The Crucifixion with Donors and Saints Peter and Margaret
Engebrechtsz was the leading painter in Leiden in the early sixteenth century. In this strikingly symmetrical Crucifixion, piety and dramatic energy are combined, and emotional effect is pushed to an extreme. The figure of Christ is isolated against the darkened sky; his tormented, lifeless body is flanked on either side by the crucified thieves, whose forms are contorted in agony. While the mourning Virgin echoes the posture of her son, indicating her empathic suffering, Saint John gazes up in grief at Christ. The two unidentified donors, probably husband and wife, are physically close to but psychologically detached from the scene.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz (Netherlandish, ca. 1461–1527)
The Dutch School painters can be dated as Early Netherlandish (1400–1500), Dutch Renaissance (1500–1584), and, later, Dutch Golden Age painting in the United Provinces. The detailed realism of Early Netherlandish painting, led by Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the 1420s and 1430s, is today generally considered to be the beginning of the early Northern Renaissance in painting. This style was greatly respected in Italy, but there was little reciprocal influence on the North until nearly the end of the 15th century. Despite frequent cultural and artistic exchange, the Antwerp Mannerists (1500–1530) were unrelated to Italian Mannerism. Among notable northern painters were highly individualistic artists such as Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder who developed styles that were imitated by many subsequent generations. In the 16th century northern painters increasingly traveled to Italy, so the art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the late Renaissance Mannerism had a great impact on their work. Hieronymus Bosch and Geertgen tot Sint Jans are well-known examples of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Dutch painters. In the northern Netherlands, the Reformation brought religious painting almost completely to an end. Portrait painting was slow to spread from the elite to new riches. By the end of the 16th century, artists such as Karel van Mander and Hendrik Goltzius collected in Haarlem in a brief but intense phase of Northern Mannerism that also spread to Flanders. Between 1605 and 1635 over 100,000 paintings were produced in Haarlem. Rembrandt van Rijn, Frans Hals, Johannes Vermeer, Jacob van Ruisdael, and Jan Steen are just a few names form the seventeenth century.