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Child Labor

National Child Labor Committee collectionCreated by: PICRYLDated: 1908
Mildred Benjamin, 17 years old. Right dorsal curvature. Scoliosis. Right shoulder higher than left. Shows incorrect position required to perform this kind of work. Stopping use of right arm. See 4667, 4671 & 4672. Location: Boston, Massachusetts Lewis W. Hine
According to the 1900 US Census, a total of 1,752,187 (about 1 in every 6) children between the ages of five and ten were engaged in "gainful occupations" in the United States.

The National Child Labor Committee, or NCLC, was a private, non-profit organization that served as a leading proponent for the national child labor reform movement. It headquartered on Broadway in Manhattan, New York.

In 1908 the National Child Labor Committee hired Lewis Hine, a teacher and professional photographer trained in sociology, who advocated photography as an educational medium, to document child labor in the American industry. Over the next ten years, Hine would publish thousands of photographs designed to pull at the nation's heartstrings.

The NCLC is a rare example of an organization that succeeded in its mission and was no longer needed. After more than a century of fighting child labor, it shut down in 2017.
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1923
4,908 Media in collectionpage 1 of 50
This is where the mill children live. Compare photo 342. Lancaster, S.C. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

This is where the mill children live. Compare photo 342. Lancaster, S....

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 341. Question mark in front of date on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Libr... more

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Otis Mehaffy. 4 years in mill. Small boy "helps sister" Saturdays and after school. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Otis Mehaffy. 4 years in mill. Small ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 333. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Mrs. Finkelstein, 127 Monroe St. Bessie (age 13), Sophie (age 7). Girls attend school. Making garters for Liberty Garter works, 413 Broadway. Mother, a widow, earns 75 cents a day by working all day until 12 at night. Bessie works until 10 P.M. Sophie until 9 P.M. They expected to work until 10 P.M. to finish the job, although they did not know when more work would come in. Witness Mrs. Hosford. Location: New York, New York (State)

Mrs. Finkelstein, 127 Monroe St. Bessie (age 13), Sophie (age 7). Girl...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. Hine no. 10-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... more

Mill School House (in middle) surrounded by mill houses. Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Small need here for large schoolhouse. Most of the children in mill. Location: Dillon, South Carolina

Mill School House (in middle) surrounded by mill houses. Maple Mill, D...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 388. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

This was the smallest I could find in the Newton (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Overseer said "She just brings her sister's dinner," but as it was only 9:30 A.M., and as she worked as faithfully as her sister all the time I was in the mill, I judged she was a regular "helper." She looked to be 8 years old. Others there nearly as small. Location: Newton, North Carolina

This was the smallest I could find in the Newton (N.C.) Cotton Mills. ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 451. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

One of The Newsies at The Newsboys' Picnic, Cincinnati. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

One of The Newsies at The Newsboys' Picnic, Cincinnati. Location: Cinc...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 28. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... more

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Robert Black, (smallest) 1 year in mill. John Black, (next) 2 years in mill. Charlie Clark--4 years. Earl Lander--Beginning. Witness, S.R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Robert Black, (smallest) 1 year in mill...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 415. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C. Mother said she is very good hand at spinning. Been at it 3 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides, about 50 cents a day. Little sister Lettie helps. Mother said "she is learnin'." Looked 7 years old. Dec. 208. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Clinton, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 372. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

Noon Hour, Indianapolis Meat packing House, Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon Hour, Indianapolis Meat packing House, Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopp...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 98. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... more

Putting Bottles into the Annealing Oven. An Indianapolis Glass Works, 1 A.M. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Putting Bottles into the Annealing Oven. An Indianapolis Glass Works, ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 88. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs... more

10 P.M. in An Indiana Glass Works. Location: Indiana

10 P.M. in An Indiana Glass Works. Location: Indiana

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 129. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... more

"Teaching the young idea." The Boss (who began at 10 years of age, and has been at it for 30 years) showing a beginner (who is apparently 9 or 10) See 169. Location: Morgantown, West Virginia

"Teaching the young idea." The Boss (who began at 10 years of age, and...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 183. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... more

Spinners and doffers, Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Dozens of them in this mill. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

Spinners and doffers, Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Dozens of them in t...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 348. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

A Western Union Messenger Boy Leaving Office. Cincinnati. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

A Western Union Messenger Boy Leaving Office. Cincinnati. Location: Ci...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 30. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... more

