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Jupiter and Callisto

Jupiter and Callisto

Diana ontdekt de zwangerschap van Callisto

Juno verandert Callisto in een beer

Jupiter verleidt Callisto in de gedaante van Diana

Arcas richt zijn pijl op Callisto

Diana ontdekt de zwangerschap van Callisto

Plate 13:Jupiter and Callisto (Calisto a Iove comprimitur), from Ovid's 'Metamorphoses'

The Pregnancy of Callisto Discovered by Diana

Ewer with scenes from the story of Diana and Callisto

Diana ontdekt de zwangerschap van Callisto

Jupiter en Callisto

Jupiter and Callisto, from 'Game of Mythology' (Jeu de la Mythologie)

Diana en Callisto

Diana and Callisto

Jupiter, in the Guise of Diana, and Callisto

Mythological Scene, possibly Diana Seducing Callisto

Jupiter System Montage

Voyager 1 View of Callisto

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) Jupiter, its Great Red Spot and three of its four largest satellites are visible in this photo taken Feb 5, 1979 by Voyager 1. The spacecraft was 28.4 million kilomters (17.5 million miles) from the planet at the time. The inner-most large satellite, Io, can be seen against Jupiter's disk. Io is distinguished by its bright, brown-yellow surface. To the right of Jupiter is the satellite Europa, also very bright but with fainter surface markings. The darkest satellite, Callisto (still nearly twice as bright as Earth's Moon), is barely visible at the bottom left of the picture. Callisto shows a bright patch in its northern hemisphere. All tThree orbit Jupiter in the equatorial plane, and appear in their present position because Voyageris above the plane. All three satellites show the same face to Jupiter always -- just as Earth's Moon always shows us the same face. In this photo we see the sides of the satellites that always face away from the planet. Jupiter's colorfully banded atmosphere displays complex patterns highlighted by the Great Red Spot, a large, circulating atmospheric disturbance. This photo was assembled from three black and white negatives by the Image Processing Lab at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. JPL manages and controls the Voyage Project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (ref: P-21083) ARC-1969-AC79-0164-2

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was taken a few minutes after midnight (PST) Feb. 25 by Voyager 1. The distance to Callisto was 8,023,000 kilometers (4.98 million miles). The hemisphere in this picture shows a fairly uniform surface dotted with brighter spots that are up to several hundred kilometers across. Scientists believe the spots may be impact craters but higher-resolution photos will be necessary before the features can be interpreted. Callisto is about the same size as the planet Mercury--about 5,000 kilometers (3,000 miles) in diameter. Callisto is less massive than Mercury, however, giving it a density less than twice that of water. Scientists believe Callisto, therefore, is composed of a mixture of rock and ice (up to about 50 percent by weight). Its surface is darker than those of the other Galilean satellites, but is still about twice as bright as Earth's Moon. This black-and-white photo was taken through a violet filter. Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21149) ARC-1979-A79-7027

Callisto , The outermost Galilean Satellite , or Moon , of Jupiter, as taken by Voyager I . Range : About 7 Million km (5 Million miles) . Callisto, the darkest of the Galilean Satellites, still nearly twice as bright as the Earth's Moon, is seen here from the face that always faces Jupiter. All of the Galilean Satellites always show the same face to Jupiter, as the Earth's moon does to Earth. The Surface shows a mottled appearance of bright and dark patches. The former reminds scientists of rayed or bright haloed craters, similiar to those seen on earth's Moon. This color photo is assembled from 3 black and wite images taken though violet, orange, & green filters ARC-1979-AC79-7002

Range : 7 million kilometers (5 million miles) Callisto is the outermost Galilean satellite of Jupiter and the darkest of the four, but still twice as bright as Earth's Moon. Mottled appearance from bright and dark patches; bright ones look like rayed or brite craters on our Moon. This face of Callisto is always turned toward Jupiter. Photo taken through violet filter. ARC-1979-A79-7017

Range : 7 million kilometers (5 million miles) Callisto is Jupiter's outermost Galilean satellites and darkest of the four(but almost twice as bright as Earth's Moon). Mottled appearance from bright and dark patches. Bright spots seem like rayed or bright halved craters seen on our Moon. This face is always turned toward Jupiter. Photo taken through violet filter. Ganymede is slightly larger than Mercury but much less dense (twice the density of water). Its surface brightness is 4 times of Earth's Moon. Mare regions (dark features) are like the Moon's but have twice the brightness, and believed to be unlikely of rock or lava as the Moon's are. It's north pole seems covered with brighter material and may be water frost. Scattered brighter spots may be related to impact craters or source of fresh ice. ARC-1979-A79-7020

