[James Buchanan, bust portrait, facing right]
From Brady daguerreotype.
James Buchanan, the 15th President of the United States (1857-1861), served immediately prior to the American Civil War. He remains the only President to remain a lifelong bachelor. He represented Pennsylvania in the United States House of Representatives and later the Senate, then served as Minister to Russia under President Andrew Jackson. He was named Secretary of State under President James K. Polk. President Franklin Pierce appointed him Ambassador to the United Kingdom. "I like the noise of democracy."