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Siberia: Convicts and Exiles

From the very beginning of the Russian Empire control of Siberia it was used for exile.Created by: PICRYLDated: 1880
Voennopli︠e︡nnye avstrīĭt︠s︡y u baraka, [near Kiappeselga]
The first Russians exiled to Siberia were convicted of rebellion against Tsar Godunov's believed to order assassination the young prince Dmitry in 1593. In 1653, the death penalty for thieves and robbers was revoked and exile to Siberia instead became an alternative punishment. In the 19th century it widely believed that criminals would start leading new lives in a new place, they would build their new homes and have new families, as well as improve the economic well-being of Siberia. However, the population increase was not registered in the region. Siberian officials reported that more than two-thirds of the exiled did not live in their homes. About 500,000 people were exiled in Siberia during the first half of the 19th century, though 400,000 seemed to have not living at the exile destination or disappeared.
1879
1879
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1914
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1914
58 Media in collectionpage 1 of 1
[Head-and-shoulders portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, facing slightly right]

[Head-and-shoulders portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, fa...

Written on verso: Deekofski [i.e., Dikofski] - In Odessa was tired and sentenced to 15 or 20 years [remaining three words illegible]. Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080... more

Col. Tashkin receiving petitions of convicts

Col. Tashkin receiving petitions of convicts

Similar to photograph (LOT 11948, no. 1078) titled: Convict railway workers, Ussuri region, Siberia. Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commi... more

[Interior of convict barracks, Khabarovsk area]

[Interior of convict barracks, Khabarovsk area]

Title from original negative jacket. Similar to lantern slide (W7-1082) titled: Convicts' sleeping quarters inside of sod-covered house. Photographic print made by LC from Jackson's vintage film negative. Gift;... more

Khabarovsk (?) - convicts marching under guard; church in background

Khabarovsk (?) - convicts marching under guard; church in background

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Convicts at cook house in camp near Eastern Siberian Railway

Convicts at cook house in camp near Eastern Siberian Railway

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Two convicts carrying large pot of soup

Two convicts carrying large pot of soup

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Khabarovsk (?) - convicts marching under guard; church in background

Khabarovsk (?) - convicts marching under guard; church in background

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Four convicts sitting against house

Four convicts sitting against house

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Convict camp - 10 men in front of sod house

Convict camp - 10 men in front of sod house

Similar to photograph (LOT 11948, no. 1111) titled: Cossack huts in far east Siberia near Khabarovsk. Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Comm... more

Convict camp near Eastern Siberian Railway - building sod house

Convict camp near Eastern Siberian Railway - building sod house

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Convicts standing in camp between sod-roofed houses

Convicts standing in camp between sod-roofed houses

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Convicts lined up outside dormitory at Khabarovsk

Convicts lined up outside dormitory at Khabarovsk

Similar to photograph in Lot 11948 from negative LC-USZ62-47622. Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library... more

[Cossack huts in far east Siberia near Khabarovsk]

[Cossack huts in far east Siberia near Khabarovsk]

Title from original negative jacket. Similar to lantern slide (W7-1084) titled: Convict camp - 10 men in front of sod house. Photographic print made by LC from Jackson's vintage film negative. Gift; Colorado Hi... more

[Convict railway workers, Ussuri region, Siberia]

[Convict railway workers, Ussuri region, Siberia]

Title from original negative jacket. Similar to lantern slide (W7-1173) titled: Col. Tashkin receiving petitions of convicts. Photographic print made by LC from Jackson's vintage film negative. Gift; Colorado H... more

Group of convicts standing by large pot of soup

Group of convicts standing by large pot of soup

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Convicts' camp near Eastern Siberian Railway

Convicts' camp near Eastern Siberian Railway

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

A company of convicts lining up for roll call

A company of convicts lining up for roll call

Similar to photograph (LOT 11948, no. 1077) titled: Convict railroad workers, Ussuri region, Siberia. Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Comm... more

Edwin Arden's romantic play, Zorah

Edwin Arden's romantic play, Zorah

48669 U.S. Copyright Office Caption: The Governor General sentences Zorah to the mines of Siberia. Created and "copyright 1899 by The Strobridge Litho Co, Cin'ti & New York." Jacob Litt, proprietor. No. 8619 Up... more

Farmhouse of prosperous exile

Farmhouse of prosperous exile

Photograph shows a wooden house and attached outbuildings. J136869 U.S. Copyright Office. No. 809. Photo by(?) W.B. Moore.

Convicts lined up outside dormitory at Khabarovsk

Convicts lined up outside dormitory at Khabarovsk

Similar to lantern slide W7-1159. Photographic print made by LC from Jackson's vintage film negative. Gift; Colorado Historical Society; 1949. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transport... more

Group of convicts ready to embark on a prison barge, Tiumin [i.e., T i umen]̦

Group of convicts ready to embark on a prison barge, Tiumin [i.e., T i...