P-21744 C Range: 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) In this image of Europa acquired by Voyager 2, global scale dark streaks are becoming visible. Europa, the size of the earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice as indicated by ground based spectrometers and its brightness. The central longitude of this view is 235° west. Bright rayed impact craters which are abundant on ancient Ganymede and Callisto would easily be visible at this range. The suggestion is that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes. ARC-1979-AC79-7078

Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice, as indicated by ground spectrometers and its brightness. In this view, global scale dark sreaks discovered by Voyager 1 that criss-cross the the satelite are becoming visible. Bright rayed impact craters, which are abundant on Ganymede and Callisto, would be easily visible at this range, suggesting that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes. ARC-1979-A79-7103

P-21745 BW Range: 1.1 million miles (675,000 miles) This image of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 was enhanced to reveal detail in the scene. Voyager 1's high resolution coverage was of the hemisphere just over the right-hand (eastern) horizon, and the large ring structure discovered by Voyager 1 is just over the eastern limb. This image shows yet another ring structure in the upper part of the picture. Callisto exhibits some of the most ancient terrain seen on any of the satellites. Scientists think Callisto's surface is a mixture of ice and rock dating back to the final stages of planetary accretion (over 4 billion years ago) when the surface was pockmarked by a torrential bombardment of meteorites. Younger craters show as bright spots, probably because they expose fresh ice and frost. ARC-1979-A79-7079

Range : 1,094,666 km (677,000 mi.) This false color picture of Callisto was taken by Voyager 2 and is centered on 11 degrees N and 171 degrees W. This rendition uses an ultraviolet image for the blue component. Because the surface displays regional contrast in UV, variations in surface materials are apparent. Notice in particular the dark blue haloes which surround bright craters in the eastern hemisphere. The surface of Callisto is the most heavily cratered of the Galilean satellites and resembles ancient heavily cratered terrains on the moon, Mercury and Mars. The bright areas are ejecta thrown out by relatively young impact craters. A large ringed structure, probably an impact basin, is shown in the upper left part of the picture. The color version of this picture was constructed by compositing black and white images taken through the ultraviolet, clear and orange filters. ARC-1979-AC79-7104

P-21740 C Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 shows the moon covered with bright spots which are metoerite impact craters--a fact originally discovered from the high resolution pictures taken by Voyager 1. Scientists believe that heavily cratered terrains like these on Callisto are indicative of ancient planetary surfaces. Voyager 2 mapped the side of Callisto not seen by Voyager 1. The obsure dark streaks in this area may be fault zones, but higher resolution pictures are needed for identification. ARC-1979-AC79-7075

P-21746 BW Range: 390,000 kilometers (245,000 miles) This photomosaic of Callisto is composed of nine frames. The impact crater distribution is very uniform across the disk. Notable are the very bright rayed craters that probably are very young. Near the limb is a giant probable impact structure. Several large structures were discovered by Voyager 1. This one is smaller than the largest one found by Voyager 1 but is more clearly shown. About 15 concentric rings surround the bright central spot. Many hundreds of moderate sized impacts are also seen, a few with bright radial ray patterns. The limb is very smooth confirming that no high topography has been seen on the satellite, and observation consistent with its icy composition. ARC-1979-A79-7080

Range : top- 86,000 miles bottom- 192,000 mi. These two close-ups of Ganymede, the largest of Jupiter's 13 moons, show different views of the largest block of dark, heavily cratered terrain. The bottom image shows objects 3 or 4 miles across, with resolution of about 1.5 miles. The light, linear stripes recurring across the dark region resemble the outer rings of the large ring structure around Callisto. If these features are related to an ancient ring structure formed by a large impact, their small curvature suggests that the original structure was even larger than one seen on Callisto. There is no apparent trace now of the center of this suggested structure, which must have been destroyed by the resurfacing evident over most of Ganymede in the grooved terrain. Another interpretation is that these features are not impact-related rings, but rather internally produced fractures crossing the dark terrain, similiar to the grooved bands. ARC-1979-A79-7107

