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Child Labor

National Child Labor Committee collectionCreated by: PICRYLDated: 1908
Mildred Benjamin, 17 years old. Right dorsal curvature. Scoliosis. Right shoulder higher than left. Shows incorrect position required to perform this kind of work. Stopping use of right arm. See 4667, 4671 & 4672. Location: Boston, Massachusetts Lewis W. Hine
According to the 1900 US Census, a total of 1,752,187 (about 1 in every 6) children between the ages of five and ten were engaged in "gainful occupations" in the United States.

The National Child Labor Committee, or NCLC, was a private, non-profit organization that served as a leading proponent for the national child labor reform movement. It headquartered on Broadway in Manhattan, New York.

In 1908 the National Child Labor Committee hired Lewis Hine, a teacher and professional photographer trained in sociology, who advocated photography as an educational medium, to document child labor in the American industry. Over the next ten years, Hine would publish thousands of photographs designed to pull at the nation's heartstrings.

The NCLC is a rare example of an organization that succeeded in its mission and was no longer needed. After more than a century of fighting child labor, it shut down in 2017.
4,908 Media in collectionpage 1 of 50
This is where the mill children live. Compare photo 342. Lancaster, S.C. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

This is where the mill children live. Compare photo 342. Lancaster, S....

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 341. Question mark in front of date on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Libr... More

Closing hour Loray Mill, Gastonia, N.C. November 7, 1908. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Closing hour Loray Mill, Gastonia, N.C. November 7, 1908. Location: Ga...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 257. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

A Basket Factory. Boys making grate bottoms. In summer, many more young boys and girls. Location: Evansville, Indiana

A Basket Factory. Boys making grate bottoms. In summer, many more youn...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 221. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... More

Girls and Boys Going Home from Indianapolis Tile Works. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Girls and Boys Going Home from Indianapolis Tile Works. Aug. 1908. Wit...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 109. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... More

Drivers and Trappers Going Home: Barnesville Mine. Location: Fairmont, West Virginia

Drivers and Trappers Going Home: Barnesville Mine. Location: Fairmont,...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 190. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Div... More

Midnight 4, 11,08. Messenger Boys in heart of Tenderloin. Youngest - Badge No. 524. Herman Unslowitz, Said 15 yrs. old. Oldest Badge 605. From Western Union Telegraph Office, 172 Fifth Avenue. Location: New York, New York (State)

Midnight 4, 11,08. Messenger Boys in heart of Tenderloin. Youngest - B...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 39-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs... More

Girls running warping machines in Loray mill, Gastonia, N.C. Many boys and girls much younger. Boss carefully avoided them, and when I tried to get a photo which would include a mite of a boy working at a machine, he was quickly swept out of range. "He isn't working here, just came in to help a little." Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Girls running warping machines in Loray mill, Gastonia, N.C. Many boys...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 246. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mill. A game of marbles. All these boys work in the mill. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mill. A game of marbles. All these boys work ...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 432. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

A Group of Young Fellows Working in a Cannery, In Indianapolis, Aug. 1908. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

A Group of Young Fellows Working in a Cannery, In Indianapolis, Aug. 1...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Canneries. Hine no. 86. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Divis... More

Group of sweatshop workers in shop of M. Silverman. 30 Suffolk St., N.Y. Feb. 21, 1908. Location: New York, New York (State)

Group of sweatshop workers in shop of M. Silverman. 30 Suffolk St., N....

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 27-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs... More

A few of the girls going home from Loray mill, Gastonia, N.C. Many others younger. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

A few of the girls going home from Loray mill, Gastonia, N.C. Many oth...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 258. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Boys, carrying home Firewood from Factory. Cincinnati. Aug. 1908. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio. Photo by ...

Boys, carrying home Firewood from Factory. Cincinnati. Aug. 1908. Loca...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 39. Text cut off at bottom of caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Co... More

"Teaching the young idea." The Boss (who began at 10 years of age, and has been at it for 30 years) showing a beginner (who is apparently 9 or 10) See 169. Location: Morgantown, West Virginia

"Teaching the young idea." The Boss (who began at 10 years of age, and...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 183. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... More

Group of Miners, Drivers and Trapper. Macdonald, W. Va., Mine. Oct. 1908. Witness E.N. Clopper. Location: MacDonald, West Virginia

Group of Miners, Drivers and Trapper. Macdonald, W. Va., Mine. Oct. 19...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 145. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Div... More

