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Voyagers

Voyager 1 and 2 probes, their travelog and their message.Created by: PICRYLDated: 2017
The Sounds of Earth
In 1977, Voyager 1 and 2 started their one-way journey to the end of the solar system and beyond, now traveling a million miles a day. Jimmy Carter was president when NASA launched two probes from Cape Canaveral. Voyager 1 and its twin, Voyager 2, were initially meant to explore Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons. They did that. But then they kept going at a rate of 35,000 miles per hour.
Each craft bears an object that is a record, both dubbed the Golden Records. They were the product of Carl Sagan and his team who produced a record that would, if discovered by aliens, represent humanity and "communicate a story of our world to extraterrestrials."
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Cresent Europa

Cresent Europa

(September 12, 1996) This mosaic of Europa, the smallest Galilean satellite, was taken by Voyager 2. This face of Europa is centered at about the 300 degree meridian. The bright areas are probably ice deposits,... more

Voyager First Science Meeting

Voyager First Science Meeting

This archival image was released as part of a gallery comparing JPL's past and present, commemorating the 80th anniversary of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on Oct. 31, 2016. In December 1972, the science st... more

Voyager 2 Launch

Voyager 2 Launch

(August 20, 1977) Voyager 2 was launched August 20, 1977, sixteen days before Voyager 1 aboard a Titan-Centaur rocket. Their different flight trajectories caused Voyager 2 to arrive at Jupiter four months later... more

Voyager Spacecraft During Vibration Testing

Voyager Spacecraft During Vibration Testing

Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the outer planets and some of their satellites. A prototype Voyager spacecraft is shown at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, as it... more

The Sounds of Earth Record Cover

The Sounds of Earth Record Cover

This gold aluminum cover was designed to protect the Voyager 1 and 2 Sounds of Earth gold-plated records from micrometeorite bombardment, but also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playin... more

The Sounds of Earth

The Sounds of Earth

Flying aboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical golden records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from differ... more

Briefing notes for President Carter and Vice President Walter Mondale

Briefing notes for President Carter and Vice President Walter Mondale

A handwritten note Carl Sagan used to brief President Jimmy Carter and Vice President Walter Mondale. The note is written on Watergate Hotel stationary. It includes the terms exploration, wonder, the origin of ... more

Artist: unknown (JPL) Saturn Voyager Mission Artwork depicts the spacecraft's path on it's journey to Saturn as it passed above the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and around Jupiter. ARC-1977-A77-0849

Artist: unknown (JPL) Saturn Voyager Mission Artwork depicts the space...

Artist: unknown (JPL) Saturn Voyager Mission Artwork depicts the spacecraft's path on it's journey to Saturn as it passed above the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and around Jupiter.

Voyager Saturn Mission Artwork (Mariner - Jupiter - Saturn - Uranus)  show slingshot technique ARC-1977-A77-0851

Voyager Saturn Mission Artwork (Mariner - Jupiter - Saturn - Uranus) ...

Voyager Saturn Mission Artwork (Mariner - Jupiter - Saturn - Uranus) show slingshot technique

Artist: unknown (JPL) Saturn Voyager Mission Artwork depicts the spacecraft's path on it's journey to Saturn as it passed above the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and around Jupiter. ARC-1977-AC77-0849

Artist: unknown (JPL) Saturn Voyager Mission Artwork depicts the space...

Artist: unknown (JPL) Saturn Voyager Mission Artwork depicts the spacecraft's path on it's journey to Saturn as it passed above the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and around Jupiter.

Saturn  Voyager Mission Artwork with instruments and parts labeled ARC-1977-AC77-0850

Saturn Voyager Mission Artwork with instruments and parts labeled ARC...

Saturn Voyager Mission Artwork with instruments and parts labeled

Launch Vehicles

Launch Vehicles

The Voyager 2 aboard Titan III-Centaur launch vehicle lifted off on August 20, 1977. The Voyager 2 was a scientific satellite to study the Jupiter and the Saturn planetary systems including their satellites and... more

Launch Vehicles

Launch Vehicles

The Voyager 1 aboard the Titan III/Centaur lifted off on September 5, 1977, joining its sister spacecraft, the Voyager 2, on a mission to the outer planets.

Jupiter System Montage

Jupiter System Montage

(March 1979) Jupiter and its four planet-size moons, called the Galilean satellites, were photographed in early March 1979 by Voyager 1 and assembled into this collage. They are not to scale but are in their re... more

Voyager 1 Image of Ganymede

Voyager 1 Image of Ganymede

(March 4, 1979) Voyager 1 took this picture of Ganymede from a distance of 1.6 million miles. Ganymede is Jupiter's largest satellite with a radius of approximately 2600 kilometers, about 1.5 times that of Eart... more

PLANET JUPITER AND ITS SATELLITES PHOTOGRAPHED BY THE VOYAGER SPACECRAFT

PLANET JUPITER AND ITS SATELLITES PHOTOGRAPHED BY THE VOYAGER SPACECRA...

The original finding aid described this as: Capture Date: 6/5/1979 Photographer: COPY NEGATIVE Keywords: 1979_02325.jpg c1979_02300s Larsen Scan Photographs Relating to Agency Activities, Facilities and Personnel

Jupiter's Great Red Spot

Jupiter's Great Red Spot

(March 1, 1979) As Voyager 1 flew by Jupiter, it captured this photo of the Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is an anti-cyclonic (high- pressure) storm on Jupiter that can be likened to the worst hurricanes o... more

VOYAGER I SPACECRAFT

VOYAGER I SPACECRAFT

The original finding aid described this as: Capture Date: 8/15/1979 Keywords: Larsen Scan Photographs Relating to Agency Activities, Facilities and Personnel

Photo by Voyager 1 Jupiter's satellite Io poses before the giant planet in this photo returned Jan 17, 1979 from a distance of 29 million miles (47 million kilometers). The satellite's shadow can be seen falling on the face of Jupiter at left. Io is traveling from left to right in its one-and-three-quarter-day orbit around Jupiter. Even from this great distance the image of Io shows dark poles and bright equatorial region. Voyager 1 will make its closest approach to Jupiter  174, 000 miles (280,000 kilometer) on March 5. It will then continue to Saturn in November 1980. This color photo was assembled at Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab from three black and white images taken through filters. The Voyagers are managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (JPL Ref: P-20946C) ARC-1979-AC79-0143-4

Photo by Voyager 1 Jupiter's satellite Io poses before the giant plane...

Photo by Voyager 1 Jupiter's satellite Io poses before the giant planet in this photo returned Jan 17, 1979 from a distance of 29 million miles (47 million kilometers). The satellite's shadow can be seen fallin... more

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) The spacecraft took this photo of the planet Jupiter on Jan 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. As the spacecraft draws closer to the planet (about 1 million kilometers a day) more details are emergng in the turbulent clouds. The Great Red Spot shows prominently below center, surrounded by what scientists call a remarkably complex region of the giant planet's atmosphere. An elongated yellow cloud within the Great Red Spot is swirling around the spot's interior boundary in a counterclockwise direction with a period of a little less than six days, confirming the whirlpool-like circulation that astronomers have suspected from ground-based photographs. Ganymede, Jupiter's largest satellite, can be seen to the lower left of the planet. Ganymede is a planet-sized body larger than Mercury. This color photo was assembled at Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab from there black and white images taken through filters. The Voyagers are managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by Jet Propulsion Laboratory.  (ref: P-20945C  Mission Image 1-9) ARC-1979-AC79-0143-3

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) The spacecraft took this photo of the planet ...

