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U.S. Reports: Corporation of Washington v. Pratt, 21 U.S. (8 Wheat.) 681 (1823)

Notice the directors of the Medina County Fire insurance company, have levied the following assessments upon the premium notes of the members of said Company, to wit ... which notes of the assessments are made payable September 15, 1849. ... Med

U.S. Reports: Maxwell v. Griswold et al., 51 U.S. (10 How.) 242 (1851)

U.S. Reports: Greely v. Thompson et al., 51 U.S. (10 How.) 225 (1851)

Our only true medical diploma since 1871--none other genuine / Why Dr. Carl Both refused to pay further assessments to the Mass. Medical Society (Suffolk District)

U.S. Reports: United States v. Shrewsbury, 90 U.S. (23 Wall.) 508 (1874)

Voluntary assessments

U.S. Reports: East St. Louis v. Amy, 120 U.S. 600 (1887)

United States Code: Assessments and Collections, 26 U.S.C. §§ 91-157 (Suppl. 2 1925)

United States Code: Assessment, 26 U.S.C. §§ 6201-6213 (Suppl. 2 1964)

Deputy CHIEF of Naval Operations for Resources, Requirements and Assessments US Navy (USN) Vice Admiral (VADM) Lewis W. Crenshaw, Jr., tours the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas (TX), during Navy Week Houston. Sponsored by the Navy Office of Community Outreach, twenty such weeks are planned this year in cities throughout the Country

Deputy CHIEF of Naval Operations for Resources, Requirements and Assessments US Navy (USN) Vice Admiral (VADM) Lewis W. Crenshaw, Jr., tours the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas (TX), during Navy Week Houston. Sponsored by the Navy Office of Community Outreach, twenty such weeks are planned this year in cities throughout the Country

The periscope of the submarine HMS COURAGEOUS (S-106) is up, right, as the submarine makes assessments of the Harpoon missile damage aboard the radar picket escort ship USS HISSEM (DER-400) during testing

Portrait of DoD Mr. Charles H. ChurchDirector for Advanced Concepts and Technology Assessments(Uncovered)U.S. Army PHOTO by Mr. Russell F. Roederer, CIV

Portrait of DoD Mr. Martin A. Meth Director for Industrial Capabilities and Assessments, Office of the Secretary of Defense (U.S. Army photo by Mr. Scott Davis) (Released) (PC-192727)

James Stickley (left) and Derry Dilby (right), who are with United Space Alliance, check over a spare four-inch diameter LH2 recirculation line that will be used to replace a damaged LH2 line in the orbiter Discovery. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. Workers noted a dent in the line during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The dent measures 12 inches long and about ½-inch deep. Managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope KSC-99pp1398

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Green dye penetrant helps pinpoint the dent discovered in this LH2 recirculation line in Space Shuttle Discovery's engine compartment. The 12-inch-long dent was discovered during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The LH2 line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. The line is being replaced and managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope KSC-99padig039

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A small ruler shows the relative size of the bent LH2 recirculation line in Space Shuttle Discovery's engine compartment. Underneath the line is material draped to protect other components. The 12-inch-long dent was discovered during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The LH2 line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. The line is being replaced and managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope KSC-99padig038

A spare four-inch diameter LH2 recirculation line (shown in photo) will be used to replace a damaged LH2 line in the orbiter Discovery. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. Workers noted a dent in the line during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The dent measures 12 inches long and about ½-inch deep. Managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope KSC-99pp1397

Gary Hamilton (left) and James Stickley, both with United Space Alliance, check out a spare four-inch diameter LH2 recirculation line that will be used to replace a damaged LH2 line in the orbiter Discovery. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. Workers noted a dent in the line during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The dent measures 12 inches long and about ½-inch deep. Managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope KSC-99pp1396

In the Payload Changeout Room, Launch Pad 39B, United Space Alliance and NASA workers look at the replacement main propulsion system liquid hydrogen recirculation line (left) to be installed in Shuttle Discovery's aft compartment. At right is the dented line that has been removed. The 12-inch-long dent was discovered during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. The line is being replaced and managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope KSC-99pp1403

