[Samuel F. B. Morse, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front]
In the first grade, students summarize the need for money, how money is earned, and how money and credit are used in order to meet needs and wants including the costs and benefits of spending and saving. Students define and explain the roles of consumers and producers in the American economy. Students summarize how historic inventors and entrepreneurs contributed to the prosperity of the nation including Samuel F. B. Morse, John Deere, Alexander Graham Bell, Orville and Wilbur Wright, and Thomas Edison.
In 1844, Mathew Brady opened a photography studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Street in New York. By 1845, he began to exhibit his portraits of famous Americans, including the likes of Senator Daniel Webster and poet Edgar Allan Poe. In 1849, he opened a studio at 625 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. Brady's early images were daguerreotypes, and he won many awards for his work. In 1850, Brady produced The Gallery of Illustrious Americans, a portrait collection of prominent contemporary figures. The album, which featured noteworthy images including the elderly Andrew Jackson at the Hermitage, was not financially rewarding but invited increased attention to Brady's work. When the Civil War started, he used a mobile studio and darkroom enabled vivid battlefield photographs. Thousands of war scenes were captured, as well as portraits of generals and politicians on both sides of the conflict, though most of these were taken by his assistants, rather than by Brady himself. After the war, these pictures went out of fashion, and the government did not purchase the master-copies as he had anticipated. Brady's fortunes declined sharply, and he died in debt.