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Armillary sphere 1766, Astronomy


Armillary sphere 1766, Astronomy



"The East Indies" (South and Southeast Asia): *the whole map*: *northwest* (shown above); *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*; miniature maps mostly from 'The Universal Traveller' by Thomas Salmon, London, 1752 [1729], many with modern hand coloring:

Fort St. George and Madras (1739) from 'Modern History'*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*
the Malabar Coast (1752)*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*
Plan of the city of Cochin*
the King of Cochin; and small Malabar boats*; *closer view*
Plan of the city of Diu*
Clothing of a Banian of India, and of the Siamese*; *a detail*
A later map by Salmon from 'A New Geographical and Historical Grammar...' (W. Johnston, London), 1766: *"East Indies"*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*; *the South*

"Asia" (1752)*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*; *South Asia*
"Asia" (1766)*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*; *South and Southeast Asia*
"Persia" (1752)*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*
"Little Bochara" (1752)*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*
"Western Tartary" (1752)*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*
"Eastern Tartary" (1752)*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*
"Africa" (1766)*: *northwest*; *northeast*; *southwest*; *southeast*
Views from 'The Universal Traveller', 1752 and other editions:
General views
=*Accra (Ghana)*
=*"Africa" (allegorical)*
=*Habits of the Americans*
=*animal species*
=*apes and chimps*
=*Arabs and Negroes*
=*an armillary sphere (1766)*
=*"Asia" (allegorical)*
=*Batavians (2)*
=*Bornean town*
=*fish species*
=*Loango (Congo)*
=*Potala Palace, Tibet*
=*San Salvador (Congo)*
=*Tartars*: *detail 1*; *detail 2*
=*Eastern Tartars*
=*Xavier (Guinea)*
Views of Europe
=*Antiparos (Greece)*
=*Flushing (Netherloands)*
=*Greek priests*
=*Middelburg (Netherlands)*
=*Oxford University*
Views of China
=*Ambassador conducted to an audience*
=*Ambassadors meeting the Emperor in China*
=*An Audience of Leave*
=*a Banquet in China*
=*Bells of Peking and Erfurt*
=*a Bonze; a Husbandman*
=*a plan of Canton*
=*Catching wild ducks with turtle shells in China*
=*Chinese barks*
=*Chinese husbandmen*
=*Chinese ladies*
=*Chinese sepulchres*
=*the Emperor of China*
=*Fishing with traps in China*
=*the Five Horse Heads mountains*
=*the Flying Bridge on the Whang-ho*
=*a Fortress in China*
=*Fu Chew Fu*
=*the Great Wall of China*
=*Hu Kew Hyen (Macau)*
=*the Imperial Throne of China*
=*Kon Jan Fiam temple*
=*Nanking*; *a detail*
=*Nan Yang*
=*Paulinshi temple*; *a caption*
=*Peking*; *detail 1*; *detail 2*; *detail 3*
=*Peking observatory*
=*Porcelain tower at Nanking*
=*Sang Wan Hab mountains*
=*Shau Chew*
=*Silk manufacture in China*
=*A Street in China*
=*Supreme Imperial Hall of Audience*
=*Temple in China (1)*
=*Temple in China (2)*
=*Temple images in China*
=*Temple interior in China*
=*Tong-chew*; *a detail*
=*Tyen Tsing Wey fortress*
See also: *images from "Modern History," 1732*


An armillary sphere is a model of the celestial sphere used to demonstrate the motions of the planets around the Sun. It consists of a set of rings representing the celestial equator, the ecliptic and other important circles on the celestial sphere, mounted on an axis. The rings can be rotated to show the positions of the stars and planets at different times and dates. Armillary spheres were used by ancient astronomers to study the movements of the heavens and are still used today as decorative objects or educational tools. Armillary spheres were first developed by ancient Greek astronomers, including Hipparchus and Ptolemy, in the 2nd century BC. They were later used by Chinese, Persian and Islamic astronomers. During the Renaissance, armillary spheres became popular with European scientists and were often incorporated into astronomical instruments and globes. Today, armillary spheres can be found in museums, observatories and private collections around the world. Some modern versions incorporate electronic sensors and motors to automate the movement of the rings.



1600 - 1800


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