Widow & boy rolling papers for cigarettes in a dirty N.Y. tenement. Location: New York, New York (State)

Widow & boy rolling papers for cigarettes in a dirty N.Y. tenement. Lo...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. Hine no. 15-B. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Girl - Baner? Carswell. Been in mill 4 years. 12 years old. Runs 6 sides = 60 cents a day. Soon will run 8 = 80 cents a day. Father said "the wife of neighbor made $7.40 last week, $1.40 more than her husband. Women and girls makes more than the men." Child 8 yrs. old helps sister. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Girl - Baner? Carswell. Been in mill 4 years. 12 years old. Runs 6 sid...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 274. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Robert Black, (smallest) 1 year in mill. John Black, (next) 2 years in mill. Charlie Clark--4 years. Earl Lander--Beginning. Witness, S.R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Robert Black, (smallest) 1 year in mill...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 415. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Fred Butler, (smallest). Been in mill 2 years. Others one year. Witness, S.R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Fred Butler, (smallest). Been in mill 2...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 414. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Men with Foot Mold and Boys. A West Virginia Glass Works. Location: West Virginia

Men with Foot Mold and Boys. A West Virginia Glass Works. Location: We...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 187. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... More

Doffers in Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Others as small and some smaller. Little girls too. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Doffers in Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Others as small and some smal...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 288. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Mill School House (in middle) surrounded by mill houses. Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Small need here for large schoolhouse. Most of the children in mill. Location: Dillon, South Carolina

Mill School House (in middle) surrounded by mill houses. Maple Mill, D...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 388. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

View of Clinton Mills (S.C.) Superintendent would not allow me to take photos in mill. Many youngsters employed. See photos Nos. 359 and 375. Dec. 2, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Clinton, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

View of Clinton Mills (S.C.) Superintendent would not allow me to take...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 373. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

O'Neill Bottle Machine, Mannington Glass Wks., Mannington, W. Va. Blows bottles by compressed air. Managers do not believe in using small boys or girls and do not do it: large boys are paid same rate as small boys would receive, $1 a day. Location: Mannington, West Virginia

O'Neill Bottle Machine, Mannington Glass Wks., Mannington, W. Va. Blow...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 172. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... More

(See also #36 & #37.) Factory, where Harry McShane Was Injured. 312 Yeatman Alley, Cincinnati. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

(See also #36 & #37.) Factory, where Harry McShane Was Injured. 312 Ye...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 38. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.... More

Boys going home from Sunday School. Right to left. Willie Long - in mill 4 yrs.; James Hurley; Lloyd Long - 12 yrs., in mill 2 yrs.; Spurgeon Price - 13 yrs., in mill 3 yrs.; Clarence Price - 14 yrs., in mill 3 yrs.; Charley Caswell- in mill 3 yrs. Gastonia, North Carolina

Boys going home from Sunday School. Right to left. Willie Long - in mi...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 239. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Daniel Mfg. Co., Lincolnton, N.C. Four doffers. Boy on left end (knee pants) said he had worked in mills for 7 years and some nights. At nights they work 12 hours, without any hour off for lunch. Eat when they can. Some of them "eat a-workin'." Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina

Daniel Mfg. Co., Lincolnton, N.C. Four doffers. Boy on left end (knee ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 283. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Lincoln Cotton Mills, Evansville, Ind. Girls at weaving machine; warpers. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Lincoln Cotton Mills, Evansville, Ind. Girls at weaving machine; warpe...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 220. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Some of the larger spinners in Catawba Cotton Mills, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina

Some of the larger spinners in Catawba Cotton Mills, Newton, N.C. Loca...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 456. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Will Morrill, Wylie Mill; Chester, S.C. Been in mill 5 years. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Will Morrill, Wylie Mill; Chester, S.C. Been in mill 5 years. Location...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 320. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Some of the operatives, Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Some of the operatives, Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Dec. 6, 1908. ...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 417. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

Going home from Loray Mill. Smallest boy on the right hand end, John Moore. 13 years old. Been in mill 6 years as sweeper, doffer and spinner. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Going home from Loray Mill. Smallest boy on the right hand end, John M...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 259. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Springstein Mill, Chester, S.C. Malcolm Rogers (Boy with hat) 54 inches high. Been in mill 3 years. Started at 25 cents and now makes $1.00 a day. Spins part time and doffer part time. Other boy goes to school and helps in mill afternoons and Saturdays. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Springstein Mill, Chester, S.C. Malcolm Rogers (Boy with hat) 54 inche...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 329. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

