Frost and fire - natural engines, tool-marks and chips - with sketches taken at home and abroad by a traveller (1864) (14595395967)
Identifier: frostfirenatural04camp (find matches)
Title: (Frost and fire : natural engines, tool-marks and chips : with sketches taken at home and abroad by a traveller)
Year: 1864 (1860s)
Authors: Campbell, J. F. (John Francis), 1822-1885
Subjects: Glaciers Meteorology Geology
Publisher: (Edinburgh : s.n.
Contributing Library: National Library of Scotland
Digitizing Sponsor: National Library of Scotland
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Text Appearing Before Image:
, streams musthave done to rocks, from the time when the first shower fell,and the first stream began to flow. So ancient river-marksought to be found on the oldest rocks, and these ought to re-semble modem river-marks. Clouds rise up from earth and sea. A river takes its rise inthe clouds, from which drops fall. Fallen drops collect androll from hills into hollows, and so a river grows. On thestony top of a granite moimtain puddles may be seen formingduring a shower. They fill from above, overflow, and so helpto fill lower hollows in every rock and stone. These, in theirturn, overflow and send off larger rills, which take the shortestway towards the earths centre, and roll down the steepestslope. Streams which flow straight down steep hill-sides mustcut straight furrows, if they cut at all Such trenches maybe seen on the flanks of Icelandic volcanos, which have grownup in modern times ; and on the sides of steep hills every-where, and this river-mark always has the same general form.
Text Appearing After Image:
RIVERS. 95 The steeper the mouutaiu, the straighter are its gorges ; thedeeper the trench dug by rain, the more rain-water tends togather in it; the water makes a path, and follows it, and itworks faster as the work grows deeper. The mark is like V- For this cause an ancient mountain, which has borne thebrunt of the battle for a long time without the shelter of thesea, generally is so deeply furrowed, that little of the old shaperemains. A cone, for instance, is grooved and fluted intosteep peaks and ridges which meet at the highest point wherewater falls. The mountain is weathered, and becomes a rain-mark, unless it dives under water for protection. The shapeis like y\. The mark which a river engraves on a country-side, is Kkea flat branch. Eain-pools are leaves and buds, rills are twigs,and rivulets branches which spring from a stem whose rootsare m the delta at the sea. The plan, at first, is a repetition of the forms of the lettersV and Y, in which straight lines meet at various a
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