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) The spacecraft took this photo of the planet Jupiter on Jan 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. As the spacecraft draws closer to the planet (about ... more

Space Science

Space Science

On February 5, 1979, Voyager 1 made its closest approach to Jupiter since early 1974 and 1975 when Pioneers 10 and 11 made their voyages to Jupiter and beyond. Voyager 1 completed its Jupiter encounter in early... more

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) Jupiter, its Great Red Spot and three of its four largest satellites are visible in this photo taken Feb 5, 1979 by Voyager 1. The spacecraft was 28.4 million kilomters (17.5 million miles) from the planet at the time. The inner-most large satellite, Io, can be seen against Jupiter's disk. Io is distinguished by its bright, brown-yellow surface. To the right of Jupiter is the satellite Europa, also very bright but with fainter surface markings. The darkest satellite, Callisto (still nearly twice as bright as Earth's Moon), is barely visible at the bottom left of the picture. Callisto shows a bright patch in its northern hemisphere. All tThree orbit Jupiter in the equatorial plane, and appear in their present position because Voyageris above the plane. All three satellites show the same face to Jupiter always -- just as Earth's Moon always shows us the same face. In this photo we see the sides of the satellites that always face away from the planet. Jupiter's colorfully banded atmosphere displays complex patterns highlighted by the Great Red Spot, a large, circulating atmospheric disturbance. This photo was assembled from three black and white negatives by the Image Processing Lab at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. JPL manages and controls the Voyage Project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (ref: P-21083) ARC-1969-AC79-0164-2

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) Jupiter, its Great Red Spot and three of its ...

Photo by Voyager 1 (JPL) Jupiter, its Great Red Spot and three of its four largest satellites are visible in this photo taken Feb 5, 1979 by Voyager 1. The spacecraft was 28.4 million kilomters (17.5 million mi... more

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) above Jupiter's clouds. Although both satellites have about the same brightness, Io's color is very different from Europa's. Io's equatorial region show two types of material -- dark orange, broken by several bright spots -- producing a mottled appearance. The poles are darker and reddish. Preliminary evidence suggests color variations within and between the polar regions.  Io's surface composition is unknown, but scientists believe it may be a mixture of salts and sulfur.  Erupoa is less strongly colored, although still relatively dark at short wavelengths. Markings on Eruopa are less evident that on the other satellites, although this picture shows darker regions toward the trailing half of the visible disk. Jupiter at this point is about 20 million kilometers (12.4 million miles) from the spacecraft.  At this resolution (about 400 kimometers or 250 miles) there is evidence of circular motion in Jupiter's atmosphere. While the dominant large-scale motions are west-to-east, small-scale movement includes eddy-like circulation within and between the bands.  (JPL ref: P-21082) ARC-1979-A79-0164-1

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Eu...

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) abo... more

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) above Jupiter's clouds. Although both satellites have about the same brightness, Io's color is very different from Europa's. Io's equatorial region show two types of material -- dark orange, broken by several bright spots -- producing a mottled appearance. The poles are darker and reddish. Preliminary evidence suggests color variations within and between the polar regions.  Io's surface composition is unknown, but scientists believe it may be a mixture of salts and sulfur.  Erupoa is less strongly colored, although still relatively dark at short wavelengths. Markings on Eruopa are less evident that on the other satellites, although this picture shows darker regions toward the trailing half of the visible disk. Jupiter at this point is about 20 million kilometers (12.4 million miles) from the spacecraft.  At this resolution (about 400 kimometers or 250 miles) there is evidence of circular motion in Jupiter's atmosphere. While the dominant large-scale motions are west-to-east, small-scale movement includes eddy-like circulation within and between the bands.  (JPL ref: P-21082) ARC-1979-AC79-0164-1

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Eu...

Voyager 1 Image of Jupiter and two of its satellites (Io, left, and Europa). Io is about 350,000 kilometers (220,000 miles) above Jupiter's Great Red Spot; Europa is about 600,000 kilometers (375,000 miles) abo... more

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was taken a few minutes after midnight (PST) Feb. 25 by Voyager 1.  The distance to Callisto was 8,023,000 kilometers (4.98 million miles).  The hemisphere in this picture shows a fairly uniform surface dotted with brighter spots that are up to several hundred kilometers across.  Scientists believe the spots may be impact craters but higher-resolution photos will be necessary before the features can be interpreted.  Callisto is about the same size as the planet Mercury--about 5,000 kilometers (3,000 miles) in diameter.  Callisto is less massive than Mercury, however, giving it a density less than twice that of water.  Scientists believe Callisto, therefore, is composed of a mixture of rock and ice (up to about 50 percent by weight).  Its surface is darker than those of the other Galilean satellites, but is still about twice as bright as Earth's Moon.  This black-and-white photo was taken through a violet filter.  Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21149) ARC-1979-A79-7027

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellite...

This photo of Callisto, outermost of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was taken a few minutes after midnight (PST) Feb. 25 by Voyager 1. The distance to Callisto was 8,023,000 kilometers (4.98 million miles... more

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million miles) from Jupiter.  The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation apart, and that together they depict four days in the life of the centuries-old Red Spot.  The pictures clearly demonstrate changes in circulation around the Red Spot during the 40-hour period.  The photos were taken through a blue filter.  Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21148) ARC-1979-AC79-7008

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and ...

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million miles) from Jupiter. The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation apa... more

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million  miles) from Jupiter.  The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation apart, so that together they depict four days in the life of the centuries-old Red Spot.  The pictures clearly demonstrate changes in circulation around the Red Spot during the 40-hour period.  The photos were taken through a blue filter.  Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science. (JPL ref. No. P-21148) ARC-1979-A79-7028

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and ...

These four pictures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot were taken Feb. 2 and 3, 1979, when Voyager 1 was about 31 million kilometers (19.4 million miles) from Jupiter. The pictures were taken one Jupiter rotation ap... more

Callisto ,  The outermost Galilean Satellite , or Moon ,  of Jupiter, as taken by Voyager I .  Range : About 7 Million km (5 Million miles) .  Callisto, the darkest of the Galilean Satellites, still nearly twice as bright as the Earth's Moon, is seen here from the face that always faces Jupiter.  All of the Galilean Satellites always show the same face to Jupiter, as the Earth's moon does to Earth. The Surface  shows a mottled appearance of bright and dark patches. The former reminds scientists of rayed or bright  haloed craters, similiar to those seen on earth's Moon. This color photo is assembled from 3 black and wite images taken though violet, orange, & green filters ARC-1979-AC79-7002

Callisto , The outermost Galilean Satellite , or Moon , of Jupiter, ...

Callisto , The outermost Galilean Satellite , or Moon , of Jupiter, as taken by Voyager I . Range : About 7 Million km (5 Million miles) . Callisto, the darkest of the Galilean Satellites, still nearly twic... more

This mosaic of Jupiter was assembled from nine individual photos taken through an orange filter by Voyager 1 on Feb. 6, 1979, when the spacecraft was 4.7 million miles (7.8 million kilometers) from Jupiter.  Distortion of the mosaic, especially where portions of the limb have been fitted together, is caused by rotation of the planet during the 96-second intervals between individual pictures.  The large atmospheric feature just below and to the right of center is the Great Red Spot.  The complex structure of the cloud formations seen over the entire planet gives some hint of the equally complex motions in the Voyager 1 time-lapse photography.  The smallest atomospheric features seen in this view are approximately 85 miles (140 kilometers) across.  Voyager project is managed and controlled by Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science.  (JPL ref. No. P-21146) ARC-1979-A79-7029

This mosaic of Jupiter was assembled from nine individual photos taken...

This mosaic of Jupiter was assembled from nine individual photos taken through an orange filter by Voyager 1 on Feb. 6, 1979, when the spacecraft was 4.7 million miles (7.8 million kilometers) from Jupiter. Di... more

Range :  4.3 million km. ( 2.7 million miles ) Southeast of the Great Red Spot, as seen at upper left, this photograph taken by Voyager I also shows one of Jupiter's 40 year old white ovals, seen at middle left.  Along with a variety  of other atmospheric features, and flow in and around the ovals, the smallest details in this photograph represent features 80 km. ( 45 miles ) across. ARC-1979-AC79-7010

Range : 4.3 million km. ( 2.7 million miles ) Southeast of the Great ...

