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Mme Marie Laurent (Lucrèce Borgia)

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Mme Marie Laurent (Lucrèce Borgia)

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Le Théâtre illustré, 1870 (Artificial title)
Oeuvre fixée à un montage avec passe-partout.
Lettre - En haut à droite de l'image : "LE THÉÂTRE ILLUSTRÉ" ; signature en bas à droite de l'image : "Imp. Fraillery, Paris" ; dans la marge inférieure, au centre : "Mme MARIE LAURENT / (Lucrèce Borgia)"
Illustration pour la représentation de Lucrèce Borgia en 1870.

The Borgia family was a powerful and influential noble family in Italy during the Renaissance. The family rose to prominence in the 15th and 16th centuries, and they are perhaps best known for their scandalous behavior and political machinations. The most famous members of the Borgia family include Pope Alexander VI, his son Cesare Borgia, and his daughter Lucrezia Borgia. The Borgia family is often associated with crime, excesses, corruption, nepotism, and murder, though the full extent of their wrongdoing is still debated by historians. Francesco Borgia Francesco Borgia was a Spanish Jesuit priest and the third Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order within the Catholic Church. He was a member of the Borgia family and was known for his piety, humility, and charitable work, and he is often considered a saintly figure in contrast to the more infamous members of his family, such as Pope Alexander VI and Cesare Borgia. He was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1670, and his feast day is celebrated on October 10th. Rodrigo Borgia Rodrigo Borgia was an Italian nobleman who rose to become Pope Alexander VI, the head of the Catholic Church from 1492 to 1503. He was the father of several famous children, including Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia, who were also influential figures during this period. Despite his many controversies, Pope Alexander VI was also a patron of the arts and a successful political leader, and he played a key role in the political and religious landscape of 15th and 16th-century Italy. Cesare Borgia Cesare Borgia fought for his father and later for his own interests, and played a key role in the political and military conflicts of 15th and 16th century Italy. Despite his many successes, Cesare is associated with corruption, cruelty, and treachery, and he is often remembered as a notorious figure from this period. Lucrezia Borgia Lucrezia Borgia, 1480-1519, a daughter of the Spanish cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, later Pope Alexander VI, and his Roman mistress Vannozza Catanei, was born in Ferrara, Papal States. She was a central figure of the Borgia family and the Early Italian Renaissance. Lucrezia is best known for her reputation as a ruthless and calculating politician, and for her alleged involvement in the murder of her brother's political rivals. Despite her reputation, there is little evidence to support the many lurid rumors that circulated about her during her lifetime. She was married several times, and her marriages were often used as political tools by her father, Pope Alexander VI, and her brother, Cesare Borgia. Lucrezia's three successive marriages into prominent families helped build the political and territorial power of the Borgias. In 1491, at age of 11 years old, she was successively betrothed to two Spanish nobles. But after her father became pope in 1492, he sought an alliance with the Sforza family of Milan against the Aragonese dynasty of Naples. In 1493 Lucrezia married to Giovanni Sforza, lord of Pesaro. When Giovanni became an enemy of the Borgias, Alexander annulled the marriage in 1497 on the dubious grounds of nonconsummation, and in 1498 arranged a marriage between Lucrezia and the 17-year-old Alfonso, duke of Bisceglie, an illegitimate son of Alfonso II of Naples. In July 1500 Alfonso was wounded on the steps of St. Peter’s and while recovering, was strangled by one of Cesare’s servants. Lucrezia retired to Nepi, and three years after, in 1501, appeared with the "Infans Romanus" (Roman Infant) the three-year-old boy named Giovanni. Two papal bulls recognized the child as the illegitimate son first of Cesare, then of Alexander, who was probably the true father. The mysterious origin of the child as well as Lucrezia’s presence at a celebrated night orgy at the Vatican supported the rumors of incest in the Borgia family. Alfonso d’Este, son of Ercole I, duke of Ferrara, married Lucrezia on December 30, 1501, but shunned the union for a time because of the Borgias’ reputation. When Alexander VI finally died in 1503, Lucrezia ceased to play a political role to live a normal life at the brilliant court of Ferrara, which became a center for the arts and letters of the Italian Renaissance. Lucrezia Borgia was known for her intelligence and political savvy, she was a major player in the complex political landscape of 15th and 16th-century Italy. Lucrezia turned to religion in her last years and died at the age of 39.

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1870
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Paris Museum
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