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Geloof in de waarheid bevrijdt de mens van haar zonden, de duivel en de dood.

Geloof in de waarheid bevrijdt de mens van haar zonden, de duivel en de dood.

 
 
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Summary

De mens is door Waarheid een oprechte leerling van Christus (Discipulus Christi) geworden. Waarheid snijdt het koord door tussen de mens en de Dood (Mors, een skelet), de Duivel (Diabolus, half demon en half mens), de Zonde (Peccatum, een sater) en het Vlees (Caro, een naakte vrouw met een blinddoek). De waarheid bevrijdt hem zo van zijn zonden en wereldse zorgen. De prent heeft een Latijns en een Nederlands onderschrift en maakt deel uit van een serie over de triomf van de waarheid.

The Triumph of Death was a fairly common theme for late medieval artists. Like the another theme, Memento Mori, it was intended to remind viewers of mortality and death. Triumph of Death often depicts an army of skeletons massacring people of every age and gender. Sometimes, a wild carnivalesque atmosphere was emphasized in the popular motif of the Danse Macabre, or Dance of Death. Understanding the macabre spirit of death-culture in late medieval Europe requires an understanding of the terror and panic of epidemic disease, and, more generally, a fear of catastrophe and sudden death. The population of the medieval world experienced death first-hand: wide-scale death, physical decay, and the subsequent crumbling of societal infrastructure. The Black Death was the period in Europe from approximately 1347 to 1353, when bubonic plague ravaged and initiated a long-term period of cultural trauma. In fourteenth-century Europe, the mortality rate from plague was between 50% and 90% of those people who contracted the disease. The most recent works increase estimates of the total population loss to 65% in both Asia and Europe. Previous estimates state that about one-third of the population died from the disease in the years spanning the Black Death.

In art, mementos mori are artistic or symbolic reminders of mortality. Memento mori is a Latin expression meaning "remember that you have to die". It was then reused during the medieval period, it is also related to the ars moriendi ("The Art of Dying") and related literature. Memento mori has been an important part of ascetic disciplines as a means of perfecting the character by cultivating detachment and other virtues, and by turning the attention towards the immortality of the soul and the afterlife.

As a child Coornhert spent some years in Spain and Portugal. After learning Latin in 1552, Coornhert published Dutch translations from Cicero, Seneca and Boethius. His 1562 translation of the first twelve books of Homer's Odyssey is one of the first major works of Dutch Renaissance poetry. He was appointed secretary to the city of Haarlem (1562) and secretary to the burgomasters (1564). Imprisoned at the Hague in 1568, he escaped to Cleves, where he maintained himself by his art. In 1572, he was for a short time secretary of state in the Dutch Republic. Inspired by his time in jail, he wrote a book "Boeventucht" on the causes of crime with ideas for more humane methods of punishment and correction. Coornhert was famous as a politician, an engraver, and a theologian. He was both against Catholics and Reformers and strove in favor of tolerance, opposing capital punishment for heretics. Coornhert also wrote a preface to the Dutch grammar published, and a number of poems. By the time he died in 1590, his Dutch translation of the New Testament (following the Latin version of Erasmus) was left unfinished. His collected works, in prose and verse, were published in 1630 in 3 volumes. Isaac D'Israeli called him "one of the fathers of Dutch literature, and even of their arts."

Since the 16th century, Dutch artists used prints to promote their art and access a wider public than what was possible for a single painting. During the Dutch Golden Age, (17th century), Dutch artists perfected the techniques of etching and engraving. The rise of printmaking in the Netherlands is attributed to a connection between Italy and the Netherlands during the 1500s. Together with the large-scale production, it allowed the expanding reach of an artist’s work. Prints were popular as collecting items, so publishing houses commissioned artists to create a drawing or a painting, and then print the work for collectors - similar to what occurs at publishing houses today. Dutch printmaking evolved rapidly, so in 16th-century etching prevailed over the engraving. Major Dutch Printmaker Artists: Hieronymus Bosch, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hendrick Goltzius, Rembrandt van Rijn, Anna Maria van Schurman, Adriaen Jansz van Ostade, Ferdinand Bol.

date_range

Date

1566 - 1578
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Source

Christie's
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Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication ("CCO 1.0 Dedication")