Range : 4.3 million km. ( 2.7 million miles ) Southeast of the Great Red Spot, as seen at upper left, this photograph taken by Voyager I also shows one of Jupiter's 40 year old white ovals, seen at middle left... more

Range :  5 million km. ( 3 million miles )  This photograph, shot from Voyager I, shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot, turbulent regions immediattely  to the west, and, middle right, one of the several white ovals seen on Jupiter from Earth. This  photograph represents much better resolution than ever seen by telescopic means to date. The Red Spot and Ovals both reveal intricate, involved structures, the smallest details of which, are estimated at 95 km. ( 55 miles ) across. ARC-1979-AC79-7006

Range : 5 million km. ( 3 million miles ) This photograph, shot from...

Range : 5 million km. ( 3 million miles ) This photograph, shot from Voyager I, shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot, turbulent regions immediattely to the west, and, middle right, one of the several white ovals s... more

Range :  4.3 million km. ( 2.7 million miles ) This photograph taken from Voyager I shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot and one of the white ovals  seen from Earth .  These white ovals were seen to have formed in 1939 & 1940, and have remained somewhat consistant since.  The Great Red Spot is three times the size of the Earth. This photograph represents the finnest detail seen to date, with the smallest details being 80 km. ( 45 miles ) across. ARC-1979-AC79-7011

Range : 4.3 million km. ( 2.7 million miles ) This photograph taken f...

Range : 4.3 million km. ( 2.7 million miles ) This photograph taken from Voyager I shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot and one of the white ovals seen from Earth . These white ovals were seen to have formed in 19... more

Europa, taken from Voyager 1 to Jupiter

Europa, taken from Voyager 1 to Jupiter

Range : 5.9 million kilometers (3.66 million miles) Europa is Jupiter's 2nd Galilean satellites from the planet and the brightest. Photo taken early morning through violet filter. Faint swirls and linear patt... more

Range :  4.3 million km. ( 2.7 million miles ) This photograph taken from Voyager I, shows the area east of the Great Red Spot. The dark halo surrounding the bright spot, just to the right of the bright oval, is said by scientists to be, almost certainly, a five micron hot spot. This is a region of the atmosphere warmer than those around it. The dark halo may represent an area in which we are looking deeper into Jupiter's Atmosphere, although not yet completely understood. ARC-1979-AC79-7007

Range : 4.3 million km. ( 2.7 million miles ) This photograph taken f...

Range : 4.3 million km. ( 2.7 million miles ) This photograph taken from Voyager I, shows the area east of the Great Red Spot. The dark halo surrounding the bright spot, just to the right of the bright oval, i... more

P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io movie' sequence. The white and orange patches probably are deposits of sulphur compounds and other volcanic materials. The Voyager 2 pictures of this region will be much more detailed. ARC-1979-AC79-7076

P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This pictu...

P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io... more

Range :  4.0 million km. ( 2.5 million miles ) This brown oval, located between Jupiter's 13 and 18 degree N latitude, may be an opening in the upper cloud deck. It was a selected target to be photographed by Voyager I on its closest approach to Jupiter because, if observed at high resolution, could provide information on deeper, warmer cloud levels.  Above the oval, is the pale orange North Temperate Belt, bounded on the south by the North Temperate Current, with winds of 120 meters/sec. ( 260 Mi./hr ). The smallest resolvable features from this photograph is 75 km ( 45 miles ) wide. ARC-1979-AC79-7005

Range : 4.0 million km. ( 2.5 million miles ) This brown oval, locate...

Range : 4.0 million km. ( 2.5 million miles ) This brown oval, located between Jupiter's 13 and 18 degree N latitude, may be an opening in the upper cloud deck. It was a selected target to be photographed by V... more

P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io movie' sequence. The white and orange patches probably are deposits of sulphur compounds and other volcanic materials. The Voyager 2 pictures of this region will be much more detailed. ARC-1979-A79-7076

P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This pict...

P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'I... more

Europa , the smallest of the Galilean satellites, or Moons , of Jupiter ,  is seen here as taken by Voyager 1.  Range : 2 million km (1.2 million miles) is centered at about the 300 degree Meridian.  The bright areas are probably ice deposits, while the dark may be rocky surface or areas of more patchy ice distribution.  Most unusual features are systems of linear structures crossing the surface in various directions. Of these, some of which are over 1000 km. long , & 2 or 3 hundred km. wide,  may be faults which have disrupted the surface. ARC-1979-AC79-7003

Europa , the smallest of the Galilean satellites, or Moons , of Jupite...

Europa , the smallest of the Galilean satellites, or Moons , of Jupiter , is seen here as taken by Voyager 1. Range : 2 million km (1.2 million miles) is centered at about the 300 degree Meridian. The bright... more

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of planet. (JPL ref. No. P-21147) ARC-1979-AC79-7009

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of planet. (JPL ref. No. P-21147)...

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of planet. (JPL ref. No. P-21147)

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of Jupiter's Satellite Io.  (JPL ref. No. P-21206) ARC-1979-A79-7015

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of Jupiter's Satellite Io. (JPL ...

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosaic of Jupiter's Satellite Io. (JPL ref. No. P-21206)

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosic of Great Red Spot.  (JPL ref. No. P-21203) ARC-1979-AC79-7012

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosic of Great Red Spot. (JPL ref. No. ...

Jupiter as seen by Voyager 1, mosic of Great Red Spot. (JPL ref. No. P-21203)

Voyager 1 view Io in its orbit around Jupiter ARC-1979-A79-7115

Voyager 1 view Io in its orbit around Jupiter ARC-1979-A79-7115

Voyager 1 view Io in its orbit around Jupiter

Voyager 1 catches volcanic eruption on Jupiter's moon Io JPL - no available ARC-1979-A79-7116

Voyager 1 catches volcanic eruption on Jupiter's moon Io JPL - no avai...

Voyager 1 catches volcanic eruption on Jupiter's moon Io JPL - no available

Voyager 1 spacecraft Jupiter moon Ganymede ARC-1979-A79-7120

Voyager 1 spacecraft Jupiter moon Ganymede ARC-1979-A79-7120

Voyager 1 spacecraft Jupiter moon Ganymede

As Voyager 1 approches Jupiter three of its moons can be seen JPL ref. No. C-206 ARC-1979-AC79-7111

As Voyager 1 approches Jupiter three of its moons can be seen JPL ref....

As Voyager 1 approches Jupiter three of its moons can be seen JPL ref. No. C-206

Voyager 1's look at Jupiter's moon Io JPL ref No. P-21457 ARC-1979-AC79-7114

Voyager 1's look at Jupiter's moon Io JPL ref No. P-21457 ARC-1979-AC7...

Voyager 1's look at Jupiter's moon Io JPL ref No. P-21457

Voyager 1 close up image of Jupiter moon Io JPL ref. No. P-21277 ARC-1979-AC79-7112

Voyager 1 close up image of Jupiter moon Io JPL ref. No. P-21277 ARC-1...

Voyager 1 close up image of Jupiter moon Io JPL ref. No. P-21277

Voyager 1 catches volcanic eruption on Jupiter's moon Io JPL ref No. P-21334 ARC-1979-AC79-7113

Voyager 1 catches volcanic eruption on Jupiter's moon Io JPL ref No. P...

Voyager 1 catches volcanic eruption on Jupiter's moon Io JPL ref No. P-21334

P-21742 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyager 2 image shows the region of Jupiter extending from the equator to the southern polar latitudes in the neighborhood of the Great Red Spot. A white oval, different from the one observed in a similiar position at the time of the Voyager 1 encounter, is situated south of the Great Red Spot. The region of white clouds now extends from east of the red spot and around its northern boundary, preventing small cloud vortices from circling the feature. The disturbed region west of the red spot has also changed since the equivalent Voyager 1 image. It shows more small scale structure and cloud vortices being formed out of the wave structures. ARC-1979-A79-7077

P-21742 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyag...

P-21742 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyager 2 image shows the region of Jupiter extending from the equator to the southern polar latitudes in the neighborhood of the Great Red Spot.... more

P-21742 C Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyager 2 image shows the region of Jupiter extending from the equator to the southern polar latitudes in the neighborhood of the Great Red Spot. A white oval, different from the one observed in a similiar position at the time of the Voyager 1 encounter, is situated south of the Great Red Spot. The region of white clouds now extends from east of the red spot and around its northern boundary, preventing small cloud vortices from circling the feature. The disturbed region west of the red spot has also changed since the equivalent Voyager 1 image. It shows more small scale structure and cloud vortices being formed out of the wave structures. ARC-1979-AC79-7077

P-21742 C Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyage...