A group of convicts waiting to depart from a T i umen ̦forwarding prison to a prison barge. Convicts destined for Eastern Siberia were transported from T i umen ̦to Tomsk and other destinations on prison barges... more

[Group of prisoners on the road beyond Tomsk]

[Group of prisoners on the road beyond Tomsk]

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

Siberian convicts working in a placer mine

Siberian convicts working in a placer mine

Prison guards surrounding a placer mine at Kara, Transbaikalia, where hard labor convicts are working.

[Group of female exiles and their children standing in front of log barracks]

[Group of female exiles and their children standing in front of log ba...

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

Runaway Siberian convicts (common criminals)

Runaway Siberian convicts (common criminals)

Three escaped convicts standing in field. Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

[Full-length portrait of a man in convict clothing and leg irons, seated, facing front]

[Full-length portrait of a man in convict clothing and leg irons, seat...

Inscription on verso: Sukhomlin in convict dress (a police photograph). Inscription on recto: J.W. Black & Co., 333 Washington St, Boston. Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-19... more

[Head-and-shoulders portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, facing slightly right]

[Head-and-shoulders portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, fa...

Name "Klenof" hand-written on verso. Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

Types from a party of convicts on the road, near Tomsk

Types from a party of convicts on the road, near Tomsk

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

[Half-length portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, facing front]

[Half-length portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, facing fr...

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

[Group portrait of large group of convicts]

[Group portrait of large group of convicts]

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

[Ivan Cherniavski, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right]

[Ivan Cherniavski, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right]

Kennan describes Cherniavski and his wife as two of the most interesting political exiles that he met in Irkutsk in September, 1885. The couple were banished to the Tobolsk province by administrative process in... more

Convicts' sleeping quarters inside sod-covered house

Convicts' sleeping quarters inside sod-covered house

Similar to photograph (LOT 11948, no. 1113) titled: Interior of convict barracks, Khabarovsk area. Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commiss... more

Sophia Nikitina, died on way to place of exile

Sophia Nikitina, died on way to place of exile

Sophia Nikitina, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left. Sophia Nikitina was a young girl attending school in Kiev when she was banished as an administrative exile to Eastern Siberia. Having traveled approxim... more

Party of exiles and convicts embarking on river barge at Tumen [i.e., Tiumen], western Siberia

Party of exiles and convicts embarking on river barge at Tumen [i.e., ...

Male convicts and exiles wait to board barge for Tomsk. Women and children accompanying them are on barge. Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Ke... more

[Three run away convicts standing in a field]

[Three run away convicts standing in a field]

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

[Group portrait of convicts seated in a field]

[Group portrait of convicts seated in a field]

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

[Half-length portrait of a woman, facing slightly right]

[Half-length portrait of a woman, facing slightly right]

Inscribed on verso: Kavalefskaya. Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

Group of convicts at head of inclined plane leading to barge

Group of convicts at head of inclined plane leading to barge

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

Convicts building camp near Eastern Siberian Railway

Convicts building camp near Eastern Siberian Railway

Gift; William P. Meeker; 1971. Forms part of: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942. World's Transportation Commission photograph collection (Library of Congress).

[Half-length portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, facing right]

[Half-length portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, facing ri...

Inscribed on verso: Yonof - tried in [illegible]. Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

Siberian convicts taking lunch by the roadside (common criminals)

Siberian convicts taking lunch by the roadside (common criminals)

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

[Three-quarter length portrait of an elderly convict, facing slightly left]

[Three-quarter length portrait of an elderly convict, facing slightly ...

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

Convicts purchasing provisions from villagers

Convicts purchasing provisions from villagers

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

[Group of convicts]

[Group of convicts]

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

Lost in Siberia

Lost in Siberia

Caption: Denouncing a dastard: Send him to Siberia to starve and rot! Created and "copyright 1898 by The Strobridge Lith Co, Cin'ti & N.Y." N.Y. no. 8227. Forms part of: Theatrical poster collection (Library of Congress)

[Kardashof, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right]

[Kardashof, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right]

Kardashof was one of three political exiles living in the Buriat village of Selenginsk whom Kennan visited in October, 1885. Kardashof had served his penal term at the Kara gold mines and Kennan hoped Kardashof... more

[Half-length portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, facing right]

[Half-length portrait of a man, dressed in convict clothing, facing ri...

Inscribed on verso: Scheffer. At mines of Kara. Tried in Kiev with Molafski. Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

[Nikolai Alekseevich Vitashevskii, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right]

[Nikolai Alekseevich Vitashevskii, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing...

A writer from Odessa, Vitashevskii participated in military opposition in 1878 and was imprisoned in Kharkov Central Prison. Sentenced to four years of hard labor, he was exiled to I Akutsk. Hand captioned in ... more

[Party of exiles, hard labor convicts, resting on road near Tomsk]

[Party of exiles, hard labor convicts, resting on road near Tomsk]

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

A Siberian etape or exile station house

A Siberian etape or exile station house

An etape (road prison) for convicts on the road from Barnaul to Krasno i arsk. Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.

A group of hard-labor convicts (common criminals) in Siberia

A group of hard-labor convicts (common criminals) in Siberia

Transfer; Manuscript Division (George Kennan Papers); 1973; (DLC/PP-1973:080). Forms part of: George Kennan Papers.