This close-up shows the 12-inch-long dent on Shuttle Discovery's main propulsion system liquid hydrogen recirculation line that was discovered during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. The line is being replaced and managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope KSC-99pp1404

Workers with United Space Alliance remove Shuttle Discovery's dented main propulsion system liquid hydrogen recirculation line. From left are James Stickley, George Atkins, and Todd Biddle. The 12-inch-long dent was discovered during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. The line is being replaced and managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope KSC-99pp1402

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Discovery is being prepped inside the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 for a "roll around" to OPF bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and soid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program. KSC-00pp1187

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Discovery is being prepped inside the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 for a "roll around" to OPF bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and soid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program. KSC00pp1187

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- KSC workers watch as the orbiter Discovery makes the turn around the Vehicle Assembly Building on its move from Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 to OPF bay 3. Ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed in bay 3. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC-00pp1191

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Discovery rolls into Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC-00pp1192

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Discovery rolls past the Vehicle Assembly Building on its way to Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC00pp1189

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- United Space Alliance workers who worked on the orbiter Discovery during process flow pose alongside it during the orbiter’s transfer to Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 3. Ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed in bay 3. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC00pp1190

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- United Space Alliance workers who worked on the orbiter Discovery during process flow pose alongside it during the orbiter’s transfer to Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 3. Ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed in bay 3. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC-00pp1190

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- KSC employees chaperone the transfer of the orbiter Discovery from Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 to OPF bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC-00pp1188

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- KSC workers watch as the orbiter Discovery makes the turn around the Vehicle Assembly Building on its move from Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 to OPF bay 3. Ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed in bay 3. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC00pp1191

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Discovery rolls past the Vehicle Assembly Building on its way to Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC-00pp1189

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Discovery rolls into Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC00pp1192

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- KSC employees chaperone the transfer of the orbiter Discovery from Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 to OPF bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program KSC00pp1188

Hospital Corpsman 3rd Class (HM3) Matt Bizon, of Stitca, Alaska tests a slit lamp on Hospital Corpsman 2nd Class (HM2) Edward McGrill to ensure that accurate corneal assessments are made aboard the USS ABRAHAM LINCOLN (CVN 72), during Operation SOUTHERN WATCH 2000

Members of the Fire Department at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, prepare to make site assessments with US Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) personnel, during the force protection exercise, and Hazardous Material (HAZMAT) training conducted at the South Post training area

During his visit with soldiers in Kosovo, Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld and his entourage including, US Navy Vice Admiral (VADM) Edmund P. Giambastiani Jr., Deputy CHIEF of Naval Operation, Resources, Requirements and Assessments, are briefed by US Army Lieutenant Colonel (LTC) Reddish, Commander, 2nd Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) on the operations of Observation Post "B". Task Force Falcon, Operation JOINT GUARDIAN, near Limijak, Yugoslavia

U.S. Marine Corps CPL. Morris, Weapons Company, 3rd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Division, takes the high ground with a 5.56 mm M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW) overlooking a vehicle check point (VCP) in Khowst, Paktia Province, Afghanistan, Aug. 17, 2004. The Battalion is currently conducting VCP's, village assessments and maintaining an offensive in the area in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by CPL. James P. Douglas) (Released)

US Marine Corps (USMC) Marines assigned to Weapons Company, 3rd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment, on patrol conducting searches and village assessments in a region of Khowst, Afghanistan, during Operation ENDURING FREEDOM

US Marine Corps (USMC) Marines assigned to Weapons Company, 3rd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment, on patrol conducting searches and village assessments in a region of Khowst, Afghanistan, during Operation ENDURING FREEDOM

US Marine Corps (USMC) Marines assigned to Weapons Company, 3rd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment, on patrol conducting searches and village assessments in a region of Khowst, Afghanistan, during Operation ENDURING FREEDOM

Soldiers from the Polish Civilian Military Cooperation (CIMIC) unit, in a Honker Type series 42 4x4 assault vehicle on their way back to Camp Echo after conducting assessments of CIMIC Projects in AL Diwaniyah, Iraq. The CIMIC conducts various projects that aid the rebuilding of the Iraqi infrastructure during Operation IRAQI FREEDOM

