Gaikokujin Yokohama ni oite kyōkuba
Japanese triptych print shows a foreign circus performing in Yokohama, Japan.
Title from item.
Signature: Issen Yoshikazu ga.
Seal date: Rat 4.
Annotations, stamps, etc. on verso of print: 3; 1879; 100; 47623a (white label).
Yokohama : prints from nineteenth-century Japan / Ann Yonemura. Washington, D.C. : Arthur M. Sackler Gallery : Smithsonian Institution Press, c1990, no. 60 (p. 150-51)
Gift; Mrs. E. Crane Chadbourne; 1930; (DLC/PP-1930:47623a).
Forms part of: Chadbourne collection of Japanese prints (Library of Congress).
Woodblock printing in Japan (木版画, moku-hanga) is a technique best known for its use in the ukiyo-e artistic genre of single sheets, but it was also used for printing books in the same period. Woodblock printing had been used in China for centuries to print books, long before the advent of movable type, but was widely adopted in Japan during the Edo period (1603-1868). Woodblock printing appeared in Japan at the beginning of Edo period, when Tokugawa shogunate was ruled by the Japanese society. This technique originated from China, where it was used to print books for many centuries. Its original name is ‘moku-hanga’ and it has a wide usage in artistic genre of ‘ukiyo-e’. As opposed to western tradition, where artists used oil-based inks for woodcuts, moku-hanga technique uses water-based inks. That is why those prints had colors so vivid, as well as glazes, and transparency. This collection describes Japanese printmaking different schools and movements. The most notable of them were: - From 1700: Torii school - From 1700-1714: Kaigetsudō school - From 1720s: Katasukawa school, including the artists Shunsho and Shuntei - From 1725: Kawamata school including the artists Suzuki Harunobu and Koryusai - From 1786: Hokusai school, including the artists Hokusai, Hokuei and Gakutei - From 1794: Kitagawa school, including the artists Utamaro I, Kikumaro I and II - From 1842: Utagawa school, including the artists Kunisada and Hiroshige - From 1904: Sōsaku-hanga, "Creative Prints" movement - From 1915: Shin-hanga "New Prints" school, including Hasui Kawase and Hiroshi Yoshida Woodblock prints were provided by the Library of Congress and cover the period from 1600 to 1980.
Circus performers, shows, posters and lithographs. Modern travelling circus started in the early 1800s. Circus advertising used to draw crowds - there were only one or two performances per circus stop. Many ads were simple woodblock prints mentioning the name of the circus, the price of admission. Later, in the early 20th century, colorful, fanciful custom designs of leaping animals, clowns, and ringmasters became standard for circus posters.
This is a collection is depicting interactions with Westerners visiting Japan from the latter half of the Edo period to the beginning of the Meiji period. Many artists started to document the rapid modernization of Japan. Their prints became more industrial, and in some cases depicting European tourists and their “strange” habits.