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A spinner in the Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A spinner in the Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Frank F. Gibson, 1305 Linden St. Western Union Telegraph Co. Messenger No. 7. 14 years of age. 1 year in service. Visits houses of prostitution. Guides soldiers to segregated district. Smokes. Still at school and works from 8:30 P.M. to 12:30 A.M. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

Frank F. Gibson, 1305 Linden St. Western Union Telegraph Co. Messenger No. 7. 14 years of age. 1 year in service. Visits houses of prostitution. Guides soldiers to segregated district. Smokes. Still at school and works from 8:30 P.M. to 12:30 A.M. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ivey Mill, Hickory, N.C. Little one, 3 years old, who visits and plays in the mill. Daughter of the overseer.

Ivey Mill, Hickory, N.C. Little one, 3 years old, who visits and plays in the mill. Daughter of the overseer.

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Work 12 hours at a stretch. No special time off to eat. "Eat a-workin'." 9:00 P.M. Friday, Nov. 6, 1908. Mill was running. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Work 12 hours at a stretch. No special time off to eat. "Eat a-workin'." 9:00 P.M. Friday, Nov. 6, 1908. Mill was running.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Young doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Young doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newberry Mills, (S.C.) Noon hour. Dec. 3, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newberry Mills, (S.C.) Noon hour. Dec. 3, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Closing hour Loray Mill, Gastonia, N.C. November 7, 1908. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Closing hour Loray Mill, Gastonia, N.C.  November 7, 1908. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newberry Mills, Newberry, S.C. Going home to dinner. Dec. 3/08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newberry Mills, Newberry, S.C. Going home to dinner. Dec. 3/08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Gastonia, N.C. Boy on right hand works nights. Sunday, November 9 [i.e., 8?], 1908. This mill was running nights at the time this photograph was taken. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Gastonia, N.C. Boy on right hand works nights. Sunday, November 9 [i.e., 8?], 1908.  This mill was running nights at the time this photograph was taken.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior Bounds--Beginning. Next, Rollin Hudson - 3 years in mill. Next, Lloyd Willoughby - 3 years in mill. Next, Preston Torrent - 8 years in mill. 6 years night work - 14 years old now. "Haven't been in school more'n 3 days in my whole life." Father blind. 2 older sisters and 1 younger brother work in mill now. Has doffed all 8 years. Gets about 60 cents a day. Asked him if he didn't get tired, "No, when you get used to it you don't get tired. Some of the boys goes to sleep when they begin." Showed a remarkable degree of refinement and consideration for others. Work has not blunted this. Sunday, Dec. 6/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior Bounds--Beginning. Next, Rollin Hudson - 3 years in mill. Next, Lloyd Willoughby - 3 years in mill. Next, Preston Torrent - 8 years in mill. 6 years night work - 14 years old now. "Haven't been in school more'n 3 days in my whole life." Father blind. 2 older sisters and 1 younger brother work in mill now. Has doffed all 8 years. Gets about 60 cents a day. Asked him if he didn't get tired, "No, when you get used to it you don't get tired. Some of the boys goes to sleep when they begin." Showed a remarkable degree of refinement and consideration for others. Work has not blunted this. Sunday, Dec. 6/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Mill folks, Salisbury Mills, (N.C.) Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Mill folks, Salisbury Mills, (N.C.)  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. View of spinning room. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. View of spinning room.  Location: Cherryville, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Daniel Mill, Lincolnton, N.C. Group of women and two girls. Shows type of adolescent. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Daniel Mill, Lincolnton, N.C. Group of women and two girls. Shows type of adolescent.  Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C. Mother said she is very good hand at spinning. Been at it 3 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides, about 50 cents a day. Little sister Lettie helps. Mother said "she is learnin'." Looked 7 years old. Dec. 2/08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Clinton, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C. Mother said she is very good hand at spinning. Been at it 3 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides, about 50 cents a day. Little sister Lettie helps. Mother said "she is learnin'." Looked 7 years old. Dec. 2/08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Clinton, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Group of mill hands working in Salisbury, N.C. Cotton Mills. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Group of mill hands working in Salisbury, N.C. Cotton Mills.  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Some of the operatives, Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Some of the operatives, Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

T. A. Wright, Supt. of the Whitnell [sic?] (N.C.) Cotton Mfg. Co. A typical boss,--except hat he was less gruff and suspicious than most. Began mill work at 10 years old. Been at it 18 years. I asked him if he excepts to send his own children to work in the mill. He smiled grimly, " Not if I keep my health, They're going to get an education." He said parents are responsible for so many children in the mills. Father loafs just as soon as children get old enough to work. Dec. 22, 08. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