Boh Bros Construction Co. LLC fill in steel sheet pilings placed around the 17th Street Canal in New Orleans, La., Dec. 21, 2005, after being damaged by Hurricane Katrina. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is conducting assessments in New Orleans after the hurricane. (U.S. Army photo by F.T. Eyre) (Released)

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Methuen, MA, May 19, 2006 -- John Giarrusso of the Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency helps members of the Federal Emergency Management Agency conduct preliminary damage assessments throughout areas impacted by recent heavy rains. Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Methuen, MA, May 19, 2006 -- Ken Swain a member of the Federal Emergency Management Agency Preliminary Disaster Assessment Team talks to a local news station about the process of evaluating neighborhoods for damage assessments to determine if areas with recent heavy rains will qualify for assistance. Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Lebanon, ME, May 20, 2006 -- Federal Emergency Management Agency representative Joe Lavigne, right, talks with local resident Tom Belair about damages incurred during the recent heavy rains. Damage assessments were being done in areas to determine if federal assistance will be available to residents. Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Lebanon, ME, May 20, 2006--Federal Emergency Management Agency representative Darla Chafin, right, talks with local resident Deborah Belair about damages incurred during the recent heavy rains. Damage assessments were being done in areas to determine if federal assistance will be available to residents. Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Shapleigh, ME, May 20, 2006 -- Federal Emergency Management Agency preliminary damage assessments team members Joe Lavigne, left and Dorothy Hamory review reports from damage assessments in the area. Damage assessments were being done in areas to determine if federal assistance will be available to residents. Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Shapleigh, ME,, May 20, 2006 -- Federal Emergency Management Agency preliminary damage assessments team member Dorothy Hamory talks with local residents during damage assessment in the area after heavy rains. Damage assessments were being done in areas to determine if federal assistance is needed. Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Lebanon, ME, May 20, 2006 -- Federal Emergency Management Agency preliminary damage assessments team members Joe Lavigne, left and Dorothy Hamory review reports from damage assessments in the area. Damage assessments were being done in areas to determine if federal assistance will be available to residents. Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

An Iraqi man is helped to walk as he seeks medical care at the medical clinic on Camp Echo, Iraq, Jan. 4, 2007. The clinic is operated by Polish army soldiers and is open to locals for initial assessments and follow up appointments. (U.S. Army photo by S gt. Rob Summitt) (Released)

A Polish Army Soldier checks an Iraqi man's medical clinic appointment slip at a check point on Camp Echo, Iraq, Jan. 4, 2007. The clinic is operated by Polish army soldiers and is open to locals for initial assessments and follow up appointments. (U.S. Army photo by SGT. Rob Summitt) (Released)

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Grady, OK, 8-20-07 -- Aerial of a home with a surrounding levee which is keeping it from flooding as flood waters have surrounded the area following Tropical Storm Erin. FEMA and the state conducted joint aerial preliminary damage assessments immediately following the severe weather to determine the needs of individuals and the state.Patricia Brach/FEMA photo

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Caddo County, OK, August 20, 2007 -- Cars traveling down this highway will find that there is no where to go as the road dips into the flood waters caused by the after effects of Tropical Storm Erin in Caddo County, Oklahoma. FEMA and the state conducted joint aerial damage assessments to determine the extent of damages to individuals and public infrastructure. Photo by: Patricia Brach/FEMA photo

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Caddo County, OK, August 20, 2007 -- A mud laden path running from rural farmland washes out the only access to homes and farms, leaving the drain pipe exposed, following Tropical Storm Erin in Oklahoma. The state and FEMA conducted joint aerial preliminary damage assessments to identify and evaluate the magnitude of the storm to determine eligibility for public and individual assistance programs. Photo by: Patricia Brach/FEMA photo

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Kingfisher, OK, August 20, 2007 -- Flooded stockyard with cattle standing in the water. A number of livestock perished following Tropical Storm Erin's effect on the stockyard in Kingfisher, Oklahoma. The state and FEMA conducted aerial preliminary damage assessments to identify and evaluate the magnitude and severity of the storm on the state, businesses, farms and individuals who may be in need of federal and state assistance. Photo by: Patricia Brach/FEMA photo

