Svenska Spetsbergsexpeditionen 1928, band 5. Band 5 av 5 dokumentationsalbum från svenska Spetsbergsexpeditionen år 1928, där Umberto Nobile och besättningen på luftskeppet Italia räddades. Fem stycken blå-gröna album i konstläder. 35 fotografier monterade på 25 albumblad. Motiv: Virgohamn, Spetsbergen, Narvik. Personer, fartyg, natur, omgivningar, mm.
Motiv enligt text i albumet.
Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke AG, or Junkers, was founded in 1895 by Hugo Junkers, who was manufacturing boilers and radiators. Junkers J 1 was the first aircraft with all-metal "total structural" design. Made of steel, it was heavy but fastest aircraft of its day, reaching speeds of 170 km/h, with only a 120 hp engine for power. More "J" aircrafts followed and during World War I the company became famous for its pioneering all-metal aircrafts. The Treaty of Versailles forbade aircraft construction in Germany for several months. After that only the design of civilian aircraft was permitted so Junkers relocated to the Soviet Union, the Fili suburb of Moscow, where it restarted its manufacturing in 1922. With the expiration of treaty restrictions in 1926, Junkers returned to Germany and introduced the Junkers W33 and Junkers W34 series which found commercial success and set multiple aviation records for flight duration, flight distance, altitude, rocket assisted take-off and inflight refueling. The corrugated duralumin wing and fuselage "skin" introduced in the J-series became a trademark of Junkers aircraft. In 1922 American engineer William Bushnell Stout, and in 1924, Soviet engineer Andrei Tupolev each adapted the Junkers corrugated duralumin airframe design technologies for their own all-metal aircrafts, the Stout ST twin-engined naval torpedo bomber prototype, and the Tupolev ANT-2 small passenger aircraft. Ju 52, initially to a two-engined, and later "trimotor", became world-famous commercial success, with over 400 airplanes delivered to various airlines around the world prior to the outbreak of World War II, including the countries of: Finland, Sweden, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, South Africa, Denmark, Norway, Italy, UK, Belgium, Hungary, Estonia, Greece, Spain, and of course, Germany. As a consequence of its rugged design, Spain and France resumed Ju 52 production after cessation of the Second World War. Around 1931 the company faced financial difficulties. In 1933, the Nazi forced Hugo Junkers to transfer all his patents, and shortly after, Junkers holdings were expropriated. Junkers himself was placed under house arrest and removed from the Company. During World War II, Junker produced some of the most successful Luftwaffe planes, as well as piston and jet aircraft engines. Ju 90, was one of the first planes specifically designed for scheduled trans-Atlantic flights to the US. Just as the aircraft was being readied for its first commercial flights, World War II began. The most notable design was the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bomber used for precision tactical bombing and as "airborne artillery". It gained notoriety for its use at both Dunkirk and later Stalingrad, where it caused enormous destruction under Field Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen's VIII Air Corps. Perhaps even more successful was the Junkers Ju 88, the primary medium bomber of the German forces. The Junkers company produced some of the world's most innovative and best-known airplanes over the course of its fifty-plus year history in Dessau, Germany. It survived the Second World War but Junkers name finally disappeared in 1969.
At age 20, while studying in Germany, Dutch student Anthony Fokker built his initial aircraft, the Spin (Spider) - to fly in his home country. In 1912, in Berlin, he founded Fokker Aeroplanbau and later, Fokker Aviatik GmbH. Fokker sold several Fokker Spin monoplanes to the German government and supplied the German Army in World War I. To allow machine gun firing through the arc of the propeller, Fokker developed a synchronization gear. Fokker Eindecker aircraft became the most feared aircraft over the western front, leading to a period of German air superiority. In 1919, Fokker returned to the Netherlands and founded Nederlandse Vliegtuigenfabriek near Amsterdam. He renamed the company to avoid using the Fokker brand because of his World War I involvement. After relocation, many Fokker C.I and C.IV military airplanes were delivered to Russia, Romania. Success came on the commercial market, too, with the development of the Fokker F.VII, a high-winged aircraft capable of taking on various types of engines. In the 1920s, Fokker became the world's largest aircraft manufacturer. His greatest success was the 1925 F.VIIa/3m trimotor passenger aircraft, which was used by 54 airline companies worldwide and captured 40% of the American market. Fokker continued to build military planes, delivering them to the Royal Netherlands Air Force. Foreign military customers eventually included Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, Hungary, and Italy. In 1923, Anthony Fokker moved to the United States and established an American branch of his company, the Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, which was renamed the Fokker Aircraft Corporation of America. In 1930, this company merged with General Motors Corporation. Soon, unhappy with GM management, Fokker resigned. On December 23, 1939, he died in New York City. In Europe, the Fokker factories were confiscated by the Germans. At the end of the war, the factories were completely stripped by the Germans and destroyed by Allied bombing. Post-World War II brought rebuilding to the company. A new factory was built next near Amsterdam in 1951. In 1958, the F-27 Friendship was introduced, Fokker's most successful postwar airliner, reaching almost 800 units sold. Fokker contributed to many European aircraft and satellite projects, as well as to the Ariane rocket.