The Isonzo is a river in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Slovenia) that was the site of several major battles during World War I. The Isonzo Front was the name given to the area where the fighting took place. The battles of the Isonzo were fought between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy, with the Italian Army attempting to gain control of the region. The first battle of the Isonzo took place in 1915, and a total of 12 battles were fought along the river between 1915 and 1917. The fighting was particularly brutal, with heavy casualties on both sides.
The first battle of the Isonzo began on June 23, 1915, and it ended on July 7, 1915. The Italian Army made some initial gains, but it ultimately failed to achieve its objectives. The battle resulted in heavy casualties on both sides, with estimates ranging from 40,000 to 100,000 total killed, wounded, and missing. It is estimated that the total number of deaths during the 12 battles of the Isonzo between 1915 and 1917 was around 300,000 and the total number of casualties (including both military personnel and civilians) during the 12 battles of the Isonzo between 1915 and 1917 was around 600,000.
The Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops (Kaiserliche und Königliche Luftfahrtruppen or K.u.K. Luftfahrtruppen) was the air force of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire until the empire's demise in 1918. It saw combat on both the Eastern Front and Italian Front during World War I. Despite being much smaller and usually less technologically advanced than the German or British air forces, it performed with tenacity and bravery during the war.
The Isonzo Front was one of the First World War’s most brutal campaigns: 29 months of trench warfare, and 12 major battles leading to more than 500,000 casualties including 200,000 Austro–Hungarian troops. Italian death toll was awful: 300,000 of half of the entire Italian losses in the First World War were along this 90km stretch. Thousands of Slovenian civilians from the Goriza and Gradisca region died from malnutrition in Italian refugee camps during the campaign. Stretches of fortifications have been restored and a ‘Walk of Peace’ has been created threading through the truly beautiful Slovenian landscape linking sites of unimaginable suffering.