Range : 85,000 kilometers (53,000 miles) This photo of Jupiter's satellite Ganymede shows ancient cratered terrain. A variety of impact craters of different ages are shown. The brightest craters are the youngest. The ejecta blankets fade with age. The center shows a bright patch that represents the rebounding of the floor of the crater. The dirty ice has lost all topography except for faint circular patterns. Also shown are the 'Callisto type' curved troughs and ridges that mark an ancient enormous impact basin. The basin itself has been destroyed by later geologic processes. Only the ring features are preserved on the ancient surface. Near the bottom of the picture, these curved features are trumcated by the younger grooved terrain. ARC-1979-A79-7097

P-21758 BW Range: 246,000 kilometers (152,000 miles) This picture by Voyager 2 is the first close look ever obtained of Jupiter's satellite, Europa. The linear crack-like features had been seen from a much greater distance by Voyager 1 but this image provides a resolution of about four kilometers (2.5 miles). The complicated linear features appear even more like cracks or huge fractures in these images. Also seen are somewhat darker mottled regions which appear to have a slightly pitted appearance, perhaps due to small scale craters. No large craters (more than five kilometers in diameter) are easily identifiable in the Europa photographs to date, suggesting that this satellite has a young surface relative to Ganymede and Callisto, although not perhaps as young as Io's. Various models for Europa's structure will be tested during analysis of these images, including the possibility that the surface is a thin ice crust overlying water or softer ice and that the fracture systems seen are breaks in that crust. Resurfacing mechanisms such as production of fresh ice or snow along the cracks and cold glacier-like flows are being considered as possibilities for removing evidence of impact events. Europa thus appears to truly be a satellite with many properties intermediate between Ganymede and Io. ARC-1979-A79-7087

Range : 225,000 kilometers (140,625 miles) This image of the Jovian moon Europa was taken by Voyager 2 along the evening terminator, which best shows the surface topography of complex narrow ridges, seen as curved bright streaks, 5 to 10 kilometers wide, and typically 100 kilometers in length. The area shown is about 600 by 800 kilometers, and the smallest features visible are about 4 kilometers in size. Also visable are dark bands, more diffused in character, 20 to 40 kilometers wide and hundreds to thousands of kilometers in length. A few features are suggestive of impact craters but are rare, indication that the surface thought to be dominantly ice is still active, perhaps warmed by tidal heating like Io. The larger icy satellites, Callisto and Ganymede, are evidently colder with much more rigid crusts and ancient impact craters. The complex intersection of dark markings and bright ridges suggest that the surface has been fractured and material from beneath has welled up to fill the cracks. ARC-1979-A79-7093

P-21756 BW only Range: 120,000 km (right) 169,000 km (left) Right: In the foreground of this picture taken by Voyager 2, the part of the surface of Ganymede shown is the typical grooved terrain as seen by Voyager 1. It consists of mutually intersecting bands of closely-spaced, parallel ridges and grooves. In the background is newly-cratered dark terrain across which can be traced several widely spaced parellel linear features. When viewed from a distance the line features appear to trace broad circular areas. The features resemble the circular ridges on Callisto that surround an almost complete annealed impact basin. The feature on Ganymede may be of similar origin but all traces of the impact itself have been destroyed. Left: This picture of Ganymede shows that the dark contrast terrain is separated by bright bands of grooved terain. The band of closely spaced linear grooves in the foreground is 150 km across and appears to be offset by another narrow band at right angles, as though by faulting. A variety of ray patterns are seen around the craters. One is in the left of the picture, it has prominent dark rays around an inner bright halo. Other craters have dark haloes; others have diffuse bright rays. The variation of albedo patterns around the craters may be indications of layering in the surface materials. The intensity of the craters suggests the dark areas are extremely old. The bright grooved terrain is less cratered and probably somewhat younger. ARC-1979-A79-7085

P-21760 C This color image of the Jovian moon Europa, which is the size of our moon, is thought to have a crust of ice perhaps 100 kilometers thick which overlies the silicate crust. The complex array of streaks indicate that the crust has been fractured and filled by materials from the interior. The lack of relief, any visible mountains or craters, on its bright limb is consistent with a thick ice crust. In contrast to its icy neighbors, Ganymede and Callisto, Europa has very few impact craters. One possible candidate is the small feature near the center of this image with radiating rays and a bright circular interior. The relative absence of features and low topography suggests the crust is young and warm a few kilometers below the surface. The tidal heating process suggested for Io also may be heating Europa's interior at a lower rate. ARC-1979-AC79-7088