T. A. Wright, Supt. of the Whitnell [sic?] (N.C.) Cotton Mfg. Co. A typical boss,--except hat he was less gruff and suspicious than most. Began mill work at 10 years old. Been at it 18 years. I asked him if he excepts to send his own children to work in the mill. He smiled grimly, " Not if I keep my health, They're going to get an education." He said parents are responsible for so many children in the mills. Father loafs just as soon as children get old enough to work. Dec. 22, 08.  Location: Whitnel, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dillon Mills, Dillon, S.C. Lizzie Davis, (smallest). Been in mill 2 years. Next--Nettie Arnet - Been in mill 8 years. Next--Monnie McCraney, been in mill 3 years. Next--Vater Arnet, been in mill 8 years. Next--Mattie Connor, spinners and Winders. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08. Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dillon Mills, Dillon, S.C. Lizzie Davis, (smallest). Been in mill 2 years. Next--Nettie Arnet - Been in mill 8 years. Next--Monnie McCraney, been in mill 3 years. Next--Vater Arnet, been in mill 8 years. Next--Mattie Connor, spinners and Winders. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A spinner in Clyde Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A spinner in Clyde Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C.  Location: Newton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Aven Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Work 12 hours without any stop for lunch. "Eat a-workin." 8:30 P.M. Friday. Mill running nights. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., Nov. 6, 1908.

Aven Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Work 12 hours without any stop for lunch. "Eat a-workin." 8:30 P.M. Friday. Mill running nights.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., Nov. 6, 1908.

Mill Children #440, South Carolina

Mill Children #440, South Carolina

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Maggie Wooten (Largest), creels on warper. Lillie Anderson--Oldest of two sisters. Been in mill five years. Runs only 4 sides. Minnie Anderson, - youngest- runs 8 sides. Been in mill 4 year. One finds many such cases where youngest sister does twice the amount of work. Nov. 28/08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Maggie Wooten (Largest), creels on warper. Lillie Anderson--Oldest of two sisters. Been in mill five years. Runs only 4 sides. Minnie Anderson, - youngest- runs 8 sides. Been in mill 4 year. One finds many such cases where youngest sister does twice the amount of work. Nov. 28/08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Girls in Daniel Mill, Lincolnton, N.C. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Girls in Daniel Mill, Lincolnton, N.C.  Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Holland Mfg. Co., Gastonia, N.C. 8:00 P.M. Mill running nights. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Holland Mfg. Co., Gastonia, N.C. 8:00 P.M. Mill running nights.  Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A Saturday ball game. Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Boy with glove, Malcom Rogers. (See photo 329). Next to him - Ben Deaton--12 years old. 52 inches high. Weaver. Runs 6 looms at $1.00 a day. 2 years in mill. I asked him if it wasn't hard work. "Hardest part if it is I have to stretch so much to reach up." (Tallest boy) John Lewis--12 years old. 1 yr. in mill. Weaves--4 looms. Got 40 cents to start. 60 cents now a day. Brother and father in mills. Nov. 28/08 Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A Saturday ball game. Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Boy with glove, Malcom Rogers. (See photo 329). Next to him - Ben Deaton--12 years old. 52 inches high. Weaver. Runs 6 looms at $1.00 a day. 2 years in mill. I asked him if it wasn't hard work. "Hardest part if it is I have to stretch so much to reach up." (Tallest boy) John Lewis--12 years old. 1 yr. in mill. Weaves--4 looms. Got 40 cents to start. 60 cents now a day. Brother and father in mills. Nov. 28/08 Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Some of "hands." Sunday, Dec. 6, 08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Some of "hands." Sunday, Dec. 6, 08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mill. A game of marbles. All these boys work in the mill. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mill. A game of marbles. All these boys work in the mill.  Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

View of Scotland Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. All these boys work in mill. Sunday, Dec. 6/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

View of Scotland Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. All these boys work in mill. Sunday, Dec. 6/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Children of night superintendent, in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. (1) Bessie Moore - runs 4 sides. Has worked two years nights. (2) Frank (smallest). Doffs. Has worked 2 yrs. nights. (3) George (largest). Looked 12 years old. Doffs--3 years of night work, was proud of the fact that he could write his name. Mother said they rather work nights because they had to put in fewer hours then. Sunday, Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Children of night superintendent, in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. (1) Bessie Moore - runs 4 sides. Has worked two years nights. (2) Frank (smallest). Doffs. Has worked 2 yrs. nights. (3) George (largest). Looked 12 years old. Doffs--3 years of night work, was proud of the fact that he could write his name. Mother said they rather work nights because they had to put in fewer hours then. Sunday, Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

View of Clinton Mills (S.C.) Superintendent would not allow me to take photos in mill. Many youngsters employed. See photos Nos. 359 and 375. Dec. 2, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Clinton, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

View of Clinton Mills (S.C.) Superintendent would not allow me to take photos in mill. Many youngsters employed. See photos Nos. 359 and 375. Dec. 2, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Clinton, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

This is where the mill children go to school. Lancaster, S.C. Enrollment 163-- attendance, usually about 100. There are over 1,000 operatives in the mill. These are all that go to school from this mill settlement, which is geographically a part of Lancaster, but on account of the taxes has been kept just out of the corporate limits. Nov. 30/08. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