In neighborhood of Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Lawrence Faircloth (taller boy) "Don't know how old I am." Been in mill 2 years. Runs 3 sides Albert Bartlett (barefoot) Looked 8 years old. In mill 2 years--Beginning to spin. Runs 2-12 sides = 25 cents a day. Bad conditions. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08. Location: Dillon, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

In neighborhood of Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Lawrence Faircloth (taller...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 363. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

The Lancaster Cotton Mills S.C. One of the worst places I have found for child labor. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

The Lancaster Cotton Mills S.C. One of the worst places I have found f...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 352. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

(Right hand boy) John Campbell, (Box 294, Gastonia, N.C.) 10 years old. Been three years in mill. In school part of this time. (Left hand boy) Roy Little. Said 12 years old. 2 years in mill and worked nights 9 months. Doffer. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

(Right hand boy) John Campbell, (Box 294, Gastonia, N.C.) 10 years old...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 253. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Jamie Sherley, (girl) Wylie Mills, Chester, S.C. Been in mill 6 years. Ambro Sherley--11 years old. Been in mill over 1 year. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Jamie Sherley, (girl) Wylie Mills, Chester, S.C. Been in mill 6 years....

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 322. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Noon Hour Meal at an Indianapolis Packing House, Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon Hour Meal at an Indianapolis Packing House, Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 77. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... More

Tipple at Turkey Knob Mine, Macdonald, W. Va. Bank Boss in centre. Location: MacDonald, West Virginia

Tipple at Turkey Knob Mine, Macdonald, W. Va. Bank Boss in centre. Loc...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 144. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Div... More

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C. Mother said she is very good hand at spinning. Been at it 3 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides, about 50 cents a day. Little sister Lettie helps. Mother said "she is learnin'." Looked 7 years old. Dec. 208. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Clinton, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 372. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

Indiana Mfg. Co., Boy working at circular saw. A number of young boys here working around saws, belts, planing machines, etc. Location: Peru, Indiana

Indiana Mfg. Co., Boy working at circular saw. A number of young boys ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 225. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... More

Group of boys working in Lancaster S.C. Cotton mills. Smallest boy said he had worked in the mill off and on for five years. Spins now. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

Group of boys working in Lancaster S.C. Cotton mills. Smallest boy sai...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 336. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Closing Hour, 3 p.m. Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Zoe Lanier. Help sister in mill. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Closing Hour, 3 p.m. Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Zoe Lanier. Help si...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 242. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

View of Scotland Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. All these boys work in mill. Sunday, Dec. 608. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

View of Scotland Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. All these boys work in mill. ...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 419. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

Boys at Lehr glass works. Location: West Virginia

Boys at Lehr glass works. Location: West Virginia

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 68. No city recorded on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library o... More

Carrie Blanchard. "Don't know how old I am. Mother can tell. She keeps track of these things. She begins to work in mill tomorrow. 'Speks I'll go to help." (Mother said she was 10 years old). Little sister not at work yet. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Carrie Blanchard. "Don't know how old I am. Mother can tell. She keeps...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 365. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Indiana Mfg. Co. Peru, Ind. The old and the new. Old man has been there 33 years. Boy starting in, working with a board saw. Location: Peru, Indiana

Indiana Mfg. Co. Peru, Ind. The old and the new. Old man has been ther...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 222. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... More

On streets near Daniel Mill. Lincolnton, N.C. Right hand boy--Dan Biggerstaff. 10 years old. Has worked 3 years. Goes to school now (he says). Left hand, John Erwin. Said 11 years old. Has worked nights. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina

On streets near Daniel Mill. Lincolnton, N.C. Right hand boy--Dan Bigg...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 290. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Boys in a Cannery, Indianapolis, Ind. Unloading new tomato cans from freight cars. Witness E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Boys in a Cannery, Indianapolis, Ind. Unloading new tomato cans from f...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Canneries. Hine no. 57. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Divis... More

#19A Waiting for morning papers. On steps of World Building. 1 A.M. February 12,1908. Small boy in centre of group is Joseph Levite, 83 Hester Street, 13 years old. Small boy on his right and below is Abraham Jachnes (See photo # 22A) Location: New York, New York (State)