P-21742 C Range: 6 million kilometers (3.72 million miles) This Voyager 2 image shows the region of Jupiter extending from the equator to the southern polar latitudes in the neighborhood of the Great Red Spot. ... more

Range :  6 Million km. ( 3.72 million miles ) This photograph of Jupiter, shot from Voyager 2, shows the equator to the southern polar latitudes, near the Great Red Spot. The white oval that appears here is different from the one seen in a similiar position when voyager 1  passed years before. The region of white clouds now extends from east of The Red Spot and around it's northern boundary, preventing small cloud vortices from circling the feature. The disturbed region west of The Red Spot has also changed since Voyager1. It shows more small scale structure and cloud vortices being formed out of the wave structures. ARC-1979-AC79-7102

Range : 6 Million km. ( 3.72 million miles ) This photograph of Jupit...

Range : 6 Million km. ( 3.72 million miles ) This photograph of Jupiter, shot from Voyager 2, shows the equator to the southern polar latitudes, near the Great Red Spot. The white oval that appears here is dif... more

P-21744 C Range: 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) In this image of Europa acquired by Voyager 2, global scale dark streaks are becoming visible. Europa, the size of the earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice as indicated by ground based spectrometers and its brightness. The central longitude of this view is 235° west. Bright rayed impact craters which are abundant on ancient Ganymede and Callisto would easily be visible at this range. The suggestion is that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes. ARC-1979-AC79-7078

P-21744 C Range: 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) In this im...

P-21744 C Range: 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) In this image of Europa acquired by Voyager 2, global scale dark streaks are becoming visible. Europa, the size of the earth's moon, is apparently cov... more

P-21739 BW Range: 4.7 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This picture of Io was taken as Voyager 2 closes in on the Jovian system. Scientists are studying these distant views of Io for evidences of changes since Voyager 1 observations in March of  79. Voyager 1 discovered that Io, the innermost of the Galilean satellites, is the most volcanically active body yet seen in the solar system, surpassing even earth. In this picture, the first volcano discovered by Voyager 1 is again visible in the lower left portion of the disk as a dark oval with a dark spot in the center.  In March, this volcano appeared as a heart-shaped marking, not a symmetrical oval. Scientists believe that the non-symmetric markings earlier resulted from a constriction in the mouth of the volcanic vent causing erupting material to extrude preferentially in certain directions. Apparently, the volcanic eruptive activity, which sends material to altitudes of 280 kilometers (175 miles) or more above this volcano, has changed the vent geometry or dislodged an obstruction. Such changes in the form of eruptive fountains are common in terrestial volcanos, although on a much smaller scale than on Io. ARC-1979-A79-7074

P-21739 BW Range: 4.7 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This pict...

P-21739 BW Range: 4.7 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This picture of Io was taken as Voyager 2 closes in on the Jovian system. Scientists are studying these distant views of Io for evidences of changes ... more

Range :  4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice, as indicated by ground spectrometers and its brightness. In this view, global scale dark sreaks discovered by Voyager 1 that criss-cross the the satelite are becoming visible. Bright rayed impact craters, which are abundant on Ganymede and Callisto, would be easily visible at this range, suggesting that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes. ARC-1979-A79-7103

Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, ...

Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice, as indicated by ground spectrometers and its brightness. In this view, global ... more

Range :  3.4 million km This pair of images shows two of the long-lived white oval clouds which have resided in the Jovian southern hemisphere for nearly 40 years.  The upper picture shows the cloud that is at a longitude west of the Great Red Spot, and the lower frame, the cloud at a longitude east of this feature.  The third oval is currently just south of the Great Red Spot.  The clouds show very similar internal structures.  To the east of each of them, recirculation currents are clearly seen.  In the lower frame, a similar structure is seen to the west of the cloud.  Although a recirculation current is associated with the upper western region of the cloud, it is further away from this feature and not seen in the image.  This photo was taken by Voyager 2. ARC-1979-A79-7106

Range : 3.4 million km This pair of images shows two of the long-live...

Range : 3.4 million km This pair of images shows two of the long-lived white oval clouds which have resided in the Jovian southern hemisphere for nearly 40 years. The upper picture shows the cloud that is at ... more

Range :  3.4 million km This pair of images shows two of the long-lived white oval clouds which have resided in the Jovian southern hemisphere for nearly 40 years.  The upper picture shows the cloud that is at a longitude west of the Great Red Spot, and the lower frame, the cloud at a longitude east of this feature.  The third oval is currently just south of the Great Red Spot.  The clouds show very similar internal structures.  To the east of each of them, recirculation currents are clearly seen.  In the lower frame, a similar structure is seen to the west of the cloud.  Although a recirculation current is associated with the upper western region of the cloud, it is further away from this feature and not seen in the image.  This photo was taken by Voyager 2. ARC-1979-AC79-7106

Range : 3.4 million km This pair of images shows two of the long-live...

Range : 3.4 million km This pair of images shows two of the long-lived white oval clouds which have resided in the Jovian southern hemisphere for nearly 40 years. The upper picture shows the cloud that is at ... more

Range :  3.2 million km This image returned by Voyager 2 shows one of the long dark clouds observed in the North Equatorial Belt of Jupiter.  A high, white cloud is seen moving over the darker cloud, providing an indication of the structure of the cloud layers.  Thin white clouds are also seen within the dark cloud. ARC-1979-A79-7105

Range : 3.2 million km This image returned by Voyager 2 shows one of ...

Range : 3.2 million km This image returned by Voyager 2 shows one of the long dark clouds observed in the North Equatorial Belt of Jupiter. A high, white cloud is seen moving over the darker cloud, providing ... more

P-21735 BW This Jupiter image taken by Voyager 2 shows an area from 10° N. Lat. to 34° S. Lat. in a region west of the Great Red Spot. At the top of the picture, equatorial plumes are seen. These features move along the edge of the equatorial zone. The remainder of the equatorial region is characterized by diffuse clouds. The region west of the Great Red Spot is seen as a disturbed wave-like pattern. Similiar flows are seen to the west of the white oval at bottom. ARC-1979-A79-7070

P-21735 BW This Jupiter image taken by Voyager 2 shows an area from 10...

P-21735 BW This Jupiter image taken by Voyager 2 shows an area from 10° N. Lat. to 34° S. Lat. in a region west of the Great Red Spot. At the top of the picture, equatorial plumes are seen. These features mov... more

Range :  3.2 million km This image returned by Voyager 2 shows one of the long dark clouds observed in the North Equatorial Belt of Jupiter.  A high, white cloud is seen moving over the darker cloud, providing an indication of the structure of the cloud layers.  Thin white clouds are also seen within the dark cloud.  At right, blue areas, free of high clouds, are seen. ARC-1979-AC79-7105

Range : 3.2 million km This image returned by Voyager 2 shows one of ...

Range : 3.2 million km This image returned by Voyager 2 shows one of the long dark clouds observed in the North Equatorial Belt of Jupiter. A high, white cloud is seen moving over the darker cloud, providing ... more

P-21736 BW This Voyager 2 pictures shows the Great Red Spot and the south equatorial belt extending into the equatorial region. At right is an interchange of material between the south equatorial belt and the equatorial zone. The clouds in this zone are more diffuse and do not display the structures seen in other locations. Considerable structure is evident within the Great Red Spot. ARC-1979-A79-7071

P-21736 BW This Voyager 2 pictures shows the Great Red Spot and the so...