This is where the mill children go to school. Lancaster, S.C. Enrollment 163-- attendance, usually about 100. There are over 1,000 operatives in the mill. These are all that go to school from this mill settlement, which is geographically a part of Lancaster, but on account of the taxes has been kept just out of the corporate limits. Nov. 30/08.  Location: Lancaster, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Cherryville Mfg. Company, An adolescent spinner. Cherryville, N.C. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Cherryville Mfg. Company, An adolescent spinner. Cherryville, N.C.  Location: Cherryville, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Types of adolescents. Boys working in Eureka Cotton Mills, Chester, S.C. Rob Dover--(Tallest boy). Been in mill eight or nine years. Melvin Reilly (next). In mill one year. Boyd McKowan (shortest boy). About 15 years old. Been in mill 5 years. Sunday, Nov. 29, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Types of adolescents. Boys working in Eureka Cotton Mills, Chester, S.C. Rob Dover--(Tallest boy). Been in mill eight or nine years. Melvin Reilly (next). In mill one year. Boyd McKowan (shortest boy). About 15 years old. Been in mill 5 years. Sunday, Nov. 29, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Group of Newsboys on Frankfort Street near World Building. Witness, Fred McMurrry. Location: New York, New York (State) / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Group of Newsboys on Frankfort Street near World Building.  Witness, Fred McMurrry.  Location: New York, New York (State) / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

3 A.M. Sunday, February 23rd, 1908. Newsboys selling on Brooklyn Bridge. Harry Ahrenpreiss, 30 Willet Street. (Said was 13 years old). Abe Gramus. 37 Division Street. Witness Fred McMurray. Location: New York, New York (State) / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

3 A.M. Sunday, February 23rd, 1908. Newsboys selling on Brooklyn Bridge. Harry Ahrenpreiss, 30 Willet Street. (Said was 13 years old). Abe Gramus. 37 Division Street.  Witness Fred McMurray.  Location: New York, New York (State) / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

High Shoals (N.C.) School. This is average attendance. Enrollment is 80. Only one other school in town and about 15 attend that. See photo 279 (St. John's Mission School) Population of town is about 1000. Where are the rest of the children? This school is supported principally by the Mill Co. (Partly by County). Betterment work is being started. Mill.superintendent is very suspicious of Photographers. Couldn't get any of mill children. Photo. November 9, 1908. Location: High Shoals, North Carolina / by Lewis W. Hine.

High Shoals (N.C.) School. This is average attendance. Enrollment is 80. Only one other school in town and about 15 attend that. See photo 279 (St. John's Mission School) Population of town is about 1000. Where are the rest of the children? This school is supported principally by the Mill Co. (Partly by County). Betterment work is being started. Mill.superintendent is very suspicious of Photographers. Couldn't get any of mill children. Photo. November 9, 1908.  Location: High Shoals, North Carolina / by Lewis W. Hine.

In neighborhood of Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Lawrence Faircloth (taller boy) "Don't know how old I am." Been in mill 2 years. Runs 3 sides Albert Bartlett (barefoot) Looked 8 years old. In mill 2 years--Beginning to spin. Runs 2-1/2 sides = 25 cents a day. Bad conditions. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08. Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

In neighborhood of Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Lawrence Faircloth (taller boy) "Don't know how old I am." Been in mill 2 years. Runs 3 sides Albert Bartlett (barefoot) Looked 8 years old. In mill 2 years--Beginning to spin. Runs 2-1/2 sides = 25 cents a day. Bad conditions. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dillon Mills, Dillon S.C. (Boy) Ransom English--doffs, been in mill 6 years. (Next) Florence Burr--runs 5 sides. In mill 4 years. (Next) Bessie English - 3 sides, 3 years in mill. (Next) Alphie Burr - 2 sides, 1 year in mill. (Next) Lela English, 1 year in mill. 48 inches high. Saturday, Dec. 5, 1908. Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dillon Mills, Dillon S.C. (Boy) Ransom English--doffs, been in mill 6 years. (Next) Florence Burr--runs 5 sides. In mill 4 years. (Next) Bessie English - 3 sides, 3 years in mill. (Next) Alphie Burr - 2 sides, 1 year in mill. (Next) Lela English, 1 year in mill. 48 inches high. Saturday, Dec. 5, 1908.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

A few of the small girls and boys (not the smallest ones) that I found working in the spinning room of one of the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. mills at Manchester, N.H. Photo taken at 1:00 p.m., May 21, 1909, in hallway of spinning room. Many others there and in the other mills. Smallest boy (on left hand) is Geroge Brown, No. 1 Corporation. Corner of Granite and Bedford Sts. Next is, Eugene Lamy, 16 Marion St. Girls: Melvina Proulx, 145 Cartier St. Laura Oclair, 145 Cartier St. Location: Manchester, New Hampshire / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A few of the small girls and boys (not the smallest ones) that I found working in the spinning room of one of the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. mills at Manchester, N.H. Photo taken at 1:00 p.m., May 21, 1909, in hallway of spinning room. Many others there and in the other mills. Smallest boy (on left hand) is Geroge Brown, No. 1 Corporation. Corner of Granite and Bedford Sts. Next is, Eugene Lamy, 16 Marion St. Girls: Melvina Proulx, 145 Cartier St. Laura Oclair, 145 Cartier St.  Location: Manchester, New Hampshire / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Messenger boys. They work until 11 P.M. New Haven, Connecticut / Photo by [Lewis W. Hine]

