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Official pictures of meeting of Stalin, Churchill, Harriman. These are the first official pictures released in the United States of the recent meetings of Premier I.V. Stalin, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Britain; and W. Averrell Harriman, representing President Roosevelt. The three men met in the middle of August, 1942, at the request of the Soviet leader, and held a series of conversations concerned with the future conduct of the war. Also present was V.M. Molotov, Peoples' Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The meetings lasted four days. Left to right: Churchill, Stalin, Harriman at the Kremlin, Moscow

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Official pictures of meeting of Stalin, Churchill, Harriman. These are the first official pictures released in the United States of the recent meetings of Premier I.V. Stalin, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Britain; and W. Averrell Harriman, representing President Roosevelt. The three men met in the middle of August, 1942, at the request of the Soviet leader, and held a series of conversations concerned with the future conduct of the war. Also present was V.M. Molotov, Peoples' Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The meetings lasted four days. Left to right: Churchill, Stalin, Harriman at the Kremlin, Moscow

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Picryl description: Public domain historical photo of Second World War, free to use, no copyright restrictions image.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), commonly known as FDR, served as the 32nd President of the United States, from 1933 to 1945. Roosevelt was born in 1882, to a prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County, New York. He attended the elite Groton School and Harvard College. He married Eleanor Roosevelt, with whom he had six children. Roosevelt fought with polio since 1921. He entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and then as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt ran for vice president with presidential candidate James M. Cox, but lost to the Republican ticket. He successfully ran for Governor of New York in 1928. In 1932 Roosevelt successfully defeated Republican president Herbert Hoover to win the presidency of the United States. In his first hundred days in office, Roosevelt initiated an unprecedented legislation and issued a number of executive orders that instituted the New Deal programs. He created numerous programs supporting the unemployed and farmers, encouraged labor union growth while more closely regulating business and Wall street finance. The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 helped FDR to win re-election in 1936. The economy improved rapidly from 1933 to 1937 but then relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. As World War II loomed after 1938, with the Japanese invasion of China and the aggression of Nazi Germany, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China and the United Kingdom, while remaining officially neutral. His goal was to make America the "Arsenal of Democracy", which would supply munitions to the Allies. In March 1941, Roosevelt, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, United States declared war on Japan and, a few days later, on Germany. During the war, unemployment dropped to 2%, relief programs largely ended, and the industrial economy grew rapidly to new heights as millions of people moved to wartime factory jobs or entered military service. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U.S. economy. As an active military leader, he implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and the development of the world's first nuclear bomb. His work also influenced the later creation of the United Nations and Bretton Woods. Roosevelt's health seriously declined during the war years, and he died three months into his fourth term. "If you treat people right they will treat you right... ninety percent of the time."

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the Spencer family. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young army officer and war correspondent, he fought campaigns in British India, Sudan, and a Second Boer War. Before the First World War, he served as a President of the UK Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty. During the WWI, he served as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign. He then briefly resumed active army service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, then Secretary of State for the Colonies. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Baldwin's Conservative government of 1924–1929, controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Out of office during the 1930s Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult days of 1940–41 when the British Commonwealth and Empire stood almost alone in its active opposition to Adolf Hitler. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. After the Conservative Party lost the 1945 election, he became Leader of the Opposition. In one of the most famous orations of the Cold War period, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill condemns the Soviet Union’s policies in Europe and declares, “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.” Churchill’s speech is considered one of the opening volleys announcing the beginning of the Cold War. The speech was given in Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, in the presence of President Harry S. Truman. It opened a new era of closer “special relationship” between the United States and Great Britain and warned against the expansionistic policies of the Soviet Union. In addition to the “iron curtain” that had descended across Eastern Europe, Churchill spoke of “communist fifth columns” that were operating throughout western and southern Europe. Drawing parallels with the disastrous appeasement of Hitler prior to World War II, Churchill advised that in dealing with the Soviets there was “nothing which they admire so much as strength, and there is nothing for which they have less respect than for military weakness.” Truman and many other U.S. officials warmly received the speech. Already they had decided that the Soviet Union was bent on expansion and only a tough stance would deter the Russians. Churchill’s “iron curtain” phrase immediately entered the official vocabulary of the Cold War. U.S. officials were less enthusiastic about Churchill’s call for a “special relationship” between the United States and Great Britain. While they viewed the English as valuable allies in the Cold War, they were also well aware that Britain’s power was on the wane and had no intention of being used as pawns to help support the crumbling British empire. In the Soviet Union, Russian leader Joseph Stalin denounced the speech as “warmongering,” and referred to Churchill’s comments about the “English-speaking world” as imperialist “racism.” The British, Americans, and Russians-allies against Hitler less than a year before the speech—were drawing the battle lines of the Cold War. After winning the 1951 election, Churchill again became Prime Minister. Churchill suffered a serious stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955, although he remained a Member of Parliament until 1964. Upon his death aged ninety in 1965, Elizabeth II granted him the honor of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of world statesmen in history. Named the Greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is widely regarded as being among the most influential people in British history, consistently ranking well in opinion polls of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom.

America’s Richest Families, 1900-1940

The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made is a 1986 book by Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas about a group of U.S. government officials and members of the East Coast Establishment. The book starts with post - World War I period and continues in the immediate post-World War II international development, describing how the group of six men of quite different political affiliations developed the containment policy of dealing with the Communist bloc during the Cold War and crafted institutions such as NATO, the World Bank, and the policies of the Marshall Plan. Six people who were influential in the development of Cold War: 1. Dean Acheson, Secretary of State under President Harry Truman 2. Charles E. Bohlen, U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, the Philippines, and France 3. W. Averell Harriman, Special Envoy for President Franklin Roosevelt 4. George F. Kennan, Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia 5. Robert A. Lovett, Truman's Secretary of Defense 6. John J. McCloy, a War Department official and later U.S. High Commissioner for Germany.

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Date

01/01/1942
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Contributors

United States. Office of War Information.
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Location

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Source

Library of Congress
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Public Domain

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