A.D.T. ? messengers. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

A.D.T. ? messengers. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 53. Handwritten caption difficult to decipher. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Li... more

Newberry Mills (S.C.) Noon hour. All are working here. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina

Newberry Mills (S.C.) Noon hour. All are working here. Witness, Sara R...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 383. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

A spinner in Cycle Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. She was 49 inches high. Been there "bout 2 years." 50 operatives and there were 10 children that looked to be under 12 years of age. Location: Newton, North Carolina

A spinner in Cycle Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. She was 49 inches high. B...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 452. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Group of Miners, Drivers and Trapper. Macdonald, W. Va., Mine. Oct. 1908. Witness E.N. Clopper. Location: MacDonald, West Virginia

Group of Miners, Drivers and Trapper. Macdonald, W. Va., Mine. Oct. 19...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 145. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Div... more

Holland Mfg. Co., Gastonia, N.C. 8:00 P.M. Mill running nights. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Holland Mfg. Co., Gastonia, N.C. 8:00 P.M. Mill running nights. Locati...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 287. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Eddie Williamson (taller). Been in mill 3 years. John Eliot--Been in mill 7 years. Witness, S.R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina

Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Eddie Williamson (taller). Been in mil...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 413. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Amusing themselves while waiting for morning papers. Location: New York, New York (State)

Amusing themselves while waiting for morning papers. Location: New Yor...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 25-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs... more

A Group of Young Fellows Working in a Cannery, In Indianapolis, Aug. 1908. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

A Group of Young Fellows Working in a Cannery, In Indianapolis, Aug. 1...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Canneries. Hine no. 86. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Divis... more

Noon hour. Muncie Wheel & Jobbing Co. Most of the boys were gone home to dinner. Location: Muncie, Indiana

Noon hour. Muncie Wheel & Jobbing Co. Most of the boys were gone home ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 224. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Boys at Lehr glass works. Location: West Virginia

Boys at Lehr glass works. Location: West Virginia

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 68. No city recorded on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library o... more

Interior of Kesler Mfg. Co., Salisbury, N.C. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina

Interior of Kesler Mfg. Co., Salisbury, N.C. Location: Salisbury, Nort...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 426. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Maggie Wooten (Largest), creels on warper. Lillie Anderson--Oldest of two sisters. Been in mill five years. Runs only 4 sides. Minnie Anderson, - youngest- runs 8 sides. Been in mill 4 year. One finds many such cases where youngest sister does twice the amount of work. Nov. 2808. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Maggie Wooten (Largest), creels on wa...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 332. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

A Glimpse from the Outside into The World Furniture Co., Evansville, Ind. During working hours. Location: Evansville, Indiana

A Glimpse from the Outside into The World Furniture Co., Evansville, I...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 199. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Group of mill hands working in Salisbury, N.C. Cotton Mills. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Group of mill hands working in Salisbury, N.C. Cotton Mills. Location:...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 430. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

Willie Lee, 24 Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. 10 years old. Been in mill 2 months. Doffer. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Willie Lee, 24 Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. 10 years old. Been in mill 2...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 273. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

A Basket Factory. Boys making grate bottoms. In summer, many more young boys and girls. Location: Evansville, Indiana

A Basket Factory. Boys making grate bottoms. In summer, many more youn...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 221. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Watching The Races, The Newsboys' Picnic, Cincinnati. Cincinnati, Ohio

Watching The Races, The Newsboys' Picnic, Cincinnati. Cincinnati, Ohio

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 19. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... more

Bob Burton, Gastonia, N.C. 15 years old. A typical adolescent, overgrown, thin, anaemic sic. Been in mill for 8 years. Doffing still in Ozark Mills. Gastonia, North Carolina

Bob Burton, Gastonia, N.C. 15 years old. A typical adolescent, overgro...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 240. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Noon Hour in a Furniture Factory, Indianapolis. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon Hour in a Furniture Factory, Indianapolis. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. C...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 51. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.... more

Noon Hour in an Indianapolis Furniture Factory. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon Hour in an Indianapolis Furniture Factory. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. C...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 63. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.... more

Group of boys working in Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills. Smallest boy in middle said has been in the mill off and on for 5 yrs. Spins now. Nov. 30, 1909sic. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

Group of boys working in Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills. Smallest boy in...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 338. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