#19A Waiting for morning papers. On steps of World Building. 1 A.M. Fe...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 19-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs... More

Group of Drivers and Trapper Boys: A Mile from Entrance, Turkey Knob Mine, Macdonald W. Va. Oct. 1908. Witness, E.N. Clopper. Location: MacDonald, West Virginia

Group of Drivers and Trapper Boys: A Mile from Entrance, Turkey Knob M...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 142. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Div... More

Noon Hour in a Furniture Factory, Indianapolis. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon Hour in a Furniture Factory, Indianapolis. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. C...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 51. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.... More

Lena Lochiavo, 11 years old, Basket Seller, Sixth St. Market, Cincinnati O. Saloon entrance. 11 P.M. Had been there since 10 A.M. and not yet sold out. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

Lena Lochiavo, 11 years old, Basket Seller, Sixth St. Market, Cincinna...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 48. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... More

#37. (See also #36 & #38.) Harry McShane. Cincinnati. See account of accident, attached to photo #36. Aug. 1908. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio. Photo by ...

#37. (See also #36 & #38.) Harry McShane. Cincinnati. See account of a...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 37. Text cut off on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Pr... More

One of the doffers in Cawtaba Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina

One of the doffers in Cawtaba Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newt...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 446. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

A few of the employees in the Clinton Mills, Clinton, S.C., going home from work. Many others as small were in evidence. Superintendent wouldn't allow me to take photos inside. Photo by flashlight. Location: Clinton, South Carolina

A few of the employees in the Clinton Mills, Clinton, S.C., going home...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 359. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

A Blower With Foot Mold. Question: "Why cannot mold boys done away with?" Seneca Glass Works, Morgantown, W. Va. (See photos 165 & 171.) Location: Morgantown, West Virginia

A Blower With Foot Mold. Question: "Why cannot mold boys done away wit...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 170. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... More

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior Bounds--Beginning. Next, Rollin Hudson - 3 years in mill. Next, Lloyd Willoughby - 3 years in mill. Next, Preston Torrent - 8 years in mill. 6 years night work - 14 years old now. "Haven't been in school more'n 3 days in my whole life." Father blind. 2 older sisters and 1 younger brother work in mill now. Has doffed all 8 years. Gets about 60 cents a day. Asked him if he didn't get tired, "No, when you get used to it you don't get tired. Some of the boys goes to sleep when they begin." Showed a remarkable degree of refinement and consideration for others. Work has not blunted this. Sunday, Dec. 608. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior B...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 416. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

A game of marbles. Smallest boy is Uzzria Dedman, 50 Hill St., Salisbury, N.C. Been in mill 2 years. Other 2 been in 1 year. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina

A game of marbles. Smallest boy is Uzzria Dedman, 50 Hill St., Salisbu...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 420. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Some of the young women in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina

Some of the young women in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Location: La...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 411. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

9 P.M. in an Indiana Glass Works. Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

9 P.M. in an Indiana Glass Works. Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 124. No city recorded on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library ... More

Noon Hour in an Indianapolis Cannery. Aug. 1908. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon Hour in an Indianapolis Cannery. Aug. 1908. Location: Indianapoli...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Canneries. Hine no. 119. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Divi... More

9 P.M. in an Indiana Glass Works, Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

9 P.M. in an Indiana Glass Works, Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 122. No city recorded on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library ... More

These boys (and one other small one, who is not present) and their father, work in Monongah Glass Works. Father gets $1.75 a day - one boy 125 a day 4 get 80 cents a day. Total 6.20 a day. Live in a tumble down house. What is the trouble? Location: Fairmont, West Virginia

These boys (and one other small one, who is not present) and their fat...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 186. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... More

A tipple, Gaston mine. Location: Fairmont, West Virginia

A tipple, Gaston mine. Location: Fairmont, West Virginia

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 181. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Div... More

All ages are employed in Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

All ages are employed in Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Location: Lancas...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 350. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Types of adolescents. Boys working in Eureka Cotton Mills, Chester, S.C. Rob Dover--(Tallest boy). Been in mill eight or nine years. Melvin Reilly (next). In mill one year. Boyd McKowan (shortest boy). About 15 years old. Been in mill 5 years. Sunday, Nov. 29, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Types of adolescents. Boys working in Eureka Cotton Mills, Chester, S....