P-21736 BW This Voyager 2 pictures shows the Great Red Spot and the south equatorial belt extending into the equatorial region. At right is an interchange of material between the south equatorial belt and the e... more

P-21738 BW Raange: 4.76 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This Voyager 2 picture of Io was taken in ultraviolet light and shows one of the volcanic eruption plumes first photographed by Voyager 1. (the bright spot on the right limb) The plume is more than 200 kilometers (124 miles) high. The volcano apparently has been erupting since it was observed by Voyager 1 in March, 1979. This suggests that the volcanoes on Io probably are in continuous eruption. ARC-1979-A79-7073

P-21738 BW Raange: 4.76 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This Vo...

P-21738 BW Raange: 4.76 million kilometers (2.9 million miles) This Voyager 2 picture of Io was taken in ultraviolet light and shows one of the volcanic eruption plumes first photographed by Voyager 1. (the bri... more

P-21745 BW Range: 1.1 million miles (675,000 miles) This image of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 was enhanced to reveal detail in the scene.  Voyager 1's high resolution coverage was of the hemisphere just over the right-hand (eastern) horizon, and the large ring structure discovered by Voyager 1 is just over the eastern limb. This image shows yet another ring structure in the upper part of the picture. Callisto exhibits some of the most ancient terrain seen on any of the satellites. Scientists think Callisto's surface is a mixture of ice and rock dating back to the final stages of planetary accretion (over 4 billion years ago) when the surface was pockmarked by a torrential bombardment of meteorites. Younger craters show as bright spots, probably because they expose fresh ice and frost. ARC-1979-A79-7079

P-21745 BW Range: 1.1 million miles (675,000 miles) This image of Call...

P-21745 BW Range: 1.1 million miles (675,000 miles) This image of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 was enhanced to reveal detail in the scene. Voyager 1's high resolution coverage was of the hemisphere just over th... more

Range :  1,094,666 km (677,000 mi.) This false color picture of Callisto was taken by Voyager 2 and is centered on 11 degrees N and 171 degrees W.  This rendition uses an ultraviolet image for the blue component.  Because the surface displays regional contrast in UV, variations in surface materials are apparent.  Notice in particular the dark blue haloes which surround bright craters in the eastern hemisphere.  The surface of Callisto is the most heavily cratered of the Galilean satellites and resembles ancient heavily cratered terrains on the moon, Mercury and Mars.  The bright areas are ejecta thrown out by relatively young impact craters.  A large ringed structure, probably an impact basin, is shown in the upper left part of the picture.  The color version of this picture was constructed by compositing black and white images taken through the ultraviolet, clear and orange filters. ARC-1979-AC79-7104

Range : 1,094,666 km (677,000 mi.) This false color picture of Callis...

Range : 1,094,666 km (677,000 mi.) This false color picture of Callisto was taken by Voyager 2 and is centered on 11 degrees N and 171 degrees W. This rendition uses an ultraviolet image for the blue componen... more

P-21740 C Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 shows the moon covered with bright spots which are metoerite impact craters--a fact originally discovered from the high resolution pictures taken by Voyager 1. Scientists believe that heavily cratered terrains like these on Callisto are indicative of ancient planetary surfaces. Voyager 2 mapped the side of Callisto not seen by Voyager 1. The obsure dark streaks in this area may be fault zones, but higher resolution pictures are needed for identification. ARC-1979-AC79-7075

P-21740 C Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture o...

P-21740 C Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 shows the moon covered with bright spots which are metoerite impact craters--a fact originally discovered from... more

P-21746 BW Range: 390,000 kilometers (245,000 miles) This photomosaic of Callisto is composed of nine frames. The impact crater distribution is very uniform across the disk. Notable are the very bright rayed craters that probably are very young. Near the limb is a giant probable impact structure. Several large structures were discovered by Voyager 1. This one is smaller than the largest one found by Voyager 1 but is more clearly shown. About 15 concentric rings surround the bright central spot. Many hundreds of moderate sized impacts are also seen, a few with bright radial ray patterns. The limb is very smooth confirming that no high topography has been seen on the satellite, and observation consistent with its icy composition. ARC-1979-A79-7080

P-21746 BW Range: 390,000 kilometers (245,000 miles) This photomosaic ...

P-21746 BW Range: 390,000 kilometers (245,000 miles) This photomosaic of Callisto is composed of nine frames. The impact crater distribution is very uniform across the disk. Notable are the very bright rayed cr... more

P-21752 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows detail about 20 kilometers across and is somewhat higher resolution than the best Voyager 1 image. The part of Europa shown is the hemisphere that will be viewed at even higher resolution during another Voyager 2 encounter with Europa. Color reconstruction in this image was slightly enhanced to bring out detail in the complicated mottled region on the west limb, containing some of the linear fracture-like features discovered by Voyager 1. The regions in the north and south polar areas which appear bluish in this version are in fact white. ARC-1979-AC79-7084

P-21752 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows det...

P-21752 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows detail about 20 kilometers across and is somewhat higher resolution than the best Voyager 1 image. The part of Europa shown is the hemisphere t... more

P-21749 C Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograph of Ganymede, the largest satellite of Jupiter, is shown at approximately the same distance as that photographed at close range by Voyager 1 in March. This picture, taken by Voyager 2, illustrates well the light, bluish regions near the north and south poles. It is known that there is exposed water ice on the surface of Ganymede, and pehaps these polar caps are composed of a light covering of water ice or frost. Voyager 2 will pass within 63,000 kilometers (39,000 miles) of Ganymede. ARC-1979-AC79-7082

P-21749 C Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograp...

P-21749 C Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograph of Ganymede, the largest satellite of Jupiter, is shown at approximately the same distance as that photographed at close range by Voyager ... more

P-21749 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograph of Ganymede, the largest satellite of Jupiter, is shown at approximately the same distance as that photographed at close range by Voyager 1 in March. This picture, taken by Voyager 2, illustrates well the light, bluish regions near the north and south poles. It is known that there is exposed water ice on the surface of Ganymede, and pehaps these polar caps are composed of a light covering of water ice or frost. Voyager 2 will pass within 63,000 kilometers (39,000 miles) of Ganymede. ARC-1979-A79-7082

P-21749 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photogra...

P-21749 BW Range: 6 million kilometers (4 million miles) This photograph of Ganymede, the largest satellite of Jupiter, is shown at approximately the same distance as that photographed at close range by Voyager... more

P-21752 BW Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows detail about 20 kilometers across and is somewhat higher resolution than the best Voyager 1 image. The part of Europa shown is the hemisphere that will be viewed at even higher resolution during another Voyager 2 encounter with Europa. Color reconstruction in this image was slightly enhanced to bring out detail in the complicated mottled region on the west limb, containing some of the linear fracture-like features discovered by Voyager 1. The regions in the north and south polar areas which appear bluish in this version are in fact white. ARC-1979-A79-7084

P-21752 BW Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows de...

P-21752 BW Range: 1.2 million kilometers This image of Europa shows detail about 20 kilometers across and is somewhat higher resolution than the best Voyager 1 image. The part of Europa shown is the hemisphere ... more

Range :  1 million kilometers Voyager 2 completed a dramatic 10 hour time lapse photo sequence to monitor the active volcanos on Jupiter's moon Io following the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter.  This picture is one of about 200 images that will be used to generate a time lapse motion picture to illustrate Io's volcanic activity.  On the bright limb, two of the plumes (P-5 & P-6) discovered in March by Voyager 1 are again visible.  The plumes are spewing materials to a height of about 100 kilometers. ARC-1979-A79-7094

Range : 1 million kilometers Voyager 2 completed a dramatic 10 hour t...

Range : 1 million kilometers Voyager 2 completed a dramatic 10 hour time lapse photo sequence to monitor the active volcanos on Jupiter's moon Io following the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. This p... more

Range :  241,000km (150,600 mi.). This black and white image of Europa, smallest of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was acquired by Voyager 2.  Europa, the brightest of the Galiliean satellites, has a density slightly less than Io, suggesting it has a substantial quantity of water.  Scientists previously speculated that the water must have cooled from the interior and formed a mantle of ice perhaps 100 km thick.  The complex patterns on its surface suggest that the icy surface was fractured, and that the cracks filled with dark material from below.  Very few impact craters are visible on the surface, suggesting that active processes on the surface are still modifying Europa.  The tectonic pattern seen on its surface differs drastically from the fault systems seen on Ganymede where pieces of the crust have moved relative to each other.  On Europa, the crust evidently fractures but the pieces remain in roughly their original position. ARC-1979-A79-7092

Range : 241,000km (150,600 mi.). This black and white image of Europa...