Messenger boys. They work until 11 P.M.  New Haven, Connecticut / Photo by [Lewis W. Hine]

Noon hour, May 5, 1909, in the drawing-in room of American Woolen Co., Winooski, Vt. In front row are:- Right hand end, Allexina Lavelley; next - Anna Cross; next - Cecile Cauchon. In back row, right-hand, Lena Campbell; next, Albina Seymour. I counted 20 girls (under 14) going in at 7 a.m. Location: Winooski, Vermont / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Noon hour, May 5, 1909, in the drawing-in room of American Woolen Co., Winooski, Vt. In front row are:- Right hand end, Allexina Lavelley; next - Anna Cross; next - Cecile Cauchon. In back row, right-hand, Lena Campbell; next, Albina Seymour. I counted 20 girls (under 14) going in at 7 a.m.  Location: Winooski, Vermont / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A bad New Years start for the children. A group of doffer boys who were cleaning up in the Atherton Mill, Charlotte, N.C., during the noon hour. The superintendent had forbidden my taking any photos on the company's premises, so I slipped in at noon when authorities were away, gathered the boys together and took this. See photos 472 to 479. Location: Charlotte, North Carolina / by Lewis W. Hine. Jan 1, 1909.

A bad New Years start for the children. A group of doffer boys who were cleaning up in the Atherton Mill, Charlotte, N.C., during the noon hour. The superintendent had forbidden my taking any photos on the company's premises, so I slipped in at noon when authorities were away, gathered the boys together and took this. See photos 472 to 479.  Location: Charlotte, North Carolina / by Lewis W. Hine. Jan 1, 1909.

Noon hour. Moore Bros. Glass Co., Clayton, N.J. All are workers. Location: Clayton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Noon hour. Moore Bros. Glass Co., Clayton, N.J. All are workers.  Location: Clayton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Photo of boys working in Arcade Bowling Alley, Trenton, N.J. Photo taken late at night. The boys work until midnight and later. I found practically no small boys selling late in the evening and several persons said it was not done except in baseball season. Location: Trenton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., Dec. 20, 1909.

Photo of boys working in Arcade Bowling Alley, Trenton, N.J. Photo taken late at night. The boys work until midnight and later. I found practically no small boys selling late in the evening and several persons said it was not done except in baseball season.  Location: Trenton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., Dec. 20, 1909.

Johnnie Thomas, Charlotte, N.C. (See label on Photo 470). Location: Charlotte, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Johnnie Thomas, Charlotte, N.C. (See label on Photo 470).  Location: Charlotte, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Joseph and Rosy, 10 and 8 yrs. old. He sells until evening. She is one of 5 or 6 girls who sell (afternoons) in Newark. Location: Newark, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Joseph and Rosy, 10 and 8 yrs. old. He sells until evening. She is one of 5 or 6 girls who sell (afternoons) in Newark.  Location: Newark, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Photo of boys working in Arcade Bowling Alley. Trenton, N.J. Photo taken late at night. The boys work until midnight and later. Dec. 20, 1909. Location: Trenton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Photo of boys working in Arcade Bowling Alley. Trenton, N.J. Photo taken late at night. The boys work until midnight and later. Dec. 20, 1909.  Location: Trenton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Boys working in Calvine Mfg. Co., Charlotte, N.C. Shortest boy been in mill work 3 years. Next boy 4 years. Tallest boy 5 years. Superintendent would not permit me to take photos in mill. I saw 10 or 15 children like these boys when they went home to dinner. Jan. 7, 1909. Location: Charlotte, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Boys working in Calvine Mfg. Co., Charlotte, N.C. Shortest boy been in mill work 3 years. Next boy 4 years. Tallest boy 5 years. Superintendent would not permit me to take photos in mill. I saw 10 or 15 children like these boys when they went home to dinner. Jan. 7, 1909.  Location: Charlotte, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Lunch-time. A few of the workers on night shift in Cumberland Glass Works, Bridgeton, N.J. Location: Bridgeton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Lunch-time. A few of the workers on night shift in Cumberland Glass Works, Bridgeton, N.J.  Location: Bridgeton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Noon hour. Moore Bros. Glass Co., Clayton, N.J., all are workers. Location: Clayton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Noon hour. Moore Bros. Glass Co., Clayton, N.J., all are workers.  Location: Clayton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Jo Lehman, a 7 year old newsboy. 824 Third Ave., N.Y. City. He was selling in this Saloon. I asked him about the badge he was wearing. "Oh! Dat's me bruder's," he said. Location: New York, New York.

Jo Lehman, a 7 year old newsboy. 824 Third Ave., N.Y. City. He was selling in this Saloon. I asked him about the badge he was wearing.  "Oh! Dat's me bruder's," he said. Location: New York, New York.

