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Attention (left); Severity, aggression (right)


Attention (left); Severity, aggression (right)



The albumen silver print is a photographic printing process that was widely used in the 19th century. It involves coating paper support with a mixture of egg whites and salt, which creates a glossy surface to hold light-sensitive silver salts. The paper is then sensitized in a solution of silver nitrate, and exposed in a camera or under a negative. After exposure, the print is developed in a solution of gallic acid and silver nitrate, which reduces the silver salts to metallic silver and creates the final image. The albumen print process was widely used for commercial and fine art photography in the 19th century and produced high-quality, detailed images with a distinctive glossy finish.

Duchenne is best known for his pioneering work in using electrical stimulation to study the muscles of the human body, particularly the face. He developed a technique of applying electrical currents to specific muscles to induce contractions, which he used to identify the individual muscles responsible for different facial expressions. Duchenne's work was pioneering in the use of electrical stimulation to study the physiology of the human body. His research helped to establish the principles of electrophysiology, which has since become a fundamental tool in the study of nerve and muscle function. In addition to his work in electrophysiology, Duchenne also made important contributions to the study of muscular dystrophy and other neuromuscular diseases. He was one of the first researchers to recognise the importance of exercise and physiotherapy in the treatment of these diseases. Duchenne's legacy continues to influence modern neuroscience and neurology. His pioneering work in electrophysiology laid the foundation for many of the techniques used today to study the brain and nervous system.



1854 - 1856


National Gallery of Art

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albumen print
albumen print