

Saturn V first flight - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V first flight - Saturn Apollo Program

Early morning view of Apollo 4 unmanned spacecraft on launch pad

Early morning view of Apollo 4 unmanned spacecraft on launch pad

Apollo 4 liftoff

Apollo 4 liftoff

Saturn V S-IC stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IC stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Apollo 7 Launch

Apollo 7 Launch

Saturn V S-1C Stages in Michoud Assembly Facility

Saturn V S-1C Stages in Michoud Assembly Facility

Saturn V S-IVB stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn V S-IVB stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn IB mission configurations - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn IB mission configurations - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn 1B S-IB (first) stage - Saturn Apollo Program

Saturn 1B S-IB (first) stage - Saturn Apollo Program

AS-204, the fourth Saturn IB launch vehicle - Saturn Apollo Program

AS-204, the fourth Saturn IB launch vehicle - Saturn Apollo Program

Wernher von Braun stands in front of a Saturn IB

Wernher von Braun stands in front of a Saturn IB

Apollo V - Liftoff - Cape

Apollo V - Liftoff - Cape

Apollo V - Liftoff - Cape

Apollo V - Liftoff - Cape

Apollo 6 - Saturn Apollo Program

Apollo 6 - Saturn Apollo Program