[Groups of girls workers at the gate of the American Tobacco Co., Wilmington, Delaware, noon period, May 24, 1910. Young girls obviously under 14 years of age, who work about 10 hours a day every day except Saturday. Investigator, Edward F. Brown]. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

[Groups of girls workers at the gate of the American Tobacco Co., Wilmington, Delaware, noon period, May 24, 1910. Young girls obviously under 14 years of age, who work about 10 hours a day every day except Saturday. Investigator, Edward F. Brown].  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

Leo Franklin, 419 E. 3d St. 12 years of age. Selling papers 2 years. Average earnings 50 cents a day. Selling papers own choice. Earnings not needed at home. Visits saloons. Don't smoke. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Leo Franklin, 419 E. 3d St. 12 years of age. Selling papers 2 years. Average earnings 50 cents a day. Selling papers own choice. Earnings not needed at home. Visits saloons. Don't smoke. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

John Gannon (14 years old) 104 Cherry St. John cannot secure an employment certificate because he lacks weight and cannot pass the physical test; he is also under sized for his age; has passed the school requirements. Mother is a widow, does day's work and earns $3 a week. Mary, oldest daughter, fields envelopes at $4 a week. Two children in the orphan asylum. Mother struggling hard to get office cleaning, so that she may take the children out and have a home of her own, as at present they are lodging with friends. We are giving a scholarship to John. Location: New York, New York (State) / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

John Gannon (14 years old) 104 Cherry St. John cannot secure an employment certificate because he lacks weight and cannot pass the physical test; he is also under sized for his age; has passed the school requirements. Mother is a widow, does day's work and earns $3 a week. Mary, oldest daughter, fields envelopes at $4 a week. Two children in the orphan asylum. Mother struggling hard to get office cleaning, so that she may take the children out and have a home of her own, as at present they are lodging with friends. We are giving a scholarship to John.  Location: New York, New York (State) / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newsboys, begging tobacco coupons. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Lewis W. Hine. Photographer. Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Newsboys, begging tobacco coupons. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Lewis W. Hine. Photographer.  Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

In the shadow of City Hall, selling vegetables at 515 King St., Wilmington, Delaware. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

In the shadow of City Hall, selling vegetables at 515 King St., Wilmington, Delaware. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

A group of workers at Greenabaum's Cannery, Seaford, Del. 1 Child is 7 years of age. 4 Children are 12 years of age. 1 Child is 13 years of age. 4 Children are 15 years of age. 3 of these children are working 1 year. 1 of these children is working 2 years. 3 of these children are working 3 years. 2 of these children are working 4 years. 1 of these children is working 5 years. 1 of these children is working 6 years. Greenabaum's Cannery is considered one of the largest in the United States. A few years ago they canned 1,000,000 cans of peas in 4 days. This information was given by the bookkeeper of the Cannery. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Seaford, Del. June 2, 1910. Location: Seaford, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A group of workers at Greenabaum's Cannery, Seaford, Del. 1 Child is 7 years of age. 4 Children are 12 years of age. 1 Child is 13 years of age. 4 Children are 15 years of age. 3 of these children are working 1 year. 1 of these children is working 2 years. 3 of these children are working 3 years. 2 of these children are working 4 years. 1 of these children is working 5 years. 1 of these children is working 6 years. Greenabaum's Cannery is considered one of the largest in the United States. A few years ago they canned 1,000,000 cans of peas in 4 days. This information was given by the bookkeeper of the Cannery. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Seaford, Del. June 2, 1910.  Location: Seaford, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

(a) L. Seizwater, 333 Christian St., age 13, sells papers in subway. Works from 2 P.M. to 11 P.M. daily. Saturdays from 9 A.M. to 2 A.M. Sundays. Earnings 25 cents daily. (b) Jacob Cross, 1404 S. 8th St., age 15, newsboy. Sells from 3 P.M. to midnight daily. Saturdays works all night. The agent of the Juvenile Protective Association called the boy the typical night newsie of Philadelphia, having all their vices and ways and a class degenerating to low criminality. (c) Sol Feltman, 2442 S. Marshall St., age 10 sells papers in Subway from 4 P.M. to 10 P.M. Saturdays from 4 P.M. to midnight. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

(a) L. Seizwater, 333 Christian St., age 13, sells papers in subway. Works from 2 P.M. to 11 P.M. daily. Saturdays from 9 A.M. to 2 A.M. Sundays. Earnings 25 cents daily. (b) Jacob Cross, 1404 S. 8th St., age 15, newsboy. Sells from 3 P.M. to midnight daily. Saturdays works all night. The agent of the Juvenile Protective Association called the boy the typical night newsie of Philadelphia, having all their vices and ways and a class degenerating to low criminality. (c) Sol Feltman, 2442 S. Marshall St., age 10 sells papers in Subway from 4 P.M. to 10 P.M. Saturdays from 4 P.M. to midnight. Edward F. Brown, Investigator.  Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Barney Goldstein, 83 W. 5th St. Newsboy, 10 years of age. Selling newspapers 1 year. Average earnings 50 cents per week. Selling papers own choice. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 5 hours per day. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Barney Goldstein, 83 W. 5th St. Newsboy, 10 years of age. Selling newspapers 1 year. Average earnings 50 cents per week. Selling papers own choice. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 5 hours per day. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

A gang of newsies at the office of "Every Evening." "Everybody in this gang sells." Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

