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Vatican & Papal States

Vatican was an uninhabited part of Rome (the ager Vaticanus) and was considered sacred, or at least not available for habitation. A shrine dedicated to the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis remained active long after the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter was built nearby.
Catholics recognize the pope as the successor of Saint Peter, whom Jesus designated as the "rock" upon which the Church was to be built. Although Peter never was called a "pope" (Latin papa), Catholics recognize him as the first Pope and Bishop of Rome.
The bishops of Rome had not much power till the time of Emperor Constantine. After the fall of Rome in 476, the papacy was under the rule of sovereigns of the states surrounding Rome, but over the time, the popes consolidated a portion of the peninsula known as the Papal States.
From 1048 to 1257, the papacy experienced conflict with the Byzantine Empire ended up in the East–West Schism, dividing the Western Church and Eastern Church.
From 1257–1377, during conflicts with the Holy Roman Empire and France, the pope resided in Viterbo, Orvieto, and Perugia, and then Avignon, from 1309 to 1377.
The return of the popes to Rome after the Avignon was followed by the Western Schism: the division of the western Church between two and, sometimes, three competing popes. On return to Rome from Avignon, popes chose to live at the Vatican. They moved to the Quirinal Palace in 1583, after work on it was completed under Pope Paul V (1605–1621), and on the capture of Rome in 1870 moved to the Vatican again.
Popes ruled the Papal States, which covered a significant portion of the Italian peninsula, for more than a thousand years until the mid-19th century, when all their territories were seized by the newly created Kingdom of Italy. For most of this time, the popes did not live at the Vatican. The Lateran Palace, on the opposite side of Rome, was their residence for about a thousand years. In this palace, in 1929, the agreement was signed for King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and for Pope Pius XI by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri. The Lateran Treaty created the state of the Vatican City and guaranteed popes full and independent sovereignty. The pope was pledged to perpetual neutrality in international relations and to abstention from mediation in a controversy unless specifically requested by all parties.
Along with Vatican, certain papal properties that are located in Italian territory, most notably the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies. There are no passport controls for visitors entering Vatican City from the surrounding Italian territory.
[View of Rome, including So. Carlo, Palace of the Vatican, Museum of the Capitol, College of Jesuits, etc.]
419 Media in collectionpage 1 of 5

Benedikt XIII., papa

Verleger: Moncornet, Baltazar Datierung: 1615 / 1668 Verlagsort: Paris

Pius VI., papa

Stecher: Cunego, Domenico Radierer: Cunego, Domenico Datierung: 1775 / 1803 Verlagsort:

Klemens IX., papa

Verleger: Fürst, Paul Stecher: Troschel, Peter Verlagsort: Nürnberg

Innozenz XI., papa

Verleger: Rossi, Giovanni Giacomo de Datierung: 1676 / 1691 Verlagsort: Rom

Innozenz XI., papa

Schabkünstler: Heiss, Elias Christoph Entwerfer: Erath, August Datierung: 1676 / 1689

Sixtus V., papa

Stecher: Greuter, Matthäus

Papal ceremony from BL Add 35254Q

A montage composed of a historiated full-page border of grotesques and trompe l'oeil cameos of the Virtues (clockwise from top left; Faith, Hope, Temperance, Truth, Prudence, Charity, Justice, Fortitude), signe... more

Papal insignia from BL Royal 14 C VII, f. 167v

Marginal drawing of papal insignia with a hand holding a flower, referring to the election of Alexander IV. Image taken from f. 167v of Historia Anglorum, Chronica majora, Part III; Continuation of Chronica mai... more

Papal insignia from BL Royal 14 C VII, f. 167

Marginal drawing of inverted papal insignia with a hand holding a flower, referring to the death of Innocent IV. Image taken from f. 167 of Historia Anglorum, Chronica majora, Part III; Continuation of Chronica... more

Papal insignia from BL Royal 14 C VII, f. 167v

Detail of a marginal drawing of papal insignia with a hand holding a flower, referring to the election of Alexander IV. Image taken from f. 167v of Historia Anglorum, Chronica majora, Part III; Continuation of ... more

Papal insignia from BL Royal 14 C VII, f. 167

Detail of a marginal drawing of inverted papal insignia with a hand holding a flower, referring to the death of Innocent IV. Image taken from f. 167 of Historia Anglorum, Chronica majora, Part III; Continuation... more

coat from "Monumenta Vaticana historiam regni Hungariæ illustrantia ... Vatikáni magyar okirattár. [With lithographed facsimiles, etc.] ser. 1. tom. 1-6; ser. 2. tom. 1-3"

This image has been taken from scan 000007 from volume 02 of "Monumenta Vaticana historiam regni Hungariæ illustrantia ... Vatikáni magyar okirattár. [With lithographed facsimiles, etc.] ser. 1. tom. 1-6; ser... more

Colosseum, Rome

Skioptikonbild från institutionen för fotografi vid Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Motiv föreställande Colosseum i Rom. (Colosseum stod färdig 80 e Kr.) Bilden är troligen tagen av John Hertzberg under en resa i Europa.

Rome

Skioptikonbild från institutionen för fotografi vid Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Motiv föreställande en man som sitter och vilar framför en entré i Rom. Bilden är troligen tagen av John Hertzberg under en resa i Europa.