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Caddo County, OK, August 20, 2007 -- Aerial of two trucks converging on a large wash out in a Caddo County road following Tropical Storm Erin. FEMA and the state conducted aerial preliminary damage assessments to evaluate the magnitude and severity of the damages caused by the flooding. Patricia Brach/FEMA photo

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Grady County, OK, August 20, 2007 -- Roads were impassable or under water forcing cars to turn around and find another route in many areas of Oklahoma, including this road in Grady County, following the flooding caused by Tropical Storm Erin. FEMA and the state conducted joint aerial preliminary damage assessments to identify and evaluate the magnitude and severity of this storm. Photo by: Patricia Brach/FEMA photo

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Caddo County, OK, August 20, 2007 -- Tropical Strom Erin's high winds swept through Caddo County, Oklahoma devastating these mobile homes leaving debris littering the fields. FEMA and the state conducted joint aerial preliminary damage assessments to identify the extent of damages the storm had on the state and individuals. Photo by: Patricia Brach/FEMA photo

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Caddo County, OK, August 20, 2007 -- This nursing home was damaged by high winds from Tropical Storm Erin. Fortunately there were no fatalities. FEMA and the state conducted joint aerial preliminary damage assessments immediately following the severe weather to determine the extent of the damages and the impact on the state. Photo by: Patricia Brach/FEMA photo

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Kingfisher, OK, August 20, 2007 -- Aerial of a damaged bridge and flooded farm land. Access to farms and homes were cut off due to collapsed roads and bridges in rural Grady County, forcing families to find another route home or to stay in shelters. FEMA and the state conducted joint aerial damage assessments to determine the extent of damages to homes, businesses and public infrastructure. Patricia Brach/FEMA photo

[Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes] Findlay, Ohio, September 4, 2007 -- Andrew Elder of Ohio EMA gives a presentation about preliminary damage assessments (PDA) to representatives of FEMA and the USACE. PDAs of public facilities will be conducted tomorrow to determine the extent of the damage from the recent Ohio floods. Mark Wolfe/FEMA

[Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes] Findlay, Ohio, September 4, 2007 -- (L to R) David Talbot of the USACE, Jorge Lopez of FEMA, Andrew Elder of Ohio EMA and Robert Klebs of FEMA discuss the preliminary damage assessments (PDA) of public facilities that they are to conduct tomorrow. PDAs are used to determine the extent of the damage from a natural disaster. Mark Wolfe/FEMA

[Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes] Bluffton, Ohio, September 5, 2007 -- Paul Ogiba, a FEMA representative examines damage to a local bridge after flash floods swept through the town. FEMA conducts Preliminary Damage Assessments (PDA) to communities affected by disasters. John Ficara/FEMA

[Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes] Bluffton, Ohio, September 5, 2007 -- Paul Ogiba, FEMA representative speaks to Bluffton town officials whose community was damaged during flash flooding. FEMA conducts Preliminary Damage Assessments (PDA) to communities affected by disasters. John Ficara/FEMA

[Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes] Bluffton, Ohio, September 5, 2007 -- A policeman points out flood damage at a bridge to FEMA mitigation specialist Larry Ruffin. FEMA conducts Preliminary Damage Assessments (PDA) to communities that are affected by disasters. John Ficara/FEMA

[Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes] Bluffton, Ohio, September 5, 2007 -- Larry Ruffin, FEMA Mitigation representative listens to a town official whose jurisdiction suffered damage by flash floods that swept through the town. FEMA conducts Preliminary Damage Assessments (PDA) to communities affected by disasters to determine if they qualify for Public Assistance. John Ficara/FEMA

[Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes] Bluffton, Ohio, September 5, 2007 -- Paul Ogiba (C) a FEMA representative and Amy Riffee (L) from Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) discuss with local university official damage to campus from flash floods that swept through the town. FEMA conducts Preliminary Damage Assessments in communities affected by disasters. JFF/FEMA

[Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes] Bluffton, Ohio, September 5, 2007 -- Paul Ogiba, a FEMA representative looks over local bridge damaged from flash floods that swept through the town. FEMA conducts Preliminary Damage Assessments (PDA) to communities affected by disasters. John Ficara/FEMA

[Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes] Shelby, Ohio, September 5, 2007 -- FEMA Public Assistance specialist Jose Landron is interviewed by local media outside the flood damaged city office building in regards to the ongoing Preliminary Damage Assessment (PDA) being performed today. Preliminary damage assessments are used by FEMA to determine federal assistance eligibility. Mike Moore/FEMA

