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STS102-368-019 - STS-102 - Empty orbiter payload bay as seen from U.S. Laboratory/Destiny window

Air to air views of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105

S04-47-1960 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1961 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1962 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1963 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1964 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1965 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1966 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1967 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1968 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1969 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1970 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

Lunar Orbiter - Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Traverse Routes - Overlaid on Landing Site

S04-47-1971 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

North American Space Shuttle Orbiter Model NA129 surface heating and boundary layer transition test in 3.5ft w.t. ARC-1971-AC71-5323

MSC Space Shuttle Stability and Control Characteristics. Schlieren of North American Rockwell Straight Wing orbiter approximate Mach .95 ARC-1971-AC71-4075

MSC Space Shuttle Stability and Control Characteristics. Schlieren of North American Rockwell Straight Wing orbiter approximate Mach .95 6ft w.t. Test-66-503 ARC-1971-AC71-4076

MSC Space Shuttle Stability and Control Characteristics. Schlieren of North American Rockwell Straight Wing orbiter approximate Mach .95 6ft w.t. test-66-503 ARC-1971-AC71-4077

S04-47-1972 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1973 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1974 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

S04-47-1975 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

SHUTTLE ORBITER IN 10X10 FOOT WIND TUNNEL

SHUTTLE ORBITER IN 10X10 FOOT WIND TUNNEL

SHUTTLE ORBITER IN 10X10 FOOT WIND TUNNEL

Establishing view, looking west, of NASA DFRC Mate-Demate Device (MDD), RF tower, and Orbiter Aft Access Platform (1201 Stand) on left

SHUTTLE ORBITER IN 10X10 FOOT WIND TUNNEL

Space Shuttle SSV Orbiter Model In 40x80 Foot Wind Tunnel.

Space Shuttle SSV Orbiter Model In 40x80 Foot Wind Tunnel.

Space Shuttle SSV orbiter model OA100 (0.36 scale): 40x80ft w.t. ARC-1975-AC75-1191

Space Shuttle SSV orbiter model OA100 (0.36 scale): 40x80ft w.t. ARC-1975-AC75-1190

This diagram illustrates the Space Shuttle mission sequence. The Space Shuttle was approved as a national program in 1972 and developed through the 1970s. Part spacecraft and part aircraft, the Space Shuttle orbiter, the brain and the heart of the Space Transportation System (STS), required several technological advances, including thousands of insulating tiles able to stand the heat of reentry over the course of many missions, as well as sophisticated engines that could be used again and again without being thrown away. The airplane-like orbiter has three main engines, that burn liquid hydrogen and oxygen stored in the large external tank, the single largest structure in the Shuttle. Attached to the tank are two solid rocket boosters that provide the vehecile with most of the thrust needed for liftoff. Two minutes into the flight, the spent solids drop into the ocean to be recovered and refurbished for reuse, while the orbiter engines continue burning until approximately 8 minutes into the flight. After the mission is completed, the orbiter lands on a runway like an airplane. n/a

Space Shuttle Orbiter 101 model installation in the 40x80ft W.T. Test 462 ARC-1975-AC75-2582

Space Shuttle Orbiter 101 model installation in the NASA Ames 40x80ft Subsonic Wind Tunnel. Test-462 ARC-1975-AC75-2584

S04-47-1976 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

Artist: Rick Guidice NASA artwork of Space Shuttle Orbiter during re-entry showing Reusable Surface Insulation Tiles. (Text overlay) ARC-1976-AC76-1713

S04-47-1977 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

A left side view of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise as it arrives at the base

A right side view of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise and its specially-modified 747 transport aircraft being towed to the Weight and Thrust Hangar for vibration testing

A right side view of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise and its specially-modified 747 transport aircraft being towed to the Weight and Thrust Hangar for vibration testing

Art By Don Davis Pioneer Venus orbiter in orbit around Venus ARC-1977-AC77-0475-11

Secretary of the Air Force John C. Stetson discusses the NASA space shuttle orbiter Enterprise with Major General Thomas P. Stafford, Commander of the Air Force Flight Test Center

Space shuttle orbiter OV-101 Enterprise sits atop the fuselage of a specially modified Boeing 747 aircraft prior to a test flight

Orbiter "Enterprise" soars above the NASA 747 carrier

Orbiter "Enterprise" - Soars Above the NASA 747 Carrier - Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), CA