A gang of newsies at the office of "Every Evening." "Everybody in this gang sells." Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

William Lynch, 11 years of age, and Cornelius Lynch, 9 years of age, 607 ["606" crossed out] E. 6th Street. Newsboys. William has been selling papers 4 years, average earnings 25 cents per week. Sells from choice. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 5 hours a day. Cornelius selling 3 years, average earnings 35 cents a week. Earnings not needed at home. Sells from choice. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 7 hours a day. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

William Lynch, 11 years of age, and Cornelius Lynch, 9 years of age, 607 ["606" crossed out] E. 6th Street. Newsboys. William has been selling papers 4 years, average earnings 25 cents per week. Sells from choice. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 5 hours a day. Cornelius selling 3 years, average earnings 35 cents a week. Earnings not needed at home. Sells from choice. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 7 hours a day. Edward F. Brown, Investigator.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Joseph Wench, newsboy, 315 W. 2nd St. 7 years of age. Selling papers 2 years Average earnings 50 cents per week. Selling papers own choice. Earnings not needed at home. Visits saloons. Works 6 hours per day. Mother and father separated. Lives with grandmother. This boy was found on King St. (marked), eating rotted orange which he picked up from the gutter. He was bare footed, shabbily clad and seemed under fed. When asked whether grandmother needed his earnings, he replied that she was comfortable and that he wanted money to go to moving pictures and buy candy. May, 1910 Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Joseph Wench, newsboy, 315 W. 2nd St. 7 years of age. Selling papers 2 years Average earnings 50 cents per week. Selling papers own choice. Earnings not needed at home. Visits saloons. Works 6 hours per day. Mother and father separated. Lives with grandmother. This boy was found on King St. (marked), eating rotted orange which he picked up from the gutter. He was bare footed, shabbily clad and seemed under fed. When asked whether grandmother needed his earnings, he replied that she was comfortable and that he wanted money to go to moving pictures and buy candy. May, 1910 Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Noon hour. These boys are all working in the Illinois Glass Co. 1) Smallest boy, Frank (?) Dwyer, 1009 1/2 E. 6 St., says he has been working here 3 months. 2) Joe Dwyer (brother) Has been working here over 2 years. 3) Henry Maul, 513 Central Ave. 4) Frank Schenk, Lives with uncle, 611 Central Ave. 5) Emil Ohley, 1012 E. 6th Street. 6) Wm. Jarett, 825 E. 5th Street. 7) Fred Metz, 707 Bloomfield Street. In addition to their telling me they worked I saw them beginning work just before 1 P.M. Photo at 12:30. Alton, Ill. May 17, 1910. Location: Alton, Illinois / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Noon hour. These boys are all working in the Illinois Glass Co. 1) Smallest boy, Frank (?) Dwyer, 1009 1/2 E. 6 St., says he has been working here 3 months. 2) Joe Dwyer (brother) Has been working here over 2 years. 3) Henry Maul, 513 Central Ave. 4) Frank Schenk, Lives with uncle, 611 Central Ave. 5) Emil Ohley, 1012 E. 6th Street. 6) Wm. Jarett, 825 E. 5th Street. 7) Fred Metz, 707 Bloomfield Street. In addition to their telling me they worked I saw them beginning work just before 1 P.M. Photo at 12:30. Alton, Ill. May 17, 1910.  Location: Alton, Illinois / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

The De Marco family (see photos #1139-#1143, and E.F. Brown's report). Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown near Pemberton, N.J. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness E.F. Brown. Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

The De Marco family (see photos #1139-#1143, and E.F. Brown's report). Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown near Pemberton, N.J. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness E.F. Brown.  Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

[Harry Silverstein, Newsboy, 703 W. 6th St., 7 years old. Sells papers, (selling 3 months average earnings 25 cents per week). Father working Morocco Mills, earns $18 weekly. Boy's earnings not needed at home. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 8 hours per day. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. ]. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

[Harry Silverstein, Newsboy, 703 W. 6th St., 7 years old. Sells papers, (selling 3 months average earnings 25 cents per week). Father working Morocco Mills, earns $18 weekly. Boy's earnings not needed at home. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 8 hours per day. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. ].  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Catherine Celaberta, 766 [or 756?] S. Darian St., Philadelphia, Pa. 6 years old. Been picking this summer at Theodore Budd's Bog at Turkeytown near Pemberton, N.J. This is the fourth week of school in Philadelphia and people will stay here two weeks more. Sept. 27, 1910. Witness, E. F. Brown. Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Catherine Celaberta, 766 [or 756?] S. Darian St., Philadelphia, Pa. 6 years old. Been picking this summer at Theodore Budd's Bog at Turkeytown near Pemberton, N.J. This is the fourth week of school in Philadelphia and people will stay here two weeks more. Sept. 27, 1910. Witness, E. F. Brown.  Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

The Marnielli family. Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown, near Pemberton, N.J. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness E.F. Brown,. Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

The Marnielli family. Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown, near Pemberton, N.J. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness E.F. Brown,.  Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Newsboy smoking cigarets [sic] on 4th & Orange Sts. Investigator, Edward F. Brown Wilmington, Delaware. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