In neighborhood of Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Lawrence Faircloth (taller boy) "Don't know how old I am." Been in mill 2 years. Runs 3 sides Albert Bartlett (barefoot) Looked 8 years old. In mill 2 years--Beginning to spin. Runs 2-12 sides = 25 cents a day. Bad conditions. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08. Location: Dillon, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

In neighborhood of Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Lawrence Faircloth (taller...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 363. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

Cherryville Graded School, Cherryville, N.C. These are all the children in town who attend school. 2,000 population. One-third of these raised their hands when asked, "How many have worked in a cotton mill?". Location: Cherryville, North Carolina

Cherryville Graded School, Cherryville, N.C. These are all the childre...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 310. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

122 Sullivan St. 2nd Floor rear. Leveroni family. Earn 4 cents a gross making violets. Can make 20 gross a day when children work all day. Father has work. Mrs. Leveroni; Tessie Leveroni, age 9; Stephen Leveroni, age 6; Margaret Leveroni, age 7; Josephine Cordono, age 10. These children work on Saturdays on afternoons after 3 o'clock, and evenings until 8 or 9. Location: New York, New York (State)

122 Sullivan St. 2nd Floor rear. Leveroni family. Earn 4 cents a gross...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Tenement homework. Hine no. 6-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photogra... more

Postal Telegraph Boy. David Caplan, 9 Monroe Street. Said he was 15 years old. Works from 11 P.M. to 8 A.M., often down around the docks. Location: New York, New York (State)

Postal Telegraph Boy. David Caplan, 9 Monroe Street. Said he was 15 ye...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 23-A. No date recorded on caption card; estimate based on date recorded on caption cards for photos with ... more

Noon Hour, Bosse Furniture Co., Evansville, Ind. Oct. 1908. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Noon Hour, Bosse Furniture Co., Evansville, Ind. Oct. 1908. Location: ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 204. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

View of Scotland Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. All these boys work in mill. Sunday, Dec. 608. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

View of Scotland Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. All these boys work in mill. ...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 419. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

Young doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 308. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Young doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 308. Witness, Sar...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 378. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

Geo. Rabholz, 14 years old, 724 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio, Delivers bundles for a printing office. Aug. 1908. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

Geo. Rabholz, 14 years old, 724 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio, Delivers b...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 31. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... more

Carolina cotton mill worker and his family all are working. Location: South Carolina

Carolina cotton mill worker and his family all are working. Location: ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 395. No city or date recorded on caption card. Date based on date recorded on cards for photos with neighboring n... more

Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. Tommy Ashville, (smaller boy) 2 years in mill. "Specks I'm about 11." Arthur Shelly, 8 years in mill. 14 years old. Other boys agreed he had been in mill 8 years. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. Tommy Ashville, (smaller boy) 2 years in mil...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 323. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. View of spinning room. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. View of spinning room. Location: ...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 305. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

Lena Lochiavo, 11 years old, 209 W. Sixth St., Basket Seller, Sixth Street Market, Cincinnati. In front of saloon entrance. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

Lena Lochiavo, 11 years old, 209 W. Sixth St., Basket Seller, Sixth St...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 46. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... more

Indiana Mfg. Co., Boy working at circular saw. A number of young boys here working around saws, belts, planing machines, etc. Location: Peru, Indiana

Indiana Mfg. Co., Boy working at circular saw. A number of young boys ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 225. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Boys taking away from saws and brading. Schultze, Waltman & Co. Planing Mill Evansville, Ind. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Boys taking away from saws and brading. Schultze, Waltman & Co. Planin...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 194. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Some of the larger spinners in Catawba Cotton Mills, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina

Some of the larger spinners in Catawba Cotton Mills, Newton, N.C. Loca...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 456. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Men and boys of this family all work in Eureka Cotton Mills. H.O. Roof. B. F. Roof --10 years in mill. Lawrence Roof--4 years in mill. Albert Roof--(Smallest) 1 year in mill. Doffs--50 cents a day. 56 inches high. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Men and boys of this family all work in Eureka Cotton Mills. H.O. Roof...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 367. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

National Child Labor Committee, #200. S. W. Brown Mfg. Co., Evansville, Ind. Location: Evansville, Indiana

