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The protectors of our industries / Gillam ; Mayer Merkel & Ottmann lith., N.Y.

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The protectors of our industries / Gillam ; Mayer Merkel & Ottmann lith., N.Y.

description

Summary

Cartoon showing Cyrus Field, Jay Gould, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and Russell Sage, seated on bags of "millions", on large raft, and being carried by workers of various professions.

It wasn't really until the 1700s that caricature truly blossomed as a form of political criticism. In the late 1750s, a man named Thomas Townshend began using the techniques employed by earlier engravers and applying them towards a political model. This gave Thompson's cartoons a much greater feeling of propaganda than previous artistic critiques of the time. The intense political climate of the period, and often accusatory nature of most political cartoons forced many artists to use pseudonyms in order to avoid accusations of libel. Other artists took it a step farther, and left their cartoons completely unsigned, foregoing any credit they may have received. Political higher-ups were notoriously touchy about their reputations and were not afraid to make examples of offenders. Puck was the first successful humor magazine in the United States of colorful cartoons, caricatures and political satire of the issues of the day. It was published from 1871 until 1918.

Puck was founded by Austrian-born cartoonist Joseph Keppler and his partners as a German-language publication in 1876. Puck’s first English-language edition in 1877. The magazine name came from Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream: “What fools these mortals be!” Puck used lithography instead of wood engraving and offered three cartoons vs. one of competitors. The cartoons were initially printed in black and white, but soon it changed into full, eye-catching color. Within a few years, Judge supplanted Puck as the leading humor magazine.

Alois Senefelder, the inventor of lithography, introduced the subject of colored lithography in 1818. Printers in other countries, such as France and England, were also started producing color prints. The first American chromolithograph—a portrait of Reverend F. W. P. Greenwood—was created by William Sharp in 1840. Chromolithographs became so popular in American culture that the era has been labeled as "chromo civilization". During the Victorian times, chromolithographs populated children's and fine arts publications, as well as advertising art, in trade cards, labels, and posters. They were also used for advertisements, popular prints, and medical or scientific books.

date_range

Date

01/01/1883
person

Contributors

Gillam, Bernhard, 1856-1896, artist
place

Location

create

Source

Library of Congress
copyright

Copyright info

No known restrictions on publication.

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field cyrus w
field cyrus w
cyrus west
cyrus west
gould jay
gould jay
vanderbilt william h
vanderbilt william h
william henry
william henry
sage russell
sage russell
capitalists and financiers
capitalists and financiers
social classes
social classes
cartoons commentary
cartoons commentary
chromolithographs
chromolithographs
color
color
magazine covers
magazine covers
periodical illustrations
periodical illustrations
protectors
protectors
industries
industries
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gillam
mayer
mayer
merkel
merkel
mayer merkel
mayer merkel
ottmann
ottmann
ottmann lith
ottmann lith
puck
puck
puck magazine
puck magazine
political cartoons
political cartoons
vintage images
vintage images
lithographs
lithographs
new york
new york
prints
prints
19th century
19th century
guilded age
guilded age
cornelius vanderbilt
cornelius vanderbilt
united states history
united states history