Range : 241,000km (150,600 mi.). This black and white image of Europa, smallest of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was acquired by Voyager 2. Europa, the brightest of the Galiliean satellites, has a densi... more

P-21758 BW Range: 246,000 kilometers (152,000 miles) This picture by Voyager 2 is the first close look ever obtained of Jupiter's satellite, Europa. The linear crack-like features had been seen from a much greater distance by Voyager 1 but this image provides a resolution of about four kilometers (2.5 miles). The complicated linear features appear even more like cracks or huge fractures in these images. Also seen are somewhat darker mottled regions which appear to have a slightly pitted appearance, perhaps due to small scale craters. No large craters (more than five kilometers in diameter) are easily identifiable in the Europa photographs to date, suggesting that this satellite has a young surface relative to Ganymede and Callisto, although not perhaps as young as Io's. Various models for Europa's structure will be tested during analysis of these images, including the possibility that the surface is a thin ice crust overlying water or softer ice and that the fracture systems seen are breaks in that crust. Resurfacing mechanisms such as production of fresh ice or snow along the cracks and cold glacier-like flows are being considered as possibilities for removing evidence of impact events. Europa thus appears to truly be a satellite with many properties intermediate between Ganymede and Io. ARC-1979-A79-7087

P-21758 BW Range: 246,000 kilometers (152,000 miles) This picture by V...

P-21758 BW Range: 246,000 kilometers (152,000 miles) This picture by Voyager 2 is the first close look ever obtained of Jupiter's satellite, Europa. The linear crack-like features had been seen from a much grea... more

Range :  225,000 kilometers (140,625 miles) This image of the Jovian moon Europa was taken by Voyager 2 along the evening terminator, which best shows the surface topography of complex narrow ridges, seen as curved bright streaks, 5 to 10 kilometers wide, and typically 100 kilometers in length.  The area shown is about 600 by 800 kilometers, and the smallest features visible are about 4 kilometers in size.  Also visable are dark bands, more diffused in character, 20 to 40 kilometers wide and hundreds to thousands of kilometers in length.  A few features are suggestive of impact craters but are rare, indication that the surface thought to be dominantly ice is still active, perhaps warmed by tidal heating like Io.  The larger icy satellites, Callisto and Ganymede, are evidently colder with much more rigid crusts and ancient impact craters.  The complex intersection of dark markings and bright ridges suggest that the surface has been fractured and material from beneath has welled up to fill the cracks. ARC-1979-A79-7093

Range : 225,000 kilometers (140,625 miles) This image of the Jovian m...

Range : 225,000 kilometers (140,625 miles) This image of the Jovian moon Europa was taken by Voyager 2 along the evening terminator, which best shows the surface topography of complex narrow ridges, seen as cu... more

P-21756 BW only Range: 120,000 km (right)  169,000 km (left) Right: In the foreground of this picture taken by Voyager 2, the part of the surface of Ganymede shown is the typical grooved terrain as seen by Voyager 1. It consists of mutually intersecting bands of closely-spaced, parallel ridges and grooves. In the background is newly-cratered dark terrain across which can be traced several widely spaced parellel linear features. When viewed from a distance the line features appear to trace broad circular areas. The features resemble the circular ridges on Callisto that surround an almost complete annealed impact basin. The feature on Ganymede may be of similar origin but all traces of the impact itself have been destroyed. Left:  This picture of Ganymede shows that the dark contrast terrain is separated by bright bands of grooved terain. The band of closely spaced linear grooves in the foreground is 150 km across and appears to be offset by another narrow band at right angles, as though by faulting. A variety of ray patterns are seen around the craters. One is in the left of the picture, it has prominent dark rays around an inner bright halo. Other craters have dark haloes; others have diffuse bright rays. The variation of albedo patterns around the craters may be indications of layering in the surface materials. The intensity of the craters suggests the dark areas are extremely old. The bright grooved terrain is less cratered and probably somewhat younger. ARC-1979-A79-7085

P-21756 BW only Range: 120,000 km (right) 169,000 km (left) Right: In...

P-21756 BW only Range: 120,000 km (right) 169,000 km (left) Right: In the foreground of this picture taken by Voyager 2, the part of the surface of Ganymede shown is the typical grooved terrain as seen by Voya... more

P-21751 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This Voyager 2 color photo of Ganymede, the largest Galilean satellite, shows a large dark circular feature about 3200 kilometers in diameter with narrow closely-spaced light bands traversing its surface. The bright spots dotting the surface are relatively recent impact craters, while the lighter circular areas may be older impact areas. The light branching bands are ridged and grooved terrain first seen on Voyager 1 and are younger than the more heavily cratered dark regions. The nature of the brightish region covering the northern part of the dark circular fature is uncertain, but it may be some type of condensate. Most of the features seen on the surface of Ganymede are probably both internal and external responses of the very thick icy layer which comprises the crust of this satellite. ARC-1979-AC79-7083

P-21751 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This Voyager 2 color photo of ...

P-21751 C Range: 1.2 million kilometers This Voyager 2 color photo of Ganymede, the largest Galilean satellite, shows a large dark circular feature about 3200 kilometers in diameter with narrow closely-spaced l... more

P-21757 BW Range: 2 million kilometers (1.25 million miles) Jupiter's thin ring of particles was photographed by Voyager 2 on its approach to the giant planet. The spacecraft was 2.5° above the plane of the ring. Segments of both sides of the faint ring were captured in this picture. The ring was first photographed in an edge-on configuration by Voyager 1 and was measured then to have a radial extent of about 55, 000 kilometers (34,000 miles) from Jupiter's cloud tops. With this picture, it is possible to determine that the ring is much narrower radially than the individual rings of Saturn. This image has had an extreme contrast enhancement process applied to it which brought out some white blotches in the central region and makes the ring appear discontinuous and non-uniform in brightness. These effects are all artifacts of the processing. ARC-1979-A79-7086

P-21757 BW Range: 2 million kilometers (1.25 million miles) Jupiter's ...

P-21757 BW Range: 2 million kilometers (1.25 million miles) Jupiter's thin ring of particles was photographed by Voyager 2 on its approach to the giant planet. The spacecraft was 2.5° above the plane of the ri... more

Range :  1.2 million kilometers (750,000 miles) This picture of Io is one of the last sequence of 'volcano watch' pictures planned as a time lapse study of the nearest of Jupiter's Galilean satellites.  The sunlit crescent of Io is seen at the left, and the night side illuminated by light reflected from Jupiter can also be seen.  Three volcanic eruption plumes are visible on the limb.  All three were previously seen by Voyager 1.  On the bright limb Plume 5 (upper) and Plume 6 (lower) are about 100 km high, while Plume 2 on the dark limb is about 185 km high and 325 km wide.  The dimensions of Plume 2 are about 1 1/2 times greater than during the Boyager 1 encounter, indicating that the intensity of the eruptions has increased during the four-month time interval between the Boyager encounters.  The three volcanic eruptions and at least three others have apparently been active at roughly the same intesity or greater for a period of at least four months. ARC-1979-A79-7099

Range : 1.2 million kilometers (750,000 miles) This picture of Io is ...

Range : 1.2 million kilometers (750,000 miles) This picture of Io is one of the last sequence of 'volcano watch' pictures planned as a time lapse study of the nearest of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. The sun... more

Range :   1.5 million km  ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view of Jupitor's ring,  part of a set obtained by Voyager 2  (A79-7101), suggests that it may be divided into several components, as are the rings of Saturn.  Seen within  the inner edge  of the brighter ring is a fainter ring, which may extend all the way down to Jupiter's cloud tops. The ring was unexpectedly bright, due to forward scattering of sunlight by small ring particles. The rings were discovered in March 1979 by Voyager 1. ARC-1979-A79-7109

Range : 1.5 million km ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view ...