National Child Labor Committee, #200. S. W. Brown Mfg. Co., Evansville...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 200. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Maple Mills, Dillon, S.C. Lonnie Baker (tallest). Has doffed 4 years. Gets 40 cents a day. Bertie Baser--10 years old. 3 years in mill. Runs 3 sides = 30 cents a day. Location: Dillon, South Carolina

Maple Mills, Dillon, S.C. Lonnie Baker (tallest). Has doffed 4 years. ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 392. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Work 12 hours at a stretch. No special time off to eat. "Eat a-workin'." 9:00 P.M. Friday, Nov. 6, 1908. Mill was running. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Work 12 hours at a stretch. No special time...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 285. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

A Saturday ball game. Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Boy with glove, Malcom Rogers. (See photo 329). Next to him - Ben Deaton--12 years old. 52 inches high. Weaver. Runs 6 looms at $1.00 a day. 2 years in mill. I asked him if it wasn't hard work. "Hardest part if it is I have to stretch so much to reach up." (Tallest boy) John Lewis--12 years old. 1 yr. in mill. Weaves--4 looms. Got 40 cents to start. 60 cents now a day. Brother and father in mills. Nov. 2808 Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

A Saturday ball game. Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Boy with glove,...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 330. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

9 P.M. in an Indiana Glass Works. Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

9 P.M. in an Indiana Glass Works. Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 124. No city recorded on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library ... more

Cherryville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. Plenty of young boys and girls. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina

Cherryville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. Plenty of young boys and girls...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 293. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

#37. (See also #36 & #38.) Harry McShane. Cincinnati. See account of accident, attached to photo #36. Aug. 1908. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio. Photo by ...

#37. (See also #36 & #38.) Harry McShane. Cincinnati. See account of a...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 37. Text cut off on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Pr... more

Machine used in Gary W. Va. mine that digs the coal and loads it on the car. With it 3 men can do the work of 50 in the old way. Yet they use boys to drive and trap. Location: Gary, West Virginia

Machine used in Gary W. Va. mine that digs the coal and loads it on th...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 71. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Divi... more

Indianapolis Furniture Factory's Water Boy. Witness, E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Indianapolis Furniture Factory's Water Boy. Witness, E.N. Clopper. Loc...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 65. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.... more

Group of Newsboys on Frankfort Street near World Building. Witness, Fred McMurrry. Location: New York, New York (State) Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Group of Newsboys on Frankfort Street near World Building. Witness, Fr...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 33-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the ... more

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Azy Warn--Winds. Stella Warn (little one) spins 4 sides. "Been at it a long time." Location: Dillon, South Carolina

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Azy Warn--Winds. Stella Warn (little one) spi...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 391. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

A spinner in Clyde Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

A spinner in Clyde Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North C...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 453. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

John Ghent has worked at spinning for 1 year. Goes to school now. Been Sick. Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

John Ghent has worked at spinning for 1 year. Goes to school now. Been...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 337. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. Smallest chap said he had been in mill for 2 years. Many youngster here. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. Smallest chap said he had been in...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 297. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Dillon Mills, Dillon S.C. (Boy) Ransom English--doffs, been in mill 6 years. (Next) Florence Burr--runs 5 sides. In mill 4 years. (Next) Bessie English - 3 sides, 3 years in mill. (Next) Alphie Burr - 2 sides, 1 year in mill. (Next) Lela English, 1 year in mill. 48 inches high. Saturday, Dec. 5, 1908. Location: Dillon, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Dillon Mills, Dillon S.C. (Boy) Ransom English--doffs, been in mill 6 ...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 403. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

Types of adolescents. Boys working in Eureka Cotton Mills, Chester, S.C. Rob Dover--(Tallest boy). Been in mill eight or nine years. Melvin Reilly (next). In mill one year. Boyd McKowan (shortest boy). About 15 years old. Been in mill 5 years. Sunday, Nov. 29, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Types of adolescents. Boys working in Eureka Cotton Mills, Chester, S....