Newsboy smoking cigarets [sic] on 4th & Orange Sts. Investigator, Edward F. Brown Wilmington, Delaware.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

Where the newsboy's money goes. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

Where the newsboy's money goes. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

Addie Card, 12 years. Spinner in North Pownal Cotton Mill. Girls in mill say she is ten years. She admitted to me she was twelve; that she started during school vacation and now would "stay". Location: Vermont

Addie Card, 12 years. Spinner in North Pownal Cotton Mill. Girls in mill say she is ten years. She admitted to me she was twelve; that she started during school vacation and now would "stay". Location: Vermont

Pete, the Padrone, and family and neighbors. Girl tending baby in sun. Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown, near Pemberton, N.J. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness E. F. Brown,. Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Pete, the Padrone, and family and neighbors. Girl tending baby in sun. Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown, near Pemberton, N.J. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness E. F. Brown,.  Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dominick Carroll, 8 years old (appears 6). Newsboy. Sells from 3 P.M. to 7 P.M. income 25 cents per day. This boy sells papers for his brother who is 12 years old. Does not gamble, drink or smoke. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dominick Carroll, 8 years old (appears 6). Newsboy. Sells from 3 P.M. to 7 P.M. income 25 cents per day. This boy sells papers for his brother who is 12 years old. Does not gamble, drink or smoke. Edward F. Brown, Investigator.  Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Nardie[?] Diffondall, 328 E. 8th St. 7 years of age. Selling papers 1 year. Average earnings 25 cents per week. Selling newspapers own choice. Don't smoke. Earnings not needed at home. Visits saloons. Works "last paper" scheme. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Nardie[?] Diffondall, 328 E. 8th St. 7 years of age. Selling papers 1 year. Average earnings 25 cents per week. Selling newspapers own choice. Don't smoke. Earnings not needed at home. Visits saloons. Works "last paper" scheme. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Tenjeta Calone, Philadelphia, 10 years old. Been picking cranberries 4 years. White's Bog, Browns Mills, N.J. This is the fourth week of school and the people here expect to remain two weeks more. Sept. 28, 1910. Witness E. F. Brown. Location: Browns Mills, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Tenjeta Calone, Philadelphia, 10 years old. Been picking cranberries 4 years. White's Bog, Browns Mills, N.J. This is the fourth week of school and the people here expect to remain two weeks more. Sept. 28, 1910. Witness E. F. Brown.  Location: Browns Mills, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Addie Card, 12 years. Spinner in North Pownal Cotton Mill. Girls in mill say she is ten years. She admitted to me she was twelve; that she started during school vacation and now would "stay". Location: Vermont

Addie Card, 12 years. Spinner in North Pownal Cotton Mill. Girls in mill say she is ten years. She admitted to me she was twelve; that she started during school vacation and now would "stay". Location: Vermont

Group of newsboys at Evening Journal Office. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

Group of newsboys at Evening Journal Office. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

Girl and boys selling papers. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Girl and boys selling papers. Edward F. Brown, Investigator.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

John Gibson, Newsboy, 13 years of age. Selling newspapers 7 years. Average earnings $1.25 per week. Selling newspapers own choice. Smokes. Visits saloons. Works 9 hours per day. John's brother is a messenger who directed investigator to a number of houses of prostitution, on Tatnall and Orange Sts. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

John Gibson, Newsboy, 13 years of age. Selling newspapers 7 years. Average earnings $1.25 per week. Selling newspapers own choice. Smokes. Visits saloons. Works 9 hours per day. John's brother is a messenger who directed investigator to a number of houses of prostitution, on Tatnall and Orange Sts. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Harry Silverstein, Newsboy, 703 W. 6th St., 7 years old. Sells papers, (selling 3 months average earnings 25 cents per week). Father working Morocco Mills, earns $18 weekly. Boy's earnings not needed at home. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 8 hours per day. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Harry Silverstein, Newsboy, 703 W. 6th St., 7 years old. Sells papers, (selling 3 months average earnings 25 cents per week). Father working Morocco Mills, earns $18 weekly. Boy's earnings not needed at home. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 8 hours per day. Edward F. Brown, Investigator.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

[John Towers, 627 S. Connell Street. Postal Telegraph Company, Messenger # 9. 15 years of age. In service 1 year. Visits houses of prostitution. Sometimes smokes. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. ]. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

[John Towers, 627 S. Connell Street. Postal Telegraph Company, Messenger # 9. 15 years of age. In service 1 year. Visits houses of prostitution. Sometimes smokes. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. ].  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

General view of Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown, near Pemberton, N.J. with Padrone. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness, E.F. Brown. Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