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Bollinger County (Marble Hills), MO, March 22, 2008 -- The Chicago FIRST team meets with the Bollinger County Emergency Manager to survey flood damage and determine a location to place a mobile command office to support the upcoming joint damage assessments. FEMA/John Shea

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Bollinger County (Marble Hills), MO, March 22, 2008 -- The Chicago FIRST team meets with the Bollinger County Emergency Manager to survey flood damage and determine a location to place a mobile command office to support the upcoming joint damage assessments. FEMA/John Shea

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Bollinger County (Marble Hills), MO, March 22, 2008 -- The Chicago FIRST team meets with the Bollinger County Emergency Manager to survey flood damage and determine a location to place a mobile command office to support the upcoming joint damage assessments. FEMA/John Shea

[Severe Storms and Flooding] Bollinger County (Marble Hills), MO, March 22, 2008 -- The Chicago FIRST team meets with the Bollinger County Emergency Manager to survey flood damage and determine a location to place a mobile command office to support the upcoming joint damage assessments. FEMA/John Shea

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Little Rock, AR, March 25, 2008 -- Briefings for Preliminary Damage Assessments take place at the JFO in Arkansas. Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

Sufflok, VA, 5/01/08 -- Damage assessments are conducted in the Hillpoint subdivision by federal, state and local officials. An F-3 tornado touched down here Monday and caused severe damage. Many homes were destroyed and many more condemned. Photo By: Liz Roll/FEMA

[Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding] Madison, WI, June 18, 2008-- Crawford County officials work with FEMA Public Assistance official Paul Whyte on damage assessments. FEMA personnel work closely with the state in a disaster situation. Photo by Ed Edahl/FEMA

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – An alligator seeks higher ground alongside a road at NASA's Kennedy Space Center during the onslaught of Tropical Storm Fay. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller KSC-08pd2428

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Wind and rain from Tropical Storm Fay pummel the area near the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller KSC-08pd2424

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – The median of one of the roads on NASA's Kennedy Space Center is flooded from Tropical Storm Fay. An emergency vehicle illustrates the flooding on the road as well. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller KSC-08pd2427

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Due to Tropical Storm Fay, the roadside canals and surrounding grounds are flooded at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In the background is the Vehicle Assembly Building. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Ben Smegelsky KSC-08pd2431

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – At NASA's Kennedy Space Center, this alligator was spotted cruising the flood waters caused by Tropical Storm Fay. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller KSC-08pd2429

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Due to Tropical Storm Fay, the ground is flooded on a road alongside the turn basin at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller KSC-08pd2430

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Debris covers a road eroded by Tropical Storm Fay near Launch Pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller KSC-08pd2422

[Tropical Storm Fay] Merritt Island, FL, August 21, 2008 -- As the water recedes from Tropical Storm Fay, families return to asses the damage to their homes. State and Federal teams working together, are doing their assessments too. Barry Bahler/FEMA

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – The large windows of a building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center are covered by plywood and sandbags to protect against the wind and rain driven by Tropical Storm Fay. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller KSC-08pd2426

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A member of the "ride-out crew," a group of emergency personnel, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center monitors effects from Tropical Storm Fay. In the background is the Operations Support Building I in the Launch Complex 39 Area. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller KSC-08pd2425

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Flooding and some tree damage near the Vehicle Assembly Building are results from Tropical Storm Fay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller KSC-08pd2423

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Launch Pad 39A seems to be an island in the high water surrounding it caused by Tropical Storm Fay. In the distance is the Atlantic Ocean. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Amanda Diller KSC-08pd2503

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – This aerial view shows the high water surrounding Launch Pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center following Tropical Storm Fay. In the foreground is the Atlantic Ocean. The storm passed over the center Aug. 20 and then stalled offshore, bringing with it heavy rain and tropical storm force wind. Kennedy closed Aug. 19 because of Fay and reopened for normal operations Aug. 22. Based on initial assessments, there was no damage to space flight hardware, such as the space shuttles and Hubble Space Telescope equipment. Some facilities did sustain minor damage. Photo credit: NASA/Amanda Diller KSC-08pd2502