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 364. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

(Tallest) Sam Bigham, Eureka Cotton Mills. Been in mill 10 years. (Next) Washey Dover--Been in 3 years. (Next) Lloyd Barnado--2 years in mill. (Smallest) Ernst Floyd--10 years old, 52 inches high. Been in mill 2 years. Spins--60 cents a day. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina

(Tallest) Sam Bigham, Eureka Cotton Mills. Been in mill 10 years. (Nex...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 369. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Doffers in Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Others as small and some smaller. Little girls too. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Doffers in Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Others as small and some smal...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 288. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Rhodes Mfg. Company, Lincolnton, N.C. Old man inspecting yarn. Been in cotton mills over 20 years. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina

Rhodes Mfg. Company, Lincolnton, N.C. Old man inspecting yarn. Been in...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 306. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Lancaster (S.C.) Cotton Mills, Wesley Strand (with gun). Has been in mill 1 year. Been sick lately. Rochel Stokes. In mill 1 year. Said he had trouble and quit. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

Lancaster (S.C.) Cotton Mills, Wesley Strand (with gun). Has been in m...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 343. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

1 A.M. near the World Building, ready to start out. Two of the sleepers (See No. 21A) Larger boy Abraham Jachnes, 13 years old. Newsboys Lodging House, 14 Chambers St. Has not been home for 6 months because step-mother has been trying to put him into a House of Refuge. Could not get name of smaller boy, but he was younger, probably 11 years old. These boys are hanging about and snatching and occasional sleep in sheltered spots. Location: New York, New York (State)

1 A.M. near the World Building, ready to start out. Two of the sleeper...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 22-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs... more

Day Scene in an Indiana Glass Works. Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

Day Scene in an Indiana Glass Works. Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 125. No city recorded on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library ... more

Girls in Packing Room. Central Glass Co., Wheeling West Virginia. Several very young girls pack here. Location: Wheeling, West Virginia

Girls in Packing Room. Central Glass Co., Wheeling West Virginia. Seve...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 175. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... more

Group of boys working in Lancaster S.C. Cotton mills. Smallest boy said he had worked in the mill off and on for five years. Spins now. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

Group of boys working in Lancaster S.C. Cotton mills. Smallest boy sai...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 336. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Lincoln Cotton Mill, Evansville, Ind. Boy sweeping small boy picking up and carrying away. (Bad light and shaking floors.) Location: Evansville, Indiana

Lincoln Cotton Mill, Evansville, Ind. Boy sweeping small boy picking u...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 217. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Group of Drivers and Trapper Boys: A Mile from Entrance, Turkey Knob Mine, Macdonald W. Va. Oct. 1908. Witness, E.N. Clopper. Location: MacDonald, West Virginia

Group of Drivers and Trapper Boys: A Mile from Entrance, Turkey Knob M...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 142. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Div... more

Whitnel (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Everyone in this family except the mother, works in the mill. Father earns $1.00 a day. Smallest girl, Annie Philips, been there only a few months, earns nearly a dollar a day. Next in size, Clara Phillips, 13 years old, Been there 3 or 4 years, earns over a dollar a day. Next, Daisy Philips. Next, Mary Philips. A dollar a day each. Oldest is married and husband is in the mill. The superintendent said it is unusual for the father to work when children get large enough to work. He usually loafs. That's why the mills are so full of children. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina

Whitnel (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Everyone in this family except the mother...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 460. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Noon hour, Singer Mfg. Co. Boys work there: girls carry lunch. Location: South Bend, Indiana

Noon hour, Singer Mfg. Co. Boys work there: girls carry lunch. Locatio...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 227. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Noon Hour Meal at an Indianapolis Packing House, Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon Hour Meal at an Indianapolis Packing House, Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 77. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... more

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior Bounds--Beginning. Next, Rollin Hudson - 3 years in mill. Next, Lloyd Willoughby - 3 years in mill. Next, Preston Torrent - 8 years in mill. 6 years night work - 14 years old now. "Haven't been in school more'n 3 days in my whole life." Father blind. 2 older sisters and 1 younger brother work in mill now. Has doffed all 8 years. Gets about 60 cents a day. Asked him if he didn't get tired, "No, when you get used to it you don't get tired. Some of the boys goes to sleep when they begin." Showed a remarkable degree of refinement and consideration for others. Work has not blunted this. Sunday, Dec. 608. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior B...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 416. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... more

One of the doffers in Cawtaba Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina

One of the doffers in Cawtaba Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newt...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 446. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

#29 Recreation. Newsboys' Protective Association, Cincinnati, Ohio. Witness, E.N. Clopper. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

#29 Recreation. Newsboys' Protective Association, Cincinnati, Ohio. Wi...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 29. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... more

3 A.M. Sunday, February 23rd, 1908. Newsboys selling on Brooklyn Bridge. Harry Ahrenpreiss, 30 Willet Street. (Said was 13 years old). Abe Gramus. 37 Division Street. Witness Fred McMurray. Location: New York, New York (State) Photo by Lewis W. Hine