General view of Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown, near Pemberton, N.J. with Padrone. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness, E.F. Brown.  Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Al. Brown, newsboy, 219 W. 2nd [3rd?] St. 11 years of age. Selling newspaper 3 years. Average earnings 50 cents per week. Father merchant tailor, $26 weekly. Selling papers own choice. Earnings not needed at home. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 7 hours a day. Wants money to spend . Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Al. Brown, newsboy, 219 W. 2nd [3rd?] St. 11 years of age. Selling newspaper 3 years. Average earnings 50 cents per week. Father merchant tailor, $26 weekly. Selling papers own choice. Earnings not needed at home. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 7 hours a day. Wants money to spend . Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Thomas Panasares [i.e., Panasaros?], Thomas Panasaros (cousin). Arrange balls in pool room at 711 Market St. 12 and 14 years respectively. Go to school. Work for father and uncle, respectively, who owns pool room. Investigator found these two boys at work after midnight on Saturday, May 21. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Thomas Panasares [i.e., Panasaros?], Thomas Panasaros (cousin). Arrange balls in pool room at 711 Market St. 12 and 14 years respectively. Go to school. Work for father and uncle, respectively, who owns pool room. Investigator found these two boys at work after midnight on Saturday, May 21. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Daisy Langford, 8 years of age, working at the capping machine in Ross's Cannery, Seaford, Del. (see photo [crossed out]) Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Location: Seaford, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Daisy Langford, 8 years of age, working at the capping machine in Ross's Cannery, Seaford, Del. (see photo [crossed out]) Edward F. Brown, Investigator.  Location: Seaford, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

[Groups of girls workers at the gate of the American Tobacco Co., Wilmington, Delaware, noon period, May 24, 1910. Young girls obviously under 14 years of age, who work about 10 hours a day every day except Saturday. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.] Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910]

[Groups of girls workers at the gate of the American Tobacco Co., Wilmington, Delaware, noon period, May 24, 1910. Young girls obviously under 14 years of age, who work about 10 hours a day every day except Saturday. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.]  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910]

Walter Ray, 400 Walnut St. 8 years of age. Selling papers 1 year. Average earnings 35 cents per week. Selling papers own choice. Don't smoke. Earnings not needed at home. Visits saloons. Works 5 hours per day. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Walter Ray, 400 Walnut St. 8 years of age. Selling papers 1 year. Average earnings 35 cents per week. Selling papers own choice. Don't smoke. Earnings not needed at home. Visits saloons. Works 5 hours per day. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Millie Cornaro, Philadelphia, 10 years old. Been picking cranberries for 6 years. White's Bog, Browns Mills, N. J. This is the fourth week of school and the people here expect to remain here two weeks more. Sept. 28, 1910. Witness, E. F. Brown. Location: Browns Mills, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Millie Cornaro, Philadelphia, 10 years old. Been picking cranberries for 6 years. White's Bog, Browns Mills, N. J. This is the fourth week of school and the people here expect to remain here two weeks more. Sept. 28, 1910. Witness, E. F. Brown.  Location: Browns Mills, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Teresa Lamelli, 818 Kate St., Philadelphia, 5 years old. Whites Bog, Browns Mills, N.J. Sept. 28, 1910. Witness E.F. Brown. Location: Browns Mills, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Teresa Lamelli, 818 Kate St., Philadelphia, 5 years old. Whites Bog, Browns Mills, N.J. Sept. 28, 1910. Witness E.F. Brown.  Location: Browns Mills, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

James Morgan, 119 French St. Newsboy. 9 years of age. Selling newspaper 4 years. Average earnings 50 cents per week. Selling papers own choice. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 6 hours per day. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

James Morgan, 119 French St. Newsboy. 9 years of age. Selling newspaper 4 years. Average earnings 50 cents per week. Selling papers own choice. Don't smoke. Visits saloons. Works 6 hours per day. Investigator, Edward F. Brown.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May, 1910.

Pete Trombetta, 10 years of age, 6th season of work. Salvatore Trombetta, 14 years of age, 8th season of work, picks 200 quarts of berries a day. Mary Trombetta, 11 years of age, 6th season, picks 100 quarts berries per day on Johnson's Farm, Seaford, Del. These children start picking at about 5:30 A.M. and continue until 6 P.M. in the evening. The padrone estimated that the family of 6 can make from $9 to $12 per day picking 12 to 13 hours. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Seaford, Del. May 28, 1910. Location: Seaford, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Pete Trombetta, 10 years of age, 6th season of work. Salvatore Trombetta, 14 years of age, 8th season of work, picks 200 quarts of berries a day. Mary Trombetta, 11 years of age, 6th season, picks 100 quarts berries per day on Johnson's Farm, Seaford, Del. These children start picking at about 5:30 A.M. and continue until 6 P.M. in the evening. The padrone estimated that the family of 6 can make from $9 to $12 per day picking 12 to 13 hours. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Seaford, Del. May 28, 1910.  Location: Seaford, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Upper floor of hallway, opening into 12 rooms (see photo #1145) in large shack occupied by cranberry pickers on Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown, near Pemberton, N.J. 12 rooms on first floor. One small window 21 x 26 inches in each room. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness E. F. Brown. Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo Lewis W. Hine.

Upper floor of hallway, opening into 12 rooms (see photo #1145) in large shack occupied by cranberry pickers on Forsythe's Bog, Turkeytown, near Pemberton, N.J. 12 rooms on first floor. One small window 21 x 26 inches in each room. Sept. 29, 1910. Witness E. F. Brown.  Location: Pemberton, New Jersey / Photo Lewis W. Hine.