Nowel Amsterdam en Lameriqve : 1672 /
Bird's-eye view of Lisbon, Portugal (not New Amsterdam) showing individual buildings and place-names in French. Map based on: Braun, George, 1540 or 41-1622. Civitates orbis terrarum, [1612-1618] Vol. 5, Olissippo quae nunc Lisboa, Civitas Amplissima Lusitaniae.
Relief shown pictorially.
Text in Latin and French.
Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image.
Annotated in pencil on cloth backing.
Includes text, inset of "La Nouvelle Holande en l'Amerique", ill. of ships in "Mer du Nort", and coat-of-arms.
Phillips, 3964 note.
Braun & Hogenberg, 1576-1618.
Stokes. Iconography, v. 1, p. 215.
The City History Collection. Predominantly Manhattan Views.
In the 17th century, maps took a huge leap forward. Mathematical and astronomical knowledge necessary to make accurate measurements had evolved. English mathematicians had perfected triangulation: navigation and surveying by right-angled triangles. Triangulation allowed navigators to set accurate courses and produced accurate land surveys. Seamen learned to correct their compasses for declination and had determined the existence of annual compass variation. Latitude determination was greatly improved with the John Davis quadrant. The measurement of distance sailed at sea was improved by another English invention, the common log. Longitudinal distance between Europe and Québec was determined by solar and lunar eclipses by the Jesuit Bressani in the 1640s and by Jean Deshayes in 1686. With accurate surveys in Europe, the grid of the modern map began to take shape.
In May 1624, the first settlers in New Netherland arrived on Noten Eylandt (Nut or Nutten Island, now Governors Island) aboard the ship New Netherland. Dutch West India Company wanted to protect the entrance to the Hudson River and sponsored 30 families to move from Nut Island to Manhattan Island, where a citadel to contain Fort Amsterdam was being laid out. By the end of 1625, the site had been staked out and by 1628, a small fort was built with walls containing a mixture of clay and sand. The fort also served as the center of trading activity. In the 1630s and 1640s, New Amsterdam had a population of about 270 people. Settlers built mills and in 1642 a stone church was built within the fort. New Amsterdam received municipal rights on February 2, 1653. On August 27, 1664, while England and the Dutch Republic were at peace, four English frigates sailed into New Amsterdam's harbor and demanded New Netherland's surrender. This was swiftly followed by the Second Anglo-Dutch War and in 1665, New Amsterdam was reincorporated under English law as New York City, named after the Duke of York (later King James II). He was the brother of the English King Charles II, who had been granted the lands. In July 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch briefly and quickly occupied New York City and renamed it New Orange. In 1674, the city was relinquished to the English and the name reverted to "New York".