NASA 747 Carrier Aircraft - Five (5) T-38 Aircraft - Shuttle Orbiter 101 "Enterprise" - Edwards AFB (EAFB), CA

third "free flight" of Shuttle Orbiter 101 Spacecraft

third "free flight" of Shuttle Orbiter 101 Spacecraft

Third (3rd) "Free Flight" - Shuttle Orbiter 101 Spacecraft - Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards AFB (EAFB), CA

third "free flight" of Shuttle Orbiter 101 Spacecraft

Third (3rd) "Free Flight" - Shuttle Orbiter 101 Spacecraft - Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), CA

Frank Urbaniak, an ARO Inc. engineer examines a model of a space shuttle orbiter and launch vehicle in a wind tunnel at the Arnold Engineering Development Center

Captain (CPT) William Tuck Jr., left, an Air Force test director, and Frank Urbaniak, an ARO Inc. engineer, examine a model of a space shuttle orbiter and launch vehicle prior to a transonic wind tunnel at the Arnold Engineering Development Center

The Orbiter 101 "Enterprise" separates from the NASA 747 carrier aircraft

ASTRONAUTS HAISE AND FULLERTON - COCKPIT - ORBITER 101 - PREFLIGHT FREE FLIGHT - DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER (DFRC), CA

Straight Space Shuttle orbiter (OA-144) test-118 in 9x7ft w.t. with technician ARC-1977-AC77-0029

Straight Space Shuttle orbiter (OA-144) test-118 in 9x7ft w.t. ARC-1977-AC77-0030

S04-47-1978 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

PIONEER VENUS ORBITER AND MULTI PROBE

PIONEER VENUS ORBITER AND MULTI PROBE

Space Shuttle Orbiter - 101 Enterprise - Arrival - Redstone Arsenal Airstrip - Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), AL

Artist: Rick Guidice Pioneer Venus Mission Artwork: An artist concept of the orbiter and multiprobe approaching Venus are shown here shortly after probes release - Top to bottom - night probe, day probe sounder probe, North probe, followed by the bus (Note: this original painting's orientation is upside- down) ARC-1978-A78-0238

PC17C ORBITER FUEL CELL POWER PLANT P760104

S04-47-1979 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

Ice on Mars

PC17C ORBITER FUEL CELL POWER PLANT P760104

ORBITER 102 - COLUMBIA PIGGY-BACK - NASA 905 - KSC

Orbiter 102 - Kelly AFB -

An aerial view of Space Launch Complex 39-A. A space shuttle orbiter and its booster rockets are in place on the pad

A dummy space shuttle orbiter was assembled and rolled out to the launch site as part of an exercise to verify that shuttle elements are compatible with the spaceport's assembly and launch facilities, and ground support equipment

Orbiter (OV)-101- Shuttle (Transfer) - KSC

S04-47-1980 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER ENTERPRISE MATED TO AN EXTERNAL FUEL TANK AND TWO SOLID ROCKET BOOSTERS ON TOP OF A MOBIL LAUNCHER PLATFORM, UNDERGOES FIT AND FUNCTION CHECKS AT THE LAUNCH SITE FOR THE FIRST SPACE SHUTTLE AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 39'S PAD A. THE DUMMY SPACE SHUTTLE WAS ASSEMBLED IN THE VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING AND ROLLED OUT TO THE LAUNCH SITE ON MAY 1 AS PART OF AN EXERCISE TO MAKE CERTAIN SHUTTLE ELEMENTS ARE COMPATIBLE WITH THE SPACEPORT'S ASSEMBLY AND LAUNCH FACILITIES AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, AND HELP CLEAR THE WAY FOR THE LAUNCH OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER COLUMBIA. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-17

Space Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise mated to an external fuel tank and two solid rocket boosters on top of a Mobil Launcher Platform, undergoes fit and function checks at the launch site for the first Space Shuttle at Launch Complex 39's Pad A. The dummy Space Shuttle was assembled in the Vehicle Assembly Building and rolled out to the launch site on May 1 as part of an exercise to make certain shuttle elements are compatible with the Spaceport's assembly and launch facilities and ground support equipment, and help clear the way for the launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-19

Outfitting the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia with the three main rocket engines that will boost the 75 ton spacecraft into orbit on its first flight is completed with the installation of Engine #2007 (top). At liftoff, each engine will be producing about 375,000 pounds of thrust, or about 12 million horsepower each, and gulping down its liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants at a rate of about 1,100 pounts per second. The Shuttle's main engines, the most efficient rocket engines ever built, are reusable and designed t operate over a life span of 55 missions. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-4

SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER ENTERPRISE STANDS ON KSC'S PAD 39A HIGHLIGHTED AGAINST THE DARKENED FLORIDA SKY DURING TESTING OF THE HIGH-INTENSITY LIGHTING SYSTMES. THE BANKS OF XENON LIGHTS ARE USED DURING LAUCH PREPARATIONS. ARC-1980-Ac80-0107-15

SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER COLUMBIA 102 IS SHOWN BACKING OUT OF ITS MANUFACTURING FACILITY AT PALMDALE, CA THE ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL SPACE DIVISION PLANT, ENROUTE TO DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER. THIS ORBITER WILL BE THE FIRST SHUTTLE SPACECRAFT THAT WILL CARRY TWO ASTRONAUTS, JOHN YOUNG AND RICHARD CRIPPEN, INTO EARTH ORBITAL TEST FLIGHT IN LATE 1979. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-11

The payload bay doors of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia were opened for the first time today using the orbiter's onboard door operation system. The hinges of the payload bay doors are not designed to support the weight of the doors while open horizontally in the Earth's one 'g' environment and a counterweight zero 'g' device supports the weight of the doors while they are open for processing in the OPF. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-6

Space Shuttle Orbiter 102 Columbia is shown backing out of its manufacturing facililty at Palmdale, CA, the Rockwell international Space Division Plant, enroute to Dryden Flgiht Research Center. This Orbiter will be the first shuttle spacecraft that will carry two astronauts, John Young and Richard Crippen, into earth orbital test flight in late 1979. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-10

SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER ENTERPRISE MATED TO AN EXTERNAL FUEL TANK AND TWO SOLID ROCKET BOOSTERS ON TOP OF A MOBIL LAUNCHER PLATFORM, UNDERGOES FIT AND FUNCTION CHECKS AT THE LAUNCH SITE FOR THE FIRST SPACE SHUTTLE AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 39'S PAD A. THE DUMMY SPACE SHUTTLE WAS ASSEMBLED IN THE VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING AND ROLLED OUT TO THE LAUNCH SITE ON MAY 1 AS PART OF AN EXERCISE TO MAKE CERTAIN SHUTTLE ELEMENTS ARE COMPATIBLE WITH THE SPACEPORT'S ASSEMBLY AND LAUNCH FACILITIES AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, AND HELP CLEAR THE WAY FOR THE LAUNCH OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER COLUMBIA. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-14

Space Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise, mated to a 15-story-tall external propellant tank and twin inert solid rocket boosters on top of a Mobile Launcher Platform, is rolled back to the Vehicle Assembly Building from Lauch Complex 39's Pad A July 23 at the completion of nearly three months of fit and function checks at the shuttle launch site as part of the exercise designed to help clear the way for the liftoff of its sister ship Columbia. The massive Crawler Transporter began moving its 11 million pound load the 3.5 miles from pad A to the VAB at 10:23 a.m. and reached the doorway to High Bay 1 at 3:48p.m. following serveral days of fit checks of modified extermiable platforms in the assembly bay, the nonlaunchable shuttle will be destacked. Enterprise will be returned to Rockwell International and stripped of parts for integration into orbiter destined for space, while the external tank and solid booster will be returned to their respective prime contractors and refurbished for use on a later shuttle mission. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-18

The 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, carrying the Space Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise piggyback, lifts off from the Shuttle Landing Facility's 15,000-foot-long runway at 11:03, August 10. Enterprise flown to KSC on April 10 for use in checking out assembly, test and launch facilities which will be used for the launch of its sister ship Columbia on the first Space Shuttle flight, will make a five-stop flight to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in California. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-7

Space Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is lowered to the floor of the transfer aisle in the Vehicle Assembly Building during destacking operations. The Enterprise, mated to an external tank and twin inert solid rocket boosters, formed a nonlaunchable Space Shuttle which was used for fit and function checks of assembly, test and launch facilities at the nation's Spaceport. Enterprise will be tansported to the Shuttle Landing Facility, mounted piggyback on its 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, and flown to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, California. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-13

ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL TECHNICIANS MOUNT SOME OF THE NEARLY 8,000 CERAMIC-COATED TILES THAT REMAIN TO BE INSTALLED ON THE EXTERNAL SURFACES OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER COLUMBIA TO COMPLETE THE THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM THAT WILL ABSORB THE INTENSE HEAT OF REENTERING THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE AFTER A MISSION IN SPACE. TILE INSTALLATION IS DONE ON AN AROUND-THE-CLOCK BASIS IN THE ORBITER PROCESSING FACILITY WHERE COLUMBIA, THE FIRST IN A NEW BREED OF MANNED, REUSABLE SPACECRAFT, IS BEING READIED FOR THE FIRST LAUNCH OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE LATER THIS YEAR. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-9

ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL TECHNICIANS MOUNT SOME OF THE NEARLY 8,000 CERAMIC-COATED TILES THAT REMAIN TO BE INSTALLED ON THE EXTERNAL SURFACES OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER COLUMBIA TO COMPLETE THE THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM THAT WILL ABSORB THE INTENSE HEAT OF REENTERING THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE AFTER A MISSION IN SPACE. TILE INSTALLATION IS DONE ON AN AROUND-THE-CLOCK BASIS IN THE ORBITER PROCESSING FACILITY WHERE COLUMBIA, THE FIRST IN A NEW BREED OF MANNED, REUSABLE SPACECRAFT, IS BEING READIED FOR THE FIRST LAUNCH OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE LATER THIS YEAR. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-8

The first solid rocket booster solid motor segemnts to arrive at KSC, the left and right hand aft segments are off-loaded into High Bay 4 in the Vehicle Assembly Building and mated to their respective SRB aft skirts. The two aft assemblies will support the entire 150 foot tall solid boosters, in turn supporting the external tank and Orbiter Columbia on the Mobile Launcher Platform, for the first orbital flight test of the Space Shuttle. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-3

The Space Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is lowered to the floor of the transfer aisle in the Vehicle Assembly Building during destacking operations. The Enterprise, mated to an external tank and twin inert solid rocket boosters, formed a nonlaunchable Space Shuttle which was used for fit and fuction checks of assembly, test and launch facilities at the nation's Spaceport. Enterprise will be transported to the Shuttle Landing Facility, mounted piggyback on its 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, and flown to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, CA. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-12

The first solid rocket booster solid motor segemnts to arrive at KSC, the left and right hand aft segments are off-loaded into High Bay 4 in the Vehicle Assembly Building and mated to their respective SRB aft skirts. The two aft assemblies will support the entire 150 foot tall solid boosters, in turn supporting the external tank and Orbiter Columbia on the Mobile Launcher Platform, for the first orbital flight test of the Space Shuttle. ARC-1980-AC80-0107-2

The payload bay doors of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia were opened for the first time today using the orbiter's onboard door operation system. The hinges of the payload bay doors are not designed to support the weight of the doors while open horizontally in the Earth's one 'g' environment and a counterweight zero 'g' device supports the weight of the doors while they are open for processing in the OPF. ARC-1969-AC80-0107-5

A view of damages on the orbiter maintenance checkout facility cable tunnel, part of Space Launch Complex 6 (SLC-6), under construction

A view, looking southeast, of the orbiter maintenance checkout facility cable tunnel, part of Space Launch Complex 6 (SLC-6), under construction

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – STS-1, orbiter Columbia, sits at Launch Complex 39A after being rolled out of the VAB. Photo credit: NASA KSC-80PC-0741

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – The STS-1, orbiter Columbia, arrives at Launch Complex 39A after being rolled out of the VAB. Photo credit: NASA KSC-80PC-0737

S04-47-1981 - STS-004 - View of the External Tank after separation from orbiter Columbia during the STS-4 mission

STS-1 COLUMBIA - ORBITER VEHICLE (OV)-102 - PREFLIGHT NIGHT PROCESSING - KSC

Artist: Ken Hodges Pioneer Galileo Probe descending into Jupiter's Atmosphere with parachute deployed, heat shield separation, while orbiter collects data from above (from JPL files - no reference nunber available) ARC-1981-AC81-0174-1

Space photo of the Pacific Ocean, taken from the space shuttle orbiter Columbia during the first space transportation system test mission. The vertical stabilizer and orbital maneuvering system pods of the Columbia are shown in the foreground

A scale model of a space shuttle orbiter lifting frame

STS067-703D-037 - STS-067 - Earth observations taken from shuttle orbiter Endeavour during STS-67 mission