Parmigianino - Circe and the Companions of Ulysses
Giulio Bonasone was an Italian painter and engraver born in Bologna. He possibly studied painting under Lorenzo Sabbatini, and painted a Purgatory for the church of San Stefano, but all his paintings have been lost. He is better known as an engraver and is believed to have trained with Marcantonio Raimondi.
Purgatory is a concept in Roman Catholicism and some other Christian denominations that refers to a state or place where souls undergo purification after death, in preparation for entering heaven. According to this belief, those who die in a state of grace but with unconfessed or unfulfilled sins must undergo a period of purification in purgatory, during which they are cleansed of their impurities and made ready for the beatific vision of God. The concept of purgatory is based on passages in the Bible and on early Christian teachings and traditions. It is seen as a way of balancing God's mercy with the demands of justice, as those who die with venial (less serious) sins are able to receive divine mercy and enter heaven, while also making satisfaction for their sins and avoiding the punishment they would otherwise face. The concept of purgatory has been a subject of debate and controversy within Christianity, with some denominations rejecting it outright.
Printmaking in woodcut and engraving came to Northern Italy within a few decades of their invention north of the Alps. Engraving probably came first to Florence in the 1440s, the goldsmith Maso Finiguerra (1426–64) used the technique. Italian engraving caught the very early Renaissance, 1460–1490. Print copying was a widely accepted practice, as well as copying of paintings viewed as images in their own right.