[Tropical Storm Fay] Tallahassee, FL, September 5, 2008 -- FEMA Community Relations(CR) Specialist Marty Moore, State Community Response Team Leader Randy Bartell, and State Community Response Team member Holly Ness are referring to Leon County maps listing disaster assessments to determine locations for CR visitation. This FEMA/State CR partnership is here in response to Tropical Storm Fay. George Armstrong/FEMA

[Tropical Storm Fay] Tallahassee, FL, September 5, 2008 -- FEMA Community Relations(CR) Specialist Marty Moore, and Leon County EM Volunteer Patricia Day are referring to Leon County maps listing disaster assessments to determine locations for CR outreach. This FEMA and County CR partnership is here in response to Tropical Storm Fay. George Armstrong/FEMA

Joint medical personnel assigned to the amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge (LHD 3) continue medical assessments in Haiti while the ship resupplies at Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

Flooding - Moorhead, Minn. , April 3, 2009 -- Federal and State officials talking to a resident at his home along the Red River in MN. Preliminary Damage Assessments are used by FEMA to measure the extent of a disaster. Mike Moore/FEMA

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – In Launch Pad 39A lame trench at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, workers document damage found after launch of space shuttle Atlantis on the STS-125 mission May 11. About 25 square feet of Fondue Fyre broke off from the north side of the solid rocket booster flame deflector. The flame trench channels the flames and smoke exhaust of the shuttle's solid rocket boosters away from the space shuttle. Fondue Fyre is a fire-resistant concrete-like material. Some pneumatic lines (gaseous nitrogen, pressurized air) in the area also were damaged. Preliminary assessments indicated technicians can make repairs to the pad in time to support space shuttle Endeavour's targeted June 13 launch. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett KSC-2009-3138

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A closeup of damage found in the Launch Pad 39A flame trench at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida after launch of space shuttle Atlantis on the STS-125 mission May 11. About 25 square feet of Fondue Fyre broke off from the north side of the solid rocket booster flame deflector. The flame trench channels the flames and smoke exhaust of the shuttle's solid rocket boosters away from the space shuttle. Fondue Fyre is a fire-resistant concrete-like material. Some pneumatic lines (gaseous nitrogen, pressurized air) in the area also were damaged. Preliminary assessments indicated technicians can make repairs to the pad in time to support space shuttle Endeavour's targeted June 13 launch. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett KSC-2009-3135

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A closeup of damage found in the Launch Pad 39A flame trench at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida after launch of space shuttle Atlantis on the STS-125 mission May 11. About 25 square feet of Fondue Fyre broke off from the north side of the solid rocket booster flame deflector. The flame trench channels the flames and smoke exhaust of the shuttle's solid rocket boosters away from the space shuttle. Fondue Fyre is a fire-resistant concrete-like material. Some pneumatic lines (gaseous nitrogen, pressurized air) in the area also were damaged. Preliminary assessments indicated technicians can make repairs to the pad in time to support space shuttle Endeavour's targeted June 13 launch. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett KSC-2009-3137

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A closeup of damage found in the Launch Pad 39A flame trench at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida after launch of space shuttle Atlantis on the STS-125 mission May 11. About 25 square feet of Fondue Fyre broke off from the north side of the solid rocket booster flame deflector. The flame trench channels the flames and smoke exhaust of the shuttle's solid rocket boosters away from the space shuttle. Fondue Fyre is a fire-resistant concrete-like material. Some pneumatic lines (gaseous nitrogen, pressurized air) in the area also were damaged. Preliminary assessments indicated technicians can make repairs to the pad in time to support space shuttle Endeavour's targeted June 13 launch. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett KSC-2009-3136

Flooding ^ Severe Storm - Rural McHenry County, N. D. , August 4, 2009 -- Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) technical assistance contractor and bridge specialist Frank Nauman, left, and North Dakota Department of Emergency Services Public Assistance Project Officer Russ Kroshus measure a box culvert bridge as part of disaster damage assessments in North Dakota. Repairs to the damaged bridge may be eligible for FEMA Public Assistance reimbursement grant assistance. John A. Read/FEMA