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Ruff, Gorgera, Spanish Collar

Western, Central, Northern Europe fashion popular from the mid-16th century to the mid-17th century.Created by: PICRYLDated: 1650
Château de Bussy-Rabutin - Gabrielle d'Estrées, duchesse de Beaufort (bgw19 0355) (cropped)FXD
Spanish collar, ruff or gorgera first appeared about 1560, and was at first open at the neck. After 1570 it becomes closed. It was gradually increasing in diameter reaching 25-30 cm, and by the 1580s the collar became known as the “millstone” or “cartwheel” which required a supporting frame. The collar was made from layers of plaited linen or lace. The Dutchwoman Dangen van Pless at the court of the English Queen Elizabeth I introduced starch that was initially yellowish, which made the collars creamy. Some tinted them with saffron in a golden hue and dyed them with natural dyes in pink or lilac colors.

The rigidity of gorgera forced its owner to keep his posture, and for his impracticality, ruff became a symbol of wealth and status and contributed to the spread of the fork, the use of which made it possible to protect the collar from soiling with food.

Gorgers were banned in Spain by King Philip IV. Spain was involved in endless wars against the growing Protestant world and in desperate need for cash. Philip announced an austerity program, condemned extravagance, and introduced the concept of simple, pragmatic living.

Forcing people to live pragmatically was fairly difficult. Eventually, the inquisition found a way - it banned the ruffed collars and starch, as a "tool of the devil". Alquacils, inquisition enforcers of justice, were armed with scissors and prowled the streets of Madrid enforcing the ban. Shops were raided and gorgera merchandise burned.

By the middle of the 17th century, ruff had decreased in diameter and almost did not use starch. The fashion lingered longer in the Dutch Republic, where ruffs can be seen in portraits well into the seventeenth century. In Germany and Flanders, ruff was worn until the beginning of the 18th century. In the 18th century, it remained for a long time among the Jews as an obligatory part of the costume.
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Zwarte, gemarmerde profiellijst

Zwarte, gemarmerde profiellijst

Zwarte, gemarmerde profiellijst met smalle, vergulde rand langs de dagkant. Dagmaat is verkleind met een witte rand.

Schonaeus, Cornelis
Clüver, Johann
Zanger, Johann, - jurist lawyer
Grotius, Hugo, - jurist lawyer
Pfefferkorn, Johann Andreas
Negelein, Joachim
Bosch, Hanns
Schwarz, Christoph
Walther, Michael
Schönfeld, Gregor
Schönfeld, Gregor
Nürnberger, Johann
Hilliard, Nicholas
Baro, Balthasar
Löscher, Abraham
Holzhalb, Johann Heinrich - Swiss
Balten, Pieter
Wonna, Georg
Schleupner, Dominicus
Schlüsselburg, Konrad
Montaigne, Michel de
Jackett, Hanns
Lipsius, Justus
Schröder, Gerhard
Heilbrunner, Jakob
Weinheimer, Adam
Brochmand, Jesper Rasmussen
Gollius, Georg, - jurist lawyer
Hesseling, Pieter Andriesz.
Rieger, Martin
Ledenberg, Gilles van
Duscher, Caspar
Montaigne, Michel de
Schmoll, Matthäus
Ludecus, Matthäus
Wotton, Henry
Scotti, Geronimo "Conte"
Gent van Meinerswijk, Cornelis van
Bacmeister, Lukas
Schwaiger, Christoph
Massini, Filippo, - jurist lawyer
Portrait - Deventer, Jakob van, scientist
Hüls, Achaz
Galle, Theodor
Schmidt, Sebastian
Montaigne, Michel de
Bédé, Abel
Dixie, Wolstan
Fuchs, Hans Christoph
Eckebrecht, Hieronymus, - jurist lawyer
Schwarzenberg, Georg Wolfgang Freiherr zu
Scotti, Geronimo "Conte"
Rucellai, Bernardo
Hammer, Martin
Hillema, Gellius, - jurist lawyer
Zollner, Erasmus
Schröder, Johann Laurentius
Pourbus, Frans
Schrieck, Adriaen van
Jonas Suyderhoff - Conrad Vietor van Aken, Frans Hals
Portrait - Ceulen, Ludolf van, scientist
Trigland, Jacobus
Havenreuter, Johann Ludwig
Rebhan, Nikolaus
Verpoorten, Wilhelm
Wagenseil, Georg
Portrait - Brahe, Tycho, scientist
Croph, Philipp Jakob
Hebenstreit, Johann Friedrich
Jenckwitz, Abraham
Gollius, Georg, - jurist lawyer
Königsegg, Maria Salome Freiin
Negelein, Joachim
Topler, Wolfgang
Anderson, Johann
Solms-Laubach, Agnes Gräfin
Agricola, Aegidius, - jurist lawyer
Ketel, Cornelis
Zoesius, Henricus, - jurist lawyer
Imhof, Hieronymus
Groland, Georg Wilhelm
Portrait - Calvisius, Sethus, composer
Gockel, Balthasar
Volckamer, Jacob Theophil Rudolph
Rango, Conrad Tiburtius
Galigai, Leonora
Lehmann, Georg
Montaigne, Michel de
Libavius, Andreas
Schleicher, Georg
Grotius, Hugo, - jurist lawyer

Grotius, Hugo, - jurist lawyer

Verleger: Fischer, ? (1709)

Portrait - Snellius, Rudolf, scientist
Wettstein, Johann Rudolf
Heffner, Matthäus
Grotius, Hugo, - jurist lawyer
Jonas Suyderhoff - Rudolph Hegger
Portrait - Snellius, Willebrord, scientist
Nieuwstad, Cornelis Matthiasz van den
Huninga, Johannes

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