Francesco d'Este (born about 1430, died after 1475)
Francesco was the son of Leonello d'Este, ruler of Ferrara, but he received his education in the Netherlands at the court of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy. The hammer and ring may be jousting prizes or symbols of power, and the unusual white background could refer to the Este family’s livery colors (white, red, and green).Rogier van der Weyden was one of the most influential painters of the fifteenth century. The elegant, stylized lines of the sitter’s face and hands are among the qualities that established Rogier’s supremacy as a court portraitist in the Netherlands.Reverse:The Este family coat of arms and crest on the reverse of the panel emphasize the heraldic quality of the portrait. The inscription, "v[ot]re tout…francisque" (entirely yours, Francesco), forms a dedication to the portrait’s recipient, perhaps a friend or member of Philip the Good’s court. The "m" and "e," stand for "marchio estensis," the title extended to Francesco. The enigmatic scratched inscription in the upper left, "non plus / courcelles," may refer to the village in Burgundy where Francesco died.
Rogier van der Weyden (Netherlandish, Tournai ca. 1399–1464 Brussels)
The Dutch School painters can be dated as Early Netherlandish (1400–1500), Dutch Renaissance (1500–1584), and, later, Dutch Golden Age painting in the United Provinces. The detailed realism of Early Netherlandish painting, led by Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the 1420s and 1430s, is today generally considered to be the beginning of the early Northern Renaissance in painting. This style was greatly respected in Italy, but there was little reciprocal influence on the North until nearly the end of the 15th century. Despite frequent cultural and artistic exchange, the Antwerp Mannerists (1500–1530) were unrelated to Italian Mannerism. Among notable northern painters were highly individualistic artists such as Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder who developed styles that were imitated by many subsequent generations. In the 16th century northern painters increasingly traveled to Italy, so the art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the late Renaissance Mannerism had a great impact on their work. Hieronymus Bosch and Geertgen tot Sint Jans are well-known examples of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Dutch painters. In the northern Netherlands, the Reformation brought religious painting almost completely to an end. Portrait painting was slow to spread from the elite to new riches. By the end of the 16th century, artists such as Karel van Mander and Hendrik Goltzius collected in Haarlem in a brief but intense phase of Northern Mannerism that also spread to Flanders. Between 1605 and 1635 over 100,000 paintings were produced in Haarlem. Rembrandt van Rijn, Frans Hals, Johannes Vermeer, Jacob van Ruisdael, and Jan Steen are just a few names form the seventeenth century.