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 364. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

Noon Hour, Bosse Furniture Co., Evansville, Ind. Oct. 1908. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Noon Hour, Bosse Furniture Co., Evansville, Ind. Oct. 1908. Location: ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 204. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... More

A.D.T. Messengers, Indianapolis. (There is no law regulating messenger service in Indiana). Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

A.D.T. Messengers, Indianapolis. (There is no law regulating messenger...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 102. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... More

The "Carrying-in Boy," in an Indiana glass works, 1:00 A.M., Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

The "Carrying-in Boy," in an Indiana glass works, 1:00 A.M., Aug. 1908...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 85. No city recorded on caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library o... More

Putting Bottles into the Annealing Oven. An Indianapolis Glass Works, 1 A.M. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Putting Bottles into the Annealing Oven. An Indianapolis Glass Works, ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 88. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs... More

Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. Tommy Ashville, (smaller boy) 2 years in mill. "Specks I'm about 11." Arthur Shelly, 8 years in mill. 14 years old. Other boys agreed he had been in mill 8 years. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. Tommy Ashville, (smaller boy) 2 years in mil...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 323. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Girls making meat baskets. One probably under fourteen. A basket Factory. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Girls making meat baskets. One probably under fourteen. A basket Facto...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 238. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... More

A.D.T. ? messengers. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

A.D.T. ? messengers. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 53. Handwritten caption difficult to decipher. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Li... More

One of spinners in Whitnel Cotton Mfg. Co. (N.C.) She was 51 inches high. Had been in mill 1 year, some at night. Runs 4 sides, 48 cents a day. When asked how old, she hesitated, then said "I don't remember," Then confidentially, "I'm not old enough to work, but I do just the same." Out of 50 employees, ten children about her age. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina

One of spinners in Whitnel Cotton Mfg. Co. (N.C.) She was 51 inches hi...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 463. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Indianapolis Furniture Factory's Water Boy. Witness, E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Indianapolis Furniture Factory's Water Boy. Witness, E.N. Clopper. Loc...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 65. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.... More

The doffers in Whitnel (N.C.) Mfg. Co. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina

The doffers in Whitnel (N.C.) Mfg. Co. Location: Whitnel, North Caroli...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 438. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

This shows the number of small children on the day shift (50 employees in all) Whitnel, (N.C.) Cotton Mfg. Co. Nearly as many small ones on night shift. This is a new up-to-date mill. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina

This shows the number of small children on the day shift (50 employees...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 459. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Amusing themselves while waiting for morning papers. Location: New York, New York (State)

Amusing themselves while waiting for morning papers. Location: New Yor...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 25-A. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs... More

Noon hour, Singer Mfg. Co. Boys work there: girls carry lunch. Location: South Bend, Indiana

Noon hour, Singer Mfg. Co. Boys work there: girls carry lunch. Locatio...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 227. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... More

Mannington Glass Works. Uses no small boys (below 15): These are average: manager said they do not believe in working boys that ought to be in school. Say it pays to use large boys, as they pay them same as small ones--$1 a day: employ 60 men and 30 boys 15 to 18 years: no young girls. Location: Mannington, West Virginia

Mannington Glass Works. Uses no small boys (below 15): These are avera...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 173. Phrase "no young girls" is underlined on the caption card. Credit line: National Child Labor Commi... More

A Saturday ball game. Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Boy with glove, Malcom Rogers. (See photo 329). Next to him - Ben Deaton--12 years old. 52 inches high. Weaver. Runs 6 looms at $1.00 a day. 2 years in mill. I asked him if it wasn't hard work. "Hardest part if it is I have to stretch so much to reach up." (Tallest boy) John Lewis--12 years old. 1 yr. in mill. Weaves--4 looms. Got 40 cents to start. 60 cents now a day. Brother and father in mills. Nov. 2808 Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

A Saturday ball game. Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Boy with glove,...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 330. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

Harry, a Cincinnati boy of 18 years, who attends school and earns $.25 daily, carrying bundles. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

Harry, a Cincinnati boy of 18 years, who attends school and earns $.25...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 26. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... More

Slide No. 404. Smallest girl, runs and 4 sides, been in this mill for 3 years. The oldest girl said she goes to school but couldn't spell her own name

Slide No. 404. Smallest girl, runs and 4 sides, been in this mill for ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 404. No location or date recorded on caption card. Date based on date recorded on cards for photos with neighbori... More

Willie Lee, 24 Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. 10 years old. Been in mill 2 months. Doffer. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Willie Lee, 24 Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. 10 years old. Been in mill 2...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 273. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Hugh Dedman, 50 Hill St. Salisbury, N.C. Been doffing 2 or 3 years. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina

Salisbury, (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Hugh Dedman, 50 Hill St. Salisbury, N....

