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Woman approaching a windmill from BL Royal 10 E IV, f. 70v

Woman approaching a windmill from BL Royal 10 E IV, f. 70v



Detail of a bas-de-page scene of a woman approaching a windmill with a sack of grain. Image taken from f. 70v of Decretals of Gregory IX with glossa ordinaria (the 'Smithfield Decretals'). Written in Latin.

The BL Royal Manuscript Collection, also known as the Royal Collection, consists of over 2,000 manuscripts that were once owned by the British monarchs, including English and later British kings and queens from the late 12th to the 19th centuries. These manuscripts are notable for their historical and artistic value.

The collection was initially stored in various royal libraries and palaces, such as the Tower of London and Westminster Palace. During the English Civil War in the 17th century and the subsequent Interregnum, many royal treasures, including manuscripts, were dispersed and sold. Some manuscripts were lost, destroyed, or ended up in private hands.

In 1757, King George II donated the Old Royal Library to the British Museum (which later became the British Library), where the manuscripts were integrated into the museum's collections. This marked the formal establishment of the Royal Manuscript Collection within the British Museum.

The Decretals of Gregory IX (Latin, Decretales Gregorii IX), also collectively called the Liber extra, are an important source of medieval Canon Law. In 1230, Pope Gregory IX ordered his chaplain and confessor, St. Raymond of Penyafort, a Dominican, to form a new canonical collection destined to replace all former collections. Raymond of Penyafort, O.P., (ca. 1175 – 6 January 1275) was a Spanish Dominican friar in the 13th century. He is honored as a saint in the Catholic Church and is the patron saint of lawyers, especially canon lawyers.

In medieval illuminated manuscripts, bas-de-page scenes are unframed, sometimes whimsical images that appear below the written text and may or may not refer to it.

This collection as well as all massive collections on required two steps: First, we picked a manually curated set to train AI vision to recognize windmills, and after that, we run image recognition through all 25M+ images in our database. All media in the collection is in the public domain. There is no limitation on the dataset usage - educational, scientific, or commercial.



1275 - 1325


British Library

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Public Domain

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edited by raymund of penafort with gloss of bernard of parma
edited by raymund of penafort with gloss of bernard of parma