Range : 1.5 million km ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view of Jupitor's ring, part of a set obtained by Voyager 2 (A79-7101), suggests that it may be divided into several components, as are the rin... more

Range :   1.5 million km  ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view of Jupitor's ring,  part of a set obtained by Voyager 2  (A79-7101), suggests that it may be divided into several components, as are the rings of Saturn. The ring was unexpectedly bright, due to forward scattering of sunlight by small ring particles. The rings were discovered 4 months ago by Voyager 1. The 'V' shaped figure to the left is caused by a star image which was trailed out as the camera moved slightly during the long exposure. ARC-1979-A79-7108

Range : 1.5 million km ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view ...

Range : 1.5 million km ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view of Jupitor's ring, part of a set obtained by Voyager 2 (A79-7101), suggests that it may be divided into several components, as are the rin... more

Range :  900,000 miles  A brilliant halo around Jupiter, the thin ring of particles discovered by Voyager 1 four months ago, is seen here unusually bright due to forward scattering of the particles within it. Similiarly, the planet is outlined by sunlight scattered toward the spacecraft from a haze layer high in jupiter's atmosphere. The arms of the ring are cut off on each sideby the planet's shadow as they approach the brightly outlined disk. The night side of the planet appears completly dark in this reproduction, but later will be specially reprocessed to search for evidence of lightning sorms and auroras. This 4 image mosaic was obtained  with Voyager 2's wide angle camera. ARC-1979-A79-7100

Range : 900,000 miles A brilliant halo around Jupiter, the thin ring...

Range : 900,000 miles A brilliant halo around Jupiter, the thin ring of particles discovered by Voyager 1 four months ago, is seen here unusually bright due to forward scattering of the particles within it. S... more

P-21763 C Range: 1,400,000 kilometers (870,000 miles) Jupiter's thin ring of particles was photographed by Voyager 2's telescope-equipped TV camera through three color filters to provide this color representation. During the three long exposures the spacecraft drifted, smearing out the ring image. The linear feature just above the ring is a star trail. True color of the ring cannot be deduced from this photo. ARC-1979-AC79-7091

P-21763 C Range: 1,400,000 kilometers (870,000 miles) Jupiter's thin r...

P-21763 C Range: 1,400,000 kilometers (870,000 miles) Jupiter's thin ring of particles was photographed by Voyager 2's telescope-equipped TV camera through three color filters to provide this color representati... more

Range :  1,550,000 km ( 961,000 miles ) These high resolution pictures of Jupiter's ring were obtained by Voyager 2 some 26 hrs. past the planet, 2 degrees below the ring plane. The forward scattering of sunlight reveals a radial distribution and density gradient of very small particles extending inward from the ring toward Jupiter. There is an indication of structure within the ring, but unfortunatly the spacecrafts motion during these long exposures blurred out the highest resolution detail, particularly in the frame at right. ARC-1979-A79-7101

Range : 1,550,000 km ( 961,000 miles ) These high resolution pictures...

Range : 1,550,000 km ( 961,000 miles ) These high resolution pictures of Jupiter's ring were obtained by Voyager 2 some 26 hrs. past the planet, 2 degrees below the ring plane. The forward scattering of sunlig... more

The cylindrical projections of Jupiter, representing both Voyager 1 (top) and Voyager 2 (bottom), are presented in this comparison.  The top picture extends 400 degrees longitude to 0 degrees (right edge).  It is aligned with the lower image so that the longitude scale is correct for both frames.  The comparison between the pictures shows the relative motions of features in Jupiter's atmosphere.  It can be seen that the Great Red Spot has moved westward and the white oval features eastward during the time between the acquisition of these pictures.  Regulare plume patterns are equidistant around the northern edge of the equator, while a train of small spots has moved eastward at approxiamately 80 degrees south latitude.  In addition to these relative motions, significant changes are evident in the recirculation flow east of the Great Red Spot, in the disturbed region west of the Greast Red Spot, and as seen in the brightening of material spreading into the equatorial region from the more southerly latitudes. ARC-1979-AC79-7098

The cylindrical projections of Jupiter, representing both Voyager 1 (t...

The cylindrical projections of Jupiter, representing both Voyager 1 (top) and Voyager 2 (bottom), are presented in this comparison. The top picture extends 400 degrees longitude to 0 degrees (right edge). It ... more

Range :  312, 000 kilometers (195,000 miles) This photo of Ganymede (Ice Giant) was taken from Voyager 2 and shows features down to about 5 to 6 kilometers across.  Different types of terrain common on Ganymede's surface are visible.  The boundary of the largest region of dark ancient terrain on Ganymede can be seen to the east (right), revealing some of the light linear features which may be all that remains of a large ancient impact structure similar to the large ring structure on Callisto.  The broad light regions running through the image are the typical grooved structures seen within another example of what might be evidence of large scale lateral motion in Ganymede's crust.  The band of grooved terrain (about 100 kilometers wide) in this region appears to be offset by 50 kilometers or more on the left hand edge by a linear feature perpendicular to it.  A feature similar to this one was previously discovered by Voyager 1.  These are the first clear examples of strike-slip style faulting on any planet other than Earth.  Many examples of craters of all ages can be seen in this image, ranging from fresh, bright ray craters to large, subdued circular markings thought to be the 'scars' of large ancient impacts that have been flatteded by glacier-like flows. ARC-1979-AC79-7095

Range : 312, 000 kilometers (195,000 miles) This photo of Ganymede (I...

Range : 312, 000 kilometers (195,000 miles) This photo of Ganymede (Ice Giant) was taken from Voyager 2 and shows features down to about 5 to 6 kilometers across. Different types of terrain common on Ganymede... more

The cylindrical projections of Jupiter, representing both Voyager 1 (top) and Voyager 2 (bottom), are presented in this comparison.  The top picture extends 400 degrees longitude to 0 degrees (right edge).  It is aligned with the lower image so that the longitude scale is correct for both frames.  The comparison between the pictures shows the relative motions of features in Jupiter's atmosphere.  It can be seen that the Great Red Spot has moved westward and the white oval features eastward during the time between the acquisition of these pictures.  Regulare plume patterns are equidistant around the northern edge of the equator, while a train of small spots has moved eastward at approxiamately 80 degrees south latitude.  In addition to these relative motions, significant changes are evident in the recirculation flow east of the Great Red Spot, in the disturbed region west of the Greast Red Spot, and as seen in the brightening of material spreading into the equatorial region from the more southerly latitudes. ARC-1979-A79-7098

The cylindrical projections of Jupiter, representing both Voyager 1 (t...

The cylindrical projections of Jupiter, representing both Voyager 1 (top) and Voyager 2 (bottom), are presented in this comparison. The top picture extends 400 degrees longitude to 0 degrees (right edge). It ... more

Range :  1,450,000 km. ( 900,000 miles ) Jupiter's faint ring system is shown here as two orange lines protrude from the left toward Jupiter's limb.  This colorful composite was taken in Jupiter's shadow through orange and violet filters. The colorful images of Jupiter's limb are evidence of the spacecraft motion dering this long exposure.  Voyager 2 was about 2 degrees below the plane of the ring when this was shot, leaving the lower ring image cut short by Jupiter's shadow on the ring. (JPL ref No. P-21779) ARC-1979-AC79-7117

Range : 1,450,000 km. ( 900,000 miles ) Jupiter's faint ring system i...

Range : 1,450,000 km. ( 900,000 miles ) Jupiter's faint ring system is shown here as two orange lines protrude from the left toward Jupiter's limb. This colorful composite was taken in Jupiter's shadow throug... more

JUPITER'S FAINT RING SYSTEM IS SHOWN HERE AS TWO ORANGE LINES PROTRUDE FROM THE LEFT TOWARD JUPITER'S LIMB.  THIS COLORFUL COMPOSITE WAS TAKEN IN JUPITER'S SHADOW THROUGH ORANGE AND VIOLET FILTERS. THE COLORFUL IMAGES OF JUPITER'S LIMB ARE EVIDENCE OF THE SPACECRAFT MOTION DERING THIS LONG EXPOSURE.  VOYAGER 2 ARC-1979-AC79-7118

JUPITER'S FAINT RING SYSTEM IS SHOWN HERE AS TWO ORANGE LINES PROTRUDE...