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 431. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Tallest boy Johnnie Younts, 72 Kirk Street. Works in Salisbury Mills, N.C. Has worked in cotton mill for 8 years. Began at 7 years old. When can he get any education? Other boy one year in mill. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina

Tallest boy Johnnie Younts, 72 Kirk Street. Works in Salisbury Mills, ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 421. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Newberry Mills, Newberry, S.C. Going home to dinner. Dec. 308. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Newberry Mills, Newberry, S.C. Going home to dinner. Dec. 308. Witness...

Title from NCLC caption card. In album: Mills. Hine no. 381. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General information about the National ... More

(Tallest) Sam Bigham, Eureka Cotton Mills. Been in mill 10 years. (Next) Washey Dover--Been in 3 years. (Next) Lloyd Barnado--2 years in mill. (Smallest) Ernst Floyd--10 years old, 52 inches high. Been in mill 2 years. Spins--60 cents a day. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina

(Tallest) Sam Bigham, Eureka Cotton Mills. Been in mill 10 years. (Nex...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 369. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

A spinner in Cycle Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. She was 49 inches high. Been there "bout 2 years." 50 operatives and there were 10 children that looked to be under 12 years of age. Location: Newton, North Carolina

A spinner in Cycle Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. She was 49 inches high. B...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 452. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Driver Boy, Barnesville, Mine. Location: Fairmont, West Virginia

Driver Boy, Barnesville, Mine. Location: Fairmont, West Virginia

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 192. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Div... More

John Ghent has worked at spinning for 1 year. Goes to school now. Been Sick. Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

John Ghent has worked at spinning for 1 year. Goes to school now. Been...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 337. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

A Western Union Messenger Boy Leaving Office. Cincinnati. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

A Western Union Messenger Boy Leaving Office. Cincinnati. Location: Ci...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Street trades. Hine no. 30. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs D... More

National Child Labor Committee, #200. S. W. Brown Mfg. Co., Evansville, Ind. Location: Evansville, Indiana

National Child Labor Committee, #200. S. W. Brown Mfg. Co., Evansville...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 200. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs ... More

Drift Mouth, San Lick Mine, near Grafton, W. Va. Bank Boss in centre: driver on his right: trapper boy outside. Alfred, about 14. He trapped several years during vacation: said he is going to school this year: asked if it were because school is more fun he said. "This yere hain't no fun!". Location: Grafton, West Virginia

Drift Mouth, San Lick Mine, near Grafton, W. Va. Bank Boss in centre: ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Coal mines. Hine no. 140. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Div... More

Frank Craneshaw. Has doffed for 3 years in Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Gets 75 cents a day. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

Frank Craneshaw. Has doffed for 3 years in Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 356. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Boys going home from Glass Works, Monongah Glass Works, Fairmont, W. Va. Location: Fairmont, West Virginia

Boys going home from Glass Works, Monongah Glass Works, Fairmont, W. V...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Glass factories. Hine no. 189. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph... More

Noon Hour in an Indianapolis Furniture Factory. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon Hour in an Indianapolis Furniture Factory. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. C...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 63. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.... More

Boys assisting at the Broom Machines. S. W. Brown Mfg. Co. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Boys assisting at the Broom Machines. S. W. Brown Mfg. Co. Location: E...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 202. No text recorded on caption card after final comma. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee coll... More

Some of smaller "hands" on the night shift waiting for the whistle to blow. Whitnel N.C. Cotton Mill. The smallest boy and girl were about 50 inches high. One of the medium sized boys has doffed 4 years,--some at night. Get 60 cents a night. Smallest girl looked 10 years old. Been in mill 2 years. 12 year at night. Runs 8 sides part of the time. Photo by flashlight. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina

Some of smaller "hands" on the night shift waiting for the whistle to ...

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 436. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More

Interior of cotton mill. Location: Newton, North Carolina

Interior of cotton mill. Location: Newton, North Carolina

Title from NCLC caption card. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Mills. Hine no. 467. Credit line: National Child Labor Committee collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division... More