3 A.M. Sunday, February 23rd, 1908. Newsboys selling on Brooklyn Bridg...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 32-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the ... more

Midnight 4, 11,08. Messenger Boys in heart of Tenderloin. Youngest - Badge No. 524. Herman Unslowitz, Said 15 yrs. old. Oldest Badge 605. From Western Union Telegraph Office, 172 Fifth Avenue. Location: New York, New York (State)

Midnight 4, 11,08. Messenger Boys in heart of Tenderloin. Youngest - B...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 39-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs... more

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Etta Squires,--12 years old. Been in mill 3 years. Runs 5 sides. Mother was very proud of this. She own two houses and doesn't work in the mill herself. Location: Dillon, South Carolina

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Etta Squires,--12 years old. Been in mill 3 y...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 387. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Noon hour at an Indianapolis Cannery. Aug. 1908. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon hour at an Indianapolis Cannery. Aug. 1908. Location: Indianapoli...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Canneries. Hine no. 130. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Divi... more

Noon Hour at an Indianapolis Meat Packing House. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon Hour at an Indianapolis Meat Packing House. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 108. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Lincoln Cotton Mills, Evansville, Ind. Girl at Stafford Loom. Boys sprinkling floor. (See report of conditions under which they work.) Location: Evansville, Indiana

Lincoln Cotton Mills, Evansville, Ind. Girl at Stafford Loom. Boys spr...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 219. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Gastonia, N.C. Boy on right hand works nights. Sunday, November 9 i.e. 8?, 1908. This mill was running nights at the time this photograph was taken. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Gastonia, N.C. Boy on right hand works nights. Sunday, November 9 i.e....

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 256. Date typed over several times on caption card. Sunday was Nov. 8, according to universal calendar. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collec... more

H. Northwood Glass Co., Wheeling W. Va. Many small boys here. Location: Wheeling, West Virginia

H. Northwood Glass Co., Wheeling W. Va. Many small boys here. Location...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 174. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... more

Jessie D---- (the tallest girl) and some of her charges. Girl in doorway is her boon Companion. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

Jessie D---- (the tallest girl) and some of her charges. Girl in doorw...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 21. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... more

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Jasper Prevatt (smallest). Has doffed 3 years. Ben--Runs 3 sides. In mill 4 years. Lillian (next) Winds--In mill 8 years. Blennie (next). Bertha--winds. In mill 8 years. Location: Dillon, South Carolina

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Jasper Prevatt (smallest). Has doffed 3 years...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 393. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

Going home from Loray Mill. Smallest boy on the right hand end, John Moore. 13 years old. Been in mill 6 years as sweeper, doffer and spinner. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Going home from Loray Mill. Smallest boy on the right hand end, John M...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 259. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

O'Neill Bottle Machine, Mannington Glass Wks., Mannington, W. Va. Blows bottles by compressed air. Managers do not believe in using small boys or girls and do not do it: large boys are paid same rate as small boys would receive, $1 a day. Location: Mannington, West Virginia

O'Neill Bottle Machine, Mannington Glass Wks., Mannington, W. Va. Blow...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 172. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... more

Boys going home from Glass Works, Monongah Glass Works, Fairmont, W. Va. Location: Fairmont, West Virginia

Boys going home from Glass Works, Monongah Glass Works, Fairmont, W. V...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 189. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... more

Dillon Mills, Dillon, S.C. Largest--Minnie Bass, a winder. Couldn't spell her own name. Emettie Bass--Spins. Jane Bass--Spins. All have been in mill 3 years. Location: Dillon, South Carolina

Dillon Mills, Dillon, S.C. Largest--Minnie Bass, a winder. Couldn't sp...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 402. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more

A Basket Factory, Evansville, Indiana. Boy Making Melon Baskets. Location: Evansville, Indiana

A Basket Factory, Evansville, Indiana. Boy Making Melon Baskets. Locat...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 209. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Cherryville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. A few of the workers. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina

Cherryville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. A few of the workers. Location...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 294. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... more

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Hugh Dedman, 50 Hill St. Salisbury, N.C. Been doffing 2 or 3 years. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Hugh Dedman, 50 Hill St. Salisbury, N....

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 431. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... more