P-21760 BW This color image of the Jovian moon Europa, which is the size of our moon, is thought to have a crust of ice perhaps 100 kilometers thick which overlies the silicate crust. The complex array of streaks indicate that the crust has been fractured and filled by materials from the interior. The lack of relief, any visible mountains or craters, on its bright limb is consistent with a thick ice crust. In contrast to its icy neighbors, Ganymede and Callisto, Europa has very few impact craters. One possible candidate is the small feature near the center of this image with radiating rays and a bright circular interior. The relative absence of features and low topography suggests the crust is young and warm a few kilometers below the surface. The tidal heating process suggested for Io also may be heating Europa's interior at a lower rate. ARC-1979-A79-7088

Range : 312, 000 kilometers (195,000 miles) This photo of Ganymede (Ice Giant) was taken from Voyager 2 and shows features down to about 5 to 6 kilometers across. Different types of terrain common on Ganymede's surface are visible. The boundary of the largest region of dark ancient terrain on Ganymede can be seen to the east (right), revealing some of the light linear features which may be all that remains of a large ancient impact structure similar to the large ring structure on Callisto. The broad light regions running through the image are the typical grooved structures seen within another example of what might be evidence of large scale lateral motion in Ganymede's crust. The band of grooved terrain (about 100 kilometers wide) in this region appears to be offset by 50 kilometers or more on the left hand edge by a linear feature perpendicular to it. A feature similar to this one was previously discovered by Voyager 1. These are the first clear examples of strike-slip style faulting on any planet other than Earth. Many examples of craters of all ages can be seen in this image, ranging from fresh, bright ray craters to large, subdued circular markings thought to be the 'scars' of large ancient impacts that have been flatteded by glacier-like flows. ARC-1979-AC79-7095

Callisto Mosaic

Callisto False Color

Concentric Rings Surrounding Valhalla

Large impact on Callisto Southern Hemisphere

Callisto Southern Hemisphere

Callisto Southern Hemisphere as Viewed by NIMS & SSI

Family Portrait of Jupiter Great Red Spot and the Galilean Satellites

The Galilean Satellites

View of Callisto from Voyager and Galileo

Landslides on Callisto

A Chain of Impact Craters on Callisto

Callisto Valhalla Impact Structure

Asgard Impact Structure on Callisto

Callisto Crater Chain at High Resolution Shown in Context

Callisto Crater Chain Mosaic

Callisto Scarp Mosaic

Asgard Scarp Mosaic

The Asgard Hemisphere of Callisto

Compositional Variations in Callisto Asgard Impact Structure

Interior of Callisto

Craters Near the South Pole of Callisto

Large Craters in Callisto Southern Hemisphere

Heavy Cratering near Callisto South Pole

Mass Wasting in Craters near the South Pole of Callisto

Callisto Asgard Region as Viewed by NIMS

NIMS Callisto Global Mosaic

Moderate-resolution view of Callisto surface

Callisto Equatorial Region

Craters in a Newly Imaged Area on Callisto

Har Crater on Callisto

View of Callisto at Increasing Resolutions

Global Color Variations on Callisto

The Galilean Satellites

Textured Terrain in Callisto Asgard Basin

Callisto: Pits or Craters?

So few Small Craters on Callisto

Callisto Varied Crater Landscape

Asgard Multi-Ring Structure on Callisto

Callisto Cutaway with Ocean Artist Concept

Impact Craters on Icy Callisto: Doh Crater and Asgard

The Valhalla Multi-ring Structure on Callisto

Callisto Icy Surface

Callisto From 8,023,000 kilometers

Callisto From 7,000,000 kilometers

Crater Tindr on Callisto - an Oblique Impact?

Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto: Surface Comparison at High Spatial Resolution

Callisto

Callisto Basin

Europa and Callisto under the Watchful Gaze of Jupiter

Callisto Close-up with Jagged Hills

Global Callisto in Color

Opposite Side of Callisto from Valhalla Impact

Callisto Hemispherical Globes

Capturing Callisto

Arcas schiet op Callisto

Callisto wordt door Jupiter opgenomen in de sterrenhemel

Ontwerp voor een hoekstuk van plafond met Jupiter als Diana met Callisto

Diana ontdekt de zwangerschap van Callisto

Jupiter en Callisto

Jupiter verleidt Callisto

Diana ontdekt de zwangerschap van Callisto

Callisto