『過去現在絵因果経』断簡 （松永本）|Scene from The Illustrated Sutra of Past and Present Karma; Matsunaga Version)
Mandala is a representation of the universe and of enlightenment. In two-dimensional form, it looks as circles enclosed in squares drawing. Thangka and Mandala both belong to the visual category of the art of Buddhist enlightenment. Topics of thangkas include Buddhas, bodhisattvas, Dharma protectors, masters, mandala... Thangkas of meditation deities also serve as a tool for visualization during meditation, by helping the practitioner getting used to the different states of the mind. Dating back to the 7th century A.D, thangka painting is one of the greatest art forms of Asia. Thangkas are considered Buddhist iconography, each painting will symbolically represent divinities and passages based on the teachings of the Buddha.