Justice's "jimmy" / Gillam.
Print shows New York State Supreme Court justice Theodoric R. Westbrook wearing the white robe of Justice and his head mostly bound with cloth, with the balance scale of justice at his feet, handing a crowbar, or "jimmy", labeled "By Order of the Court" to a masked man; another man, in the background, is using a similar bar to pry open doors labeled "Broken, Assets, Stockholders Money, [and] Policy Holders Money". Next to Westbrook is a container labeled "Court Orders" filled with crowbars. His left hand rests on a piece of paper that states "Supreme Court - Decisions by Everybody's Friend - Westbrook".
It wasn't really until the 1700s that caricature truly blossomed as a form of political criticism. In the late 1750s, a man named Thomas Townshend began using the techniques employed by earlier engravers and applying them towards a political model. This gave Thompson's cartoons a much greater feeling of propaganda than previous artistic critiques of the time. The intense political climate of the period, and often accusatory nature of most political cartoons forced many artists to use pseudonyms in order to avoid accusations of libel. Other artists took it a step farther, and left their cartoons completely unsigned, foregoing any credit they may have received. Political higher-ups were notoriously touchy about their reputations and were not afraid to make examples of offenders. Puck was the first successful humor magazine in the United States of colorful cartoons, caricatures and political satire of the issues of the day. It was published from 1871 until 1918.
Puck was founded by Austrian-born cartoonist Joseph Keppler and his partners as a German-language publication in 1876. Puck’s first English-language edition in 1877. The magazine name came from Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream: “What fools these mortals be!” Puck used lithography instead of wood engraving and offered three cartoons vs. one of competitors. The cartoons were initially printed in black and white, but soon it changed into full, eye-catching color. Within a few years, Judge supplanted Puck as the leading humor magazine.
Alois Senefelder, the inventor of lithography, introduced the subject of colored lithography in 1818. Printers in other countries, such as France and England, were also started producing color prints. The first American chromolithograph—a portrait of Reverend F. W. P. Greenwood—was created by William Sharp in 1840. Chromolithographs became so popular in American culture that the era has been labeled as "chromo civilization". During the Victorian times, chromolithographs populated children's and fine arts publications, as well as advertising art, in trade cards, labels, and posters. They were also used for advertisements, popular prints, and medical or scientific books.
The Golden Age of Political CartoonsBritish and American political cartoons from 18th century.
Puck Magazine CoversPuck was the first successful U.S. humor and colorful cartoons magazine, caricatures and political satire published from 1871 and 1918
ChromolithographsChromolithograph is printed by multiple applications of lithographic stones, each using a different color ink.