JUPITER'S FAINT RING SYSTEM IS SHOWN HERE AS TWO ORANGE LINES PROTRUDE FROM THE LEFT TOWARD JUPITER'S LIMB. THIS COLORFUL COMPOSITE WAS TAKEN IN JUPITER'S SHADOW THROUGH ORANGE AND VIOLET FILTERS. THE COLORFUL... more

Frosch Awarded Goddard Memorial Trophy

Frosch Awarded Goddard Memorial Trophy

Former President Jimmy Carter presents the National Space Club's Goddard Memorial Trophy to NASA Administrator Dr. Robert A. Frosch on behalf of the team that planned and executed the Voyager mission to Jupiter... more

PEOPLE  VIEWING VOYAGER I SPACECRAFT ON LARGE SCREEN IN THE VISITOR INFORMATION CENTER VIC

PEOPLE VIEWING VOYAGER I SPACECRAFT ON LARGE SCREEN IN THE VISITOR IN...

The original finding aid described this as: Capture Date: 11/13/1980 Photographer: DONALD HUEBLER Keywords: Larsen Scan Location Building No: 8 Location Room: AUD Photographs Relating to Agency Activities,... more

Saturn System Montage

Saturn System Montage

(November 17, 1980) This montage of images of the Saturnian system was prepared from an assemblage of images taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft during its Saturn encounter in November 1980. This artist's view sh... more

PEOPLE  VIEWING VOYAGER I SPACECRAFT ON LARGE SCREEN IN THE VISITOR INFORMATION CENTER VIC

PEOPLE VIEWING VOYAGER I SPACECRAFT ON LARGE SCREEN IN THE VISITOR IN...

The original finding aid described this as: Capture Date: 11/13/1980 Photographer: DONALD HUEBLER Keywords: Larsen Scan Location Building No: 8 Location Room: AUD Photographs Relating to Agency Activities,... more

Solar System Montage

Solar System Montage

This is a montage of planetary images taken by spacecraft managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA. Included are (from top to bottom) images of Mercury, Venus, Earth (and Moon), Mars, Jupiter, S... more

Solar System Montage of Voyager Images

Solar System Montage of Voyager Images

This montage of images taken by the Voyager spacecraft of the planets and four of Jupiter's moons is set against a false-color Rosette Nebula with Earth's moon in the foreground. Studying and mapping Jupiter, S... more

Range :  106,250,000 km. ( 66 million miles) P-22830C This, Voyager 1 image shows Saturn and three of its satellites. A series of dark and light cloud bands appears through high altitude haze in the northern hemisphere. Cosiderable structure can be seen in the rings. The Cassini division, between the A-ring and B-ring, is readily visible. The shadow of rings on the planet's disk can also be seeen. The three satellites visible are, left to right, Enceladus (off the left edge of rings), Dione (just below the planet), and Tethys (at right edge of frame). The spacecraft will make its closest approach, 124,200 km. (77,174 miles) abovr the cloud tops, at  3:45 pm PST on Nov. 12, 1980. Nine months later, in August 1981, Voyager 2 will encounter Saturn and then continue on to Uranus. ARC-1980-AC80-7000

Range : 106,250,000 km. ( 66 million miles) P-22830C This, Voyager 1 ...

Range : 106,250,000 km. ( 66 million miles) P-22830C This, Voyager 1 image shows Saturn and three of its satellites. A series of dark and light cloud bands appears through high altitude haze in the northern he... more

Range :  76 million km. ( 47 million miles) P-22892C This, Voyager 1 image shows Saturn and five of its satellites. Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is clearly seen in the upper right corner. The smaller satellites, Dione & Tethys, are shown in the upper left corner, top and bottom respectively. Two of the innermost satellites, Mimas & Enceladus, appear to the lower right of the planet, with Mimas closest to Satun. The bright object to the left of the rings is not a moon, but an artifact of processing. Voyager 1 will make its closest approach November 12th, 1980, ata distance of 124,200 km. (77,176 mi.). this photo is just one of 17,000 images taken of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites by Voyager 1. ARC-1980-AC80-7001

Range : 76 million km. ( 47 million miles) P-22892C This, Voyager 1 i...

Range : 76 million km. ( 47 million miles) P-22892C This, Voyager 1 image shows Saturn and five of its satellites. Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is clearly seen in the upper right corner. The smaller satellite... more

Range :  12 million km. ( 7.56 million miles) P-23057C & BW This Voyager 1 photograph of Titan, the largest of Saturn's 14 known satellites, shows little more than the upper layers of clouds covering the moon. The orange colored haze, is believed to be composed of photochemically produced hydrocarbons, hides Titan's solid surface from Voyager's camera. Some weak shadings in the clouds are becoming visible. However, note that the satellite's southern, lower, hemisphere is brighter than the northern. It is not known whether these subtle shadings are on the surface or are due to clouds below a high haze layer. ARC-1980-AC80-7007

Range : 12 million km. ( 7.56 million miles) P-23057C & BW This Voyag...

Range : 12 million km. ( 7.56 million miles) P-23057C & BW This Voyager 1 photograph of Titan, the largest of Saturn's 14 known satellites, shows little more than the upper layers of clouds covering the moon. ... more

Range :  34 million km. ( 21.1 million miles) P-22993C This Voyager 1 photograph of Saturn was taken on the last day it could be captured within a single narrow angle camera frame as the spacecraft neared the planet for it's closest approach on Nov. 12, 1980. Dione, one of Saturn's innermost satellites, appears as three color spots just below  the planet's south pole. An abundance of previously unseen detail is apparent in the rings. For example, a gap in the dark, innermst ring, C-ring or Crepe Ring, is clearly shown. Also, material is seen inside the relatively wide Cassini Division, seperating  the middle, B-ring from the outermost ring, the A-ring. The Encke division is shown near the outer edge of A-ring. The detail in the ring's shadows cast on the planet is of particular interest. The broad dark band near the equator is the shadow of B-ring. The thinner, brighter line just to the south is the shadow  of the less dense A-ring. ARC-1980-AC80-7003

Range : 34 million km. ( 21.1 million miles) P-22993C This Voyager 1 ...

Range : 34 million km. ( 21.1 million miles) P-22993C This Voyager 1 photograph of Saturn was taken on the last day it could be captured within a single narrow angle camera frame as the spacecraft neared the p... more

Range :  660,000 kilometers (400,000 miles) Time :  5:05 am PST This Voyager 1 picture of Mimas shows a large impact structure at 110 degrees W Long., located on that face of the moon which leads Mimas in its orbit.  The feature, about 130 kilometers in diameter (80 miles), is more than 1/4 the diameter of the entire moon.  This is a particularly interesting feature in view of its large diameter compared with the size of the satellite, and may have the largest crater diameter/satillite diameter ratio in the solar system.  The crater has a raised rim and central peak, typical of large impact structures on terrestrial planets.  Additional smaller craters, 15-45 kilometers in diameter, can be seen scattered across the surface, particularly alon the terminator.  Mimas is one of the smaller Saturnian satellites with a low density implying its chief component is ice. ARC-1980-A80-7034

Range : 660,000 kilometers (400,000 miles) Time : 5:05 am PST This V...

Range : 660,000 kilometers (400,000 miles) Time : 5:05 am PST This Voyager 1 picture of Mimas shows a large impact structure at 110 degrees W Long., located on that face of the moon which leads Mimas in its o... more

Space Science

Space Science

Voyager 1 passed the Saturnian system in November 1980; nine months later Voyager 2 passed through this same system. The ensuing scientific discoveries were unprecedented with regards to the rings around Saturn... more

Saturn's Rings

Saturn's Rings

(August 23, 1981) This Voyager 2 view, focusing on Saturn's C-ring (and to a lesser extent, the B- ring at top and left) was compiled from three separate images taken